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Encyclopedia > Apennine Mountains

The Apennine Mountains (Greek: Απεννινος; Latin: Appenninus--in both cases used in the singular; Italian: Appennini) is a mountain range stretching 1000 km from the north to the south of Italy along its east coast, traversing the entire peninsula, and forming, as it were, the backbone of the country. The Himalaya as seen from the International Space Station A mountain range is a group of mountains bordered by lowlands or separated from other mountain ranges by passes or rivers. ... km redirects here. ... A peninsula in Croatia A peninsula (from the latin words paene insula, almost island) is a geographical landform consisting of an extension of a body of land from a larger body of land, surrounded by water on three sides. ...


The name is probably derived from the Celtic pen, a mountain top, and thus is linked etymologically to the English Pennines. The term Apennines was originally applied to the northern portion of the chain, from the Maritime Alps to Ancona. Polybius is probably the first writer who applied it to the whole chain, making, indeed, no distinction between the Apennines and the Maritime Alps, and extending the former name as far as Marseilles. Other Classical authors do not differentiate the various parts of the chain, but use the name as a general name for the whole. This article is about the European people. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... Typical Pennine scenery. ... Maritime Alps The Maritime Alps are a mountain range in the south-western part of the Alps. ... Ancona is a city and a seaport in the Marche, a region of central Italy, population 101,909 (2005). ... Polybius (c. ... Marseilles redirects here. ...


The mountains lend their name to the Apennine peninsula, which forms the major part of Italy. The mountains are mostly green and wooded, although one side of the highest peak, Corno Grande (2,912 m), is partially covered by the southernmost glacier in Europe. The eastern slopes down to the Adriatic Sea are steep, while the western slopes form a plain on which most of Italy's historic cities are located. The total length is some 800 miles and the maximum width 70 to 80 miles. The Italian peninsula or the Apennine peninsula is one of the greatest peninsulas of Europe, spanning 1000 km from the Alps in the north, to the central Mediterranean Sea in the south. ... Gran Sasso (Italian for great stone), a massif located in the Abruzzo region of central Italy, is the highest of the Apennines and the centerpiece of a national park (established 1991). ... To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists lengths between 1 km and 10 km (103 and 104 m). ... A glacier is a large, persistent body of ice, formed largely of compacted layers of snow, that slowly deforms and flows in response to gravity. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ...

Apennines in Emilia (Pietra di Bismantova)
Apennines in Emilia (Pietra di Bismantova)

Contents

Download high resolution version (1023x495, 95 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1023x495, 95 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Divisions

Modern geographers divide the range into three parts: northern, central and southern.


Northern Apennines

The northern Apennines are generally distinguished (though there is no real solution of continuity) from the Maritime Alps at the Bocchetta dell' Altare, some 5 miles west of Savona on the high road to Turin. [The ancient Via Aemilia Scauri, built in 109 BC, led over this pass, but originally turned east to Dertona (mod. Tortona).] They again are divided into three parts--the Ligurian, Tuscan and Umbrian Apennines. Country Italy Region Liguria Province Savona (SV) Mayor Federico Berruti Elevation m Area 65 km² Population  - Total (as of December 12, 2004) 61,742  - Density 921/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Savonesi Dialing code 019 Postal code 17100 Frazioni Lavagnola, Légino, Zinola, Santuario Patron Our Lady... Torino redirects here. ... The Via Aemilia Scauri was an ancient Roman road built by the censor Marcus Aemilius Scaurus around 107 BCE and connected Rome to Genoa. ... For the medieval scholar Tortona, see Marziano da Tortona Tortona is a comune of Piedmont, in the Province of Alessandria, Italy. ...


