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Apes[1]
Fossil range: Late Oligocene - Recent
Lar Gibbon (Hylobates lar)
Lar Gibbon (Hylobates lar)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Suborder: Haplorrhini
Parvorder: Catarrhini
Superfamily: Hominoidea
Gray, 1825
Families

Hylobatidae
Hominidae
Proconsulidae
†Dryopithecidae
†Oreopithecidae Ape is a member of the Hominoidea superfamily of primates. ... The Oligocene epoch is a geologic period of time that extends from about 34 million to 23 million years before the present. ... Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 910 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1771) The Lar Gibbon (Hylobates lar), also known as the White-handed Gibbon, is a primate in the Hylobatidae or gibbon family. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... Families Tarsiidae Cebidae Aotidae Pitheciidae Atelidae Cercopithecidae Hylobatidae Hominidae The haplorrhines, the dry-nosed primates (the Greek name means simple-nosed), are members of the Haplorrhini clade: the prosimian tarsiers and all of the true simians (the monkeys and the apes, including humans). ... Families Cercopithecidae Hylobatidae Hominidae Catarrhini is the unranked group of the Primates, one of the three major divisions of the suborder Haplorrhini. ... John Edward Gray. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... Species 14 species, see text Gibbons are small apes that are traditionally grouped in the genus Hylobates. ... Genera The hominids are the members of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes), which includes humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. ... Species (extinct) Proconsul africanus Proconsul nyanzae Proconsul major Proconsul heseloni Proconsul was an early genus of primates that existed from 27 to 17 million years ago during the Miocene epoch, first in Kenya, and restricted to Africa. ... Binomial name Gervais, 1872 The Swamp Ape (Oreopithecus bambolii) is a prehistoric primate species from the Miocene epoch whose fossils have been found in Italy (Tuscany and Sardinia) and in East Africa. ...

Apes are the members of the Hominoidea superfamily of primates, which includes humans. Under the current classification system there are two families of hominoids: In biology, a superfamily is a taxonomic grade intermediate between suborder and family. ... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... This article is about modern humans. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ...

A few other primates, such as the Barbary Ape, have the word "ape" in their common names (usually to indicate lack of a tail), but they are not regarded as true apes. Species 14 species, see text Gibbons are small apes that are traditionally grouped in the genus Hylobates. ... Genera Hylobates Hoolock Nomascus Symphalangus Gibbons are the small apes that are grouped in the family Hylobatidae. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1771) The Lar Gibbon (Hylobates lar), also known as the White-handed Gibbon, is a primate in the Hylobatidae or gibbon family. ... Binomial name (Raffles, 1821) The Siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus) is an arboreal, black furred gibbon native to the forests of Malaysia, Thailand, and Sumatra. ... Genera Subfamily Ponginae Pongo - Orangutans Gigantopithecus (extinct) Sivapithecus (extinct) Subfamily Homininae Gorilla - Gorillas Pan - Chimpanzees Homo - Humans Paranthropus (extinct) Australopithecus (extinct) Sahelanthropus (extinct) Ardipithecus (extinct) Kenyanthropus (extinct) Pierolapithecus (extinct) (tentative) The Hominids (Hominidae) are a biological family which includes humans, extinct species of humanlike creatures and the other great apes... This article is about the primate. ... Type species Troglodytes gorilla Savage, 1847 distribution of Gorilla Species Gorilla gorilla Gorilla beringei The gorilla, the largest of the living primates, is a ground-dwelling omnivore that inhabits the forests of Africa. ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species of apes in the genus Pan. ... This article is about modern humans. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Barbary Macaque (Macaca sylvanus) is a tail-less macaque. ...


Except for gorillas and most humans, all true apes are agile climbers of trees. They are best described as omnivorous, their diet consisting of fruit, grass seeds, and in most cases some quantities of meat and invertebrates—either hunted or scavenged—along with anything else available and easily digested. They are native to Africa and Asia, although humans have spread to all parts of the world. Omnivores are organisms that consume both plants and animals. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


Most ape species are rare or endangered. The chief threat to most of the endangered species is loss of tropical rainforest habitat, though some populations are further imperiled by hunting for bushmeat. The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... The Daintree Rainforest in Queensland, Australia. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

Historical and modern terminology

"Ape" (Old Eng. apa; Dutch aap; Old Ger. affo; Ger. Affe; Welsh epa; Old Czech op) is a word of uncertain origin and is possibly an onomatopoetic imitation of animal chatter. The term has a history of rather imprecise usage. Its earliest meaning was a tailless (and therefore exceptionally human-like) non-human primate, but as zoological knowledge developed it became clear that taillessness occurred in a number of different and otherwise unrelated species. For the supervillain, see Onomatopoeia (comics). ... Zoology (from Greek: ζῴον, zoion, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ...


The original usage of "ape" in English might have referred to the baboon, an African monkey. Two tailless species of macaque are commonly named as apes, the Barbary Ape of North Africa (introduced into Gibraltar), Macaca sylvanus, and the Sulawesi Black Ape or Celebes Crested Macaque, M. nigra. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see Baboon (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Subfamilies Cercopithecinae - 11 genera Colobinae - 10 genera The Old World monkeys or Cercopithecidae are a group of primates, falling in the superfamily Cercopithecoidea in the clade Catarrhini. ... For other uses, see Macaca. ... Binomial name Macaca sylvanus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Barbary Ape (Macaca sylvanus) is a tail-less macaque; despite its name, it is a true monkey and not an ape. ... Binomial name Macaca nigra (Desmarest, 1822) The Celebes Crested Macaque (Macaca nigra), also known as the Black Ape, is an Old World monkey that lives in the northeast of the Indonesian island Sulawesi (Celebes) as well as on smaller neighboring islands. ...


Until a handful of decades ago, humans were thought to be distinctly set apart from the other apes (even from the other great apes), so much so that many people still don't think of the term "apes" to include humans at all. However, it is not considered accurate by many biologists to think of apes in a biological sense without considering humans to be included.[citation needed] The terms "non-human apes" or "non-human great apes" is used with increasing frequency to show the monophyletic relationship of humans to the other apes while yet talking only about the non-human species.[citation needed] In