Ligurian Apennines

The Ligurian Apennines extend as far as the pass of La Cisa in the upper valley of the Magra (anc. Macra) above Spezia; at first they follow the curve of the Gulf of Genoa, and then run east-south-east parallel to the coast. On the north and north-east lie the broad plains of Piedmont and Lombardy, traversed by the Po, the chief tributaries of which from the Ligurian Apennines are the Scrivia (Olumbria), Trebbia (Trebia) and Taro (Tarus). The Tanaro (Tanarus), though largely fed by tributaries from the Ligurian Apennines, itself rises in the Maritime Alps, while the rivers on the south and south-west of the range are short and unimportant. The south side of the range rises steeply from the sea, leaving practically no coast strip: its slopes are sheltered and therefore fertile and highly cultivated, and the coast towns form the favourite winter resorts of the Italian Riviera. Map of Italy showing La Spezia in the northwest La Spezia is a city in the Liguria region of northern Italy, at the head of La Spezia Gulf, and capital city of the province of La Spezia. ... The Gulf of Genoa (Golfo di Genova) is the northernmost part of the Ligurian Sea. ... Piedmont (Italian: Piemonte) is a region of northwestern Italy. ... Lombardy (Italian: Lombardia, Lombard: Lumbardìa) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... PO may stand for: Pareto optimality Parole Officer Per os, Latin for by mouth or orally Perfect Orange a third wave ska based in Knoxville, TN from 2002-2005 Petty Officer, a Non-Commissioned Officer Rank in many Navies Pilkington Optronics, now Thales Optronics Pilot Officer, a junior commissioned rank... Image:Trebbia. ... Binomial name Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott Taro corms for sale Taro (from Tahitian), more rarely kalo (from Hawaiian), is a tropical plant grown primarily as a vegetable food for its edible corm, and secondarily as a leaf vegetable. ... The Tanaro (pronounced ‘Tànaro’), known as Tanarus in ancient times, is a 276 km-long river in north-western Italy. ... Liguria and the Italian Riviera Portofino’s small harbour on the Italian Riviera The Italian Rivera ( ) is the narrow coastal strip which lies between the Ligurian Sea and the mountain chain formed by the Maritime Alps and the Apennines. ...


The highest point (Monte Maggiorasca) reaches 5935 feet. The range is crossed by several railways--the line from Savona to Turin (with a branch at Ceva for Acqui), that from Genoa to Ovada and Acqui, the main lines from Genoa to Novi, the junction for Turin and Milan (both of which (There are two separate lines from Sampierdarena to Ronco) pass under the Monte dei Giovi, the ancient Mons Loventius, by which the ancient Via Postumia ran from Genua to Dertona), and that from Spezia to Parma under the pass of La Cisa. (This pass was also traversed by a nameless Roman road.) All these traverse the ridge by long tunnels--that on the new line from Genoa to Honco is upwards of 5 miles in length. Acqui Terme (Äich in Piedmontese) is a city and episcopal seat of Piedmont, Italy, in the province of Alessandria; it is 21 miles SSW of Alessandria by rail. ... A Roman road in Pompeii Road Construction on Trajans Column The Roman roads were essential for the growth of the Roman empire, by enabling the Romans to move armies. ...


Tuscan-Emilian Apennines

Emilia Romagna, painting by Frans Koppelaar
Emilia Romagna, painting by Frans Koppelaar

The Tuscan Apennines extend from the pass of La Cisa to the sources of the Tiber. The main chain continues to run in an east-south-east direction, but traverses the peninsula, the west coast meanwhile turning almost due south. From the northern slopes many rivers and streams run north and north-north-east into the Po, the Secchia (Secia) and Panaro (Scultenna) being among the most important, while farther east most of the rivers are tributaries of the Reno (anc. Rhenus). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (824x650, 66 KB) Summary The artist has kindly agreed to provide these photographs of his works to the Commons. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (824x650, 66 KB) Summary The artist has kindly agreed to provide these photographs of his works to the Commons. ... Photo of the artist Frans Thomas Koppelaar (April 23, 1943), Dutch painter, was born at The Hague. ... Tiber River in Rome The Tiber (Italian Tevere, Latin Tiberis), the third-longest river in Italy at 406 km (252 miles) after the Po and the Adige, flows through Rome in its course from Mount Fumaiolo to the Tyrrhenian Sea, which it reaches in two branches that cross the suburbs... The Secchia is an Italian river. ... Bridge of Olina Panaro is an Italian river. ... Places Reno, Nevada Reno, Pennsylvania Reno, Lamar County, Texas Reno, Parker County, Texas A valley in Italy Other Uses Reno, a Turk from the popular videogame and CG movie by Square-Enix, Final Fantasy VII. Reno a 1939 film A band named Reno Reno is a drug Reno 911! - A...


Other small streams, e.g. the Ronco (Bedesis) and Montone (Utis), which flow into the sea together east of Ravenna, were also tributaries of the Po; and the Savio (Sapis) and the Rubicon seem to be the only streams from this side of the Tuscan Apennines that ran directly into the sea in Roman days. From the south-west side of the main range the Arno and Serchio run into the Mediterranean. This section of the Apennines is crossed by two railways, from Pistoia to Bologna and from Florence to Faenza, and by several good high roads, of which the direct road from Florence to Bologna over the Futa pass is of Roman origin; and certain places in it are favourite summer resorts. The highest point of the chain is Monte Cimone (7103 feet). The so-called Alpi Apuane (the Apuani were an ancient people of Liguria), a detached chain south-west of the valley of the Serchio, rise to a maximum height of 6100 feet. They contain the famous marble quarries of Carrara. The greater part of Tuscany, however, is taken up by lower hills, which form no part of the Apennines, being divided from the main chain by the valleys of the Arno, Chiana (Clanis) and Paglia (Pallia), Towards the west they are rich in minerals and chemicals, which the Apennines proper do not produce. Ravenna is a city and commune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... Presumed course of the Rubicon For other uses, see Rubicon (disambiguation). ... Area under Roman control  Roman Republic  Roman Empire  Western Empire  Eastern Empire Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a city-state founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Arno can refer to: the Arno River in Italy Arno Bay, South Australia the singer Arno Hintjens the American cartoonist Peter Arno the German sculptor Arno Breker Madame Arno, Parisian artist and fighter. ... Pistoia (ancient Pistoria) is a city in the Tuscany region of Italy, the capital of a province of the same name, located about 30 km (18 mi) west and north of Florence. ... Bologna (IPA , from Latin Bononia, BulÃ¥ggna in Emiliano-Romagnolo) is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy, in the Pianura Padana, between the Po River and the Apennines, exactly between the Reno River and the Sàvena River. ... Florence (Italian: ) is the capital city of the region of Tuscany, Italy. ... Faenza is an old Italian cathedral town, situated 50 km southeast of Bologna. ... Liguria is a coastal region of north-western Italy, the third smallest of the Italian regions. ... Venus de Milo, front. ... Carrara is a city in the Massa Carrara province of Tuscany, Italy, famous for the white or blue-gray marble quarried there. ... Arno can refer to: the Arno River in Italy Arno Bay, South Australia the singer Arno Hintjens the American cartoonist Peter Arno the German sculptor Arno Breker Madame Arno, Parisian artist and fighter. ...


Umbrian Apennines

The Umbrian Apennines extend from the sources of the Tiber to (or perhaps rather beyond) the pass of Scheggia near Cagli, where the ancient Via Flaminia crosses the range. The highest point is the Monte Nerone (5010 feet). The chief river is the Tiber itself: the others, among which the Foglia (Pisaurus), Metauro and Esino (This river (anc. Aesis) was the boundary of Italy proper in the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC) may be mentioned, run north-east into the Adriatic, which is some 30 miles from the highest points of the chain. This portion of the range is crossed near its southern termination by a railway from Foligno to Ancona (which at Fabriano has a branch to Macerata and Civitanova Marche, on the Adriatic coast railway), which may perhaps be conveniently regarded as its boundary. (The Monte Conero, to the south of Ancona, was originally an island of the Pliocene sea.) By some geographers, indeed, it is treated as a part of the central Apennines. The Via Flaminia was a Roman road leading from Rome to Ariminum (Rimini), and was the most important route to the north. ... The Metauro (in Latin Metaurus or Mataurus) is a river of Italy. ... Macerata is a town and provincial capital in the Marche region of Italy. ... Civitanova Marche is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Macerata in the Italian region Marche, located about 40 km southeast of Ancona and about 25 km east of Macerata. ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ...


Central Apennines

The central Apennines are the most extensive portion of the chain, and stretch as far as the valley of the Sangro (Sangrus). To the north are the Monti Sibillini, the highest point of which is the Monte Vettore (8128 feet). Farther south three parallel chains may be traced, the westernmost of which (the Monti Sabini) culminates to the south in the Monte Viglio (7075 feet), the central chain in the Monte Terminillo (7260 feet), and farther south in the Monte Velino (8160 feet), and the eastern in the Gran Sasso d'Italia (9560 feet), the highest summit of the Apennines, and the Maiella group (Monte Amaro, 9170 feet). The Sangro is a river in Italy, which flows into the Adriatic Sea. ... Monte Vettore (2449 meters) on the border between Umbria and the Marche lies today in Italys Parco Nazionale dei Monti Sibillini. ...


Between the western and central ranges are the plain of Rieti, the valley of the Salto (Himella), and the Lago Fucino; while between the central and eastern ranges are the valleys of Aquila and Sulmona. The chief rivers on the west are the Nera (Nar), with its tributaries the Velino (Velinus) and Salto, and the Anio, both of which fall into the Tiber. On the east there is at first a succession of small rivers which flow into the Adriatic, from which the highest points of the chain are some 25 miles distant, such as the Potenza (Flosis), Chienti (Cluentus), Tenna (Tinna), Tronto (Truentus), Tordino (Helvinus), Vomano (Vomanus), &c. The Pescara (Aternus), which receives the Aterno from the north-west and the Gizio from the south-east, is more important; and so is the Sangro. Rieti is a town in the Latium, Italy. ... The Fucine Lake (Italian: Lago Fucino or Lago di Celano) was a large lake in central Italy. ... View of the citys center. ... Nera is a river in Italy. ... The Aniene River (in Latin: Anio, formerly called the Teverone) is a 98 km long river in Lazio, Italy. ... Pescaras port in the afterglow. ... The Sangro is a river in Italy, which flows into the Adriatic Sea. ...


The central Apennines are crossed by the railway from Rome to Castelammare Adriatico via Avezzano and Sulmona: the railway from Orte to Terni (and thence to Foligno) follows the Nera valley; while from Terni a line ascends to the plain of Rieti, and thence crosses the central chain to Aquila, whence it follows the valley of the Aterno to Sulmona. In ancient times the Via Salaria, Via Caecilia and Via Valeria-Claudia all ran from Rome to the Adriatic coast. The volcanic mountains of the province of Rome are separated from the Apennines by the Tiber valley, and the Monti Lepini, or Volscian mountains, by the valleys of the Sacco and Liri. Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban... Via Salaria, an ancient Roman road in Italy, which eventually ran from Rome (from Porta Salaria of the Aurelian Walls) to Castrum Truentinum (Porto dAscoli) on the Adriatic coast, a distance of 242 km, via Reate (Rieti) and Asculum (Ascoli Piceno). ... Via Caecilia, an ancient highroad of Italy, which diverged from the Via Salaria at the 35th m. ...


Southern Apennines

In the southern Apennines, to the south of the Sangro valley, the three parallel chains are broken up into smaller groups; among them may be named the Matese, the highest point of which is the Monte Miletto (6725 feet). The chief rivers on the south-west are the Liri or Garigliano (anc. Liris)} with its tributary the Sacco (Trerus), the Volturno (Volturnus), Sebeto (Sabatus), Sarno (Sarnus), on the north the Trigno (Trinius), Biferno (Tifernus), and Fortore (Frento). The Sangro is a river in Italy, which flows into the Adriatic Sea. ... The Liri is a river located in southern Italy. ...


The promontory of Monte Gargano, on the east, is completely isolated, and so are the Campanian volcanic arc near Naples. The district is traversed from north-west to south-east by the railway from Sulmona to Benevento and on to Avellino, and from south-west to northeast by the railways from Caianello via Isernia to Campobasso and Termoli, from Caserta to Benevento and Foggia, and from Nocera and Avellino to Rocchetta S. Antonio, the junction for Foggia, Spinazzola (for Barletta, Bari, and Taranto) and Potenza. Roman roads followed the same lines as the railways: the Via Appia ran from Capua to Benevento, whence the older road went to Venosa and Taranto and so to Brindisi, while the Via Traiana ran nearly to Foggia and thence to Bari. Gargano landscape. ... Campania is a region of Southern Italy, bordering on Lazio to the north-west, Molise to the north, Puglia to the north-east, Basilicata to the east, and the Tyrrhenian Sea to the west. ... A volcanic arc is a chain of volcanic islands or mountains located near the edge of continents that are formed as the result of tectonic plate subduction. ... Naples (Italian: , Neapolitan: Nàpule, from Greek Νεάπολη < Νέα Πόλις Néa Pólis New City) Capital of the Campania region and the Province of Naples. ... View of the citys center. ... Benevento is a town and comune of Campania, Italy, capital of the province of Benevento, 50 km northeast of Naples. ... Avellino is a town and comune, capital of the Avellino Province, and located in the Campania region of southern Italy. ... Campobasso is the capital city of the Molise region in Italy. ... Taranto is a coastal city in Apulia, southern Italy. ... Remains of the Appian Way in Rome, Italy The Appian Way (Latin: Via Appia) is a famous road built by the Romans. ... Capua is a city in the province of Caserta, (Campania, Italy) situated 25 km (16 mi) north of Napoli, on the northeastern edge of the Campanian plain. ... Brindisi is an ancient city in the Italian region of Puglia, the capital of the province of Brindisi. ... Foggia, Italy, is an Apulian big town and provincial capital. ...


The valley of the Ofanto (Aufidus), which runs into the Adriatic close to Barletta, marks the northern termination of the first range of the Lucanian Apennines (now Basilicata), which runs from east to west, while south of the valleys of the Sele (on the west) and Basento (on the east)-which form the line followed by the railway from Battipaglia via Potenza to Metaponto--the second range begins to run due north and south as far as the plain of Sibari (Sybaris). The highest point is the Monte Pollino (7325 feet). The chief rivers are the Sele (Silarus)--joined by the Negro (Tanager) and Calore (Calor)--on the west, and the Bradano (Bradanus), Basento (Casuentus), Agri (Aciris), Sinni (Siris) on the east, which flow into the gulf of Taranto; to the south of the last-named river there are only unimportant streams flowing into the sea east and west, inasmuch as here the width of the peninsula diminishes to some 40 miles. The Ofanto is a river in southern Italy. ... Barletta is a city in Apulia, in south Italy. ... The Basento is a river in southern Italy. ... Potenza is a town and comune in the Southern Italian region of Basilicata. ...


The railway running south from Sicignano to Lagonegro, ascending the valley of the Negro, is planned to extend to Cosenza, along the line followed by the ancient Via Popilia, which beyond Cosenza reached the west coast at Terina and thence followed it to Reggio. The Via Herculia, a branch of the Via Traiana, ran from Aequum Tuticum to the ancient Nerulum. At the narrowest point the plain of Sibari, through which the rivers Coscile (Sybaris) and Crati (Crathis) flow to the sea, occurs on the east coast, extending halfway across the peninsula. Here the limestone Apennines proper cease and the granite mountains of Calabria (anc. Bruttii) begin.


The first group extends as far as the isthmus formed by the gulfs of S. Eufemia and Squillace; it is known as the Sila, and the highest point reached is 6330 feet (the Botte Donato). The forests which covered it in ancient times supplied the Greeks and Sicilians with timber for shipbuilding. The railway from S. Eufemia to Catanzaro and Catanzaro Marina crosses the isthmus, and an ancient road may have run from Squillace to Monteleone. The second group extends to the south end of the Italian peninsula, culminating in the Aspromonte (6420 feet) to the east of Reggio di Calabria. In both groups the rivers are quite unimportant. The Isthmus of Panama connects North and South America. ... Country Italy Region Calabria Province Catanzaro (CZ) Mayor Rosario Olivo (since June 2006) Elevation 342 m Area 111. ... Aspromonte is a mountain close by Reggio, overlooking the Strait of Messina, near which Garibaldi was defeated and captured in 1862 in the Battle of Aspromonte. ... Categories: Italy-related stubs | Coastal cities | Towns in Calabria ...


Character

The Apennines are to some extent clothed with forests, though these were probably more extensive in classical times (Pliny mentions especially pine, oak and beech woods, Hist. Nat. xvi. 177); they have indeed been greatly reduced in comparatively modern times by indiscriminate timber-felling, and though serious attempts at reforestation have been made by the government, much remains to be done. Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19c portrait. ... Biodiversity on a 15-year-old reforested plot of land. ...


They also furnish considerable summer pastures, especially in the Abruzzi: Pliny (Hist. Nat. xi. 240) praises the cheese of the Apennines. In the forests wolves were frequent, and still are found, the flocks being protected against them by large sheep-dogs; bears, however, which were known in Roman times, have almost entirely disappeared. Nor are the wild goats called rotae, spoken of by Marcus Terentius Varro (Rerum rusticarum II. i. 5), which may have been either chamois or steinbock, to be found. Categories: Regions of Italy | Abruzzo ... Binomial name Canis lupus Linnaeus, 1758 Wolf redirects here. ... Marcus Terentius Varro ([[116 BC]&#8211;27 BC), also known as Varro Reatinus to distinguish him from his contemporary Varro Atacinus, was a Roman scholar and writer, who the Romans came to call the most learned of all the Romans. ... Binomial name Rupicapra rupicapra (Linnaeus, 1758) The chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) is a large, goat-like animal that lives in the European Alps and Carpathians. ... Binomial name Capra ibex Linnaeus, 1758 The Alpine Ibex (commonly called by its German name, steinbock) is the species of Ibex that lives in the European Alps. ...


Brigandage]appears to have been prevalent in Roman times in the more remote parts of the Apennines, as it was until recently: an inscription found near the Furlo pass was set up in AD 246 by an evocatus Augusti (a member of a picked corps) on special police duty with a detachment of twenty men from the Ravenna fleet (G. Henzen in Römische Mitteilungen, 1887, 14).


Snow lies on the highest peaks of the Apennines for almost the whole year. The range produces no minerals, but there are a considerable number of good mineral springs, some of which are thermal (such as Bagni di Lucca, Monte Catini, Monsummano, Porretta, Telese), while others are cool (such as Nocera, Sangemini, Cinciano, &c.), the water of which is both drunk on the spot and sold as table water elsewhere. Mineral water is water containing minerals or other dissolved substances that alter its taste or give it therapeutic value. ...


Geology

The Apennines are the continuation of the Alpine chain, but the individual zones of the Alps cannot be traced into the Apennines. The zone of the Brianconnais may be followed as far as the Gulf of Genoa, but scarcely beyond, unless it is represented by the Trias and older beds of the Apuan Alps. The inner zone of crystalline and schistose rocks which forms the main chain of the Alps, is absent in the Apennines except towards the southern end. The west face of the Petit Dru above the Chamonix valley near the Mer de Glace. ... The Gulf of Genoa (Golfo di Genova) is the northernmost part of the Ligurian Sea. ... The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 251 ± 0. ... Crystal (disambiguation) Insulin crystals A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. ... Schist The schists form a group of medium-grade metamorphic rocks, chiefly notable for the preponderance of lamellar minerals such as micas, chlorite, talc, hornblende, graphite, and others. ...


The Apennines, indeed, consist almost entirely of Mesozoic and Tertiary beds, like the outer zones of the Alps. Remnants of a former inner zone of more ancient rocks may be seen in the Apuan Alps, in the islands off the Tuscan coast; in the Catena Metallifera, Cape Circeo and the island of Zannone, as well as in the Calabrian peninsula. These remnants lie at a comparatively low level, and excepting the Apuan Alps and the Calabrian peninsula do not now form any part of the Apennine chain. The Mesozoic Era is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... For other uses, see Tertiary (disambiguation). ... Zannone and the Pontine Islands. ... View in Calabria. ...


But that in Tertiary times there was a high interior zone of crystalline rocks is indicated by the character of the Eocene beds in the southern Apennines. These are formed to a large extent of thick conglomerates which are full of pebbles and boulders of granite and schist. Many of the boulders are of considerable size and they are often still angular. There is now no crystalline region from which they could reach their present position; and this and other considerations have led the followers of Eduard Suess to conclude that even in Tertiary times a large land mass consisting of ancient rocks occupied the space which is now covered by the southern portion of the Tyrrhenian Sea. hfajhfiudshfas == == == --24. ... Quarrying granite for the Mormon Temple, Utah Territory. ... Schist The schists form a group of medium-grade metamorphic rocks, chiefly notable for the preponderance of lamellar minerals such as micas, chlorite, talc, hornblende, graphite, and others. ... Eduard Suess (August 20, 1831 – April 26, 1914) was a 19th century geologist who was an expert on the geography of the Alps. ...


This old land mass has been called Tyrrhenis, and probably extended from Sicily into Latium and as far west as Sardinia. On the Italian border of this land there was raised a mountain chain with an inner crystalline zone and an outer zone of Mesozoic and Tertiary beds. Subsequent faulting has caused the subsidence of the greater part of Tyrrhenis, including nearly the whole of the inner zone of the mountain chain, and has left only the outer zones standing as the present Apennines. Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Latium (Lazio in Italian) is a region of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzo, Marche, Molise, Campania and the Tyrrhenian Sea. ... Sardinia (pronounced ; Italian: ; Sardinian: or Sardinna) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily). ... Old fault exposed by roadcut near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. ...


Be this as it may, the Apennines, excepting in Calabria, are formed chiefly of Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Eocene and Miocene beds. In the south the deposits, from the Trias to the middle Eocene, consist mainly of limestones, and were laid down, with a few slight interruptions, upon a quietly subsiding sea-floor. In the later part of the Eocene period began the folding which gave rise to the existing chain. The sea grew shallow, the deposits became conglomeratic and shaly, volcanic eruptions began, and the present folds of the Apennines were initiated. The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 251 ± 0. ... The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... The Cretaceous Period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... Limey shale overlaid by limestone. ...


The folding and consequent elevation went on until the close of the Miocene period when a considerable subsidence took place and the Pliocene sea overspread the lower portions of the range. Subsequent elevation, without folding, has raised these Pliocene deposits to a considerable height--in some cases over 3000 feet and they now lie almost undisturbed upon the older folded beds. This last elevation led to the formation of numerous lakes which are now filled up by Pleistocene deposits. Both volcanic eruptions and movements of elevation and depression continue to the present day on the shores of the Tyrrhenian Sea. A road destroyed by subsidence and shear. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) is part of the geologic timescale. ... Tyrrhenian Sea. ...


In the northern Apennines the elevation of the sea floor appears to have begun at an earlier period, for the Upper Cretaceous of that part of the chain consists largely of sandstones and conglomerates. In Calabria the chain consists chiefly of crystalline and schistose rocks; it is the Mesozoic and Tertiary zone which has here been sunk beneath the sea. Similar rocks are found beneath the Trias farther north, in some of the valleys of Basilicata. Geography of the US in the late Cretaceous Late Cretaceous (also called the Upper Cretaceous) refers to the second half of the Cretaceous period, named after the famous white chalk cliffs of southern England, which date from this time. ...


Glaciers no longer exist in the Apennines, but Post-Pliocene moraines have been observed in Basilicata. Moraine is the general term for debris of all sorts originally transported by glaciers or ice sheets that have since melted away. ...


Mountains in the Appennine Range

The Apennines traverse Italy in a direction from about north-north-west to south-south-east, almost precisely parallel to that of the coast of the Adriatic from Rimini to Pescara. Major mountains in the range include: The Adriatic Sea is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea separating the Apennine peninsula (Italy) from the Balkan peninsula, and the system of the Apennine Mountains from that of the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges. ... Rimini is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy and capital city of the Province of Rimini. ... Pescaras port in the afterglow. ...

  • Corno Grande 2,912 m (9,554 ft)
  • Monte Nerone (5010 ft)
  • Monte Catria (5590 ft)
  • Monte Maggio
  • Monte Pennino (5169 ft)
  • Monte della Sibilla (7663 ft)
  • Monte Vettore (8128 ft)
  • Pizzo di Sevo (7945 ft)
  • Monte Amara (9170 ft)
  • Monte Terminillo (7278 ft)
  • Monte Velino (8192 ft)

Gran Sasso (Italian for great stone), a massif located in the Abruzzo region of central Italy, is the highest of the Apennines and the centerpiece of a national park (established 1991). ... Pennino may refer to: Pennino Brothers Jewelry, costume jewelry produced in NYC from 1927 to 1961. ...

Historical significance

In the Italian Campaign of World War II, the Germans used the Apennines as a defensive barrier known to the Allies as the Gothic Line. The Allies attacked the line unsuccessfully in September 1944. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... German defensive positions in Northern Italy 1944 370th Infantry Regiment walking toward the mountains at north of Prato - april 1945 The Gothic Line, also known as Linea Gotica, formed Field Marshal Albert Kesselrings last major line of defence in the final stages of World War II along the summits... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


Another line of defence, the Barbara Line, crossed the southern Apennines. During World War II, the Barbara Line was a series of German military fortifications in Italy, some ten to twenty miles south of the Gustav Line, and a similar distance north of the Volturno Line. ...


See also

  • Antiapennines
  • Geology of Italy

References

  • G. de Lorenzo, "Studi di geologia nell' Appennino Meridionale," Atti d. R. Accad. d. Sci, Fis. e Mat., Napoli, ser. 2, vol. viii., no. 7 (1896)
  • F. Sacco, "L' Appennino settentrionale," Boll. Soc. geol. Ital. (1893-1899).
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
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Apennine Mountains

Coordinates: 43°16′54″N, 12°34′55″E Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge&#8212;writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others&#8212;in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Apennine mountains (2267 words)
The mountains are mostly green and wooded, although one side of the highest peak, Corno Grande (2,912 m), is partially covered by the southernmost glacier in Europe.
On the north and north-east lie the broad plains of Piedmont and Lombardy, traversed by the Po, the Apennines, itself rises in the Maritime Alps, whil range are short and unimportant.
This section of the Apennines is crossed by two railways, from Pistoia to Bologna and from Florence to Faenza, and by several good high roads, of which the direct road from Florence to Bologna over the Futa pass is of Roman origin; and certain places in it are favourite summer resorts.
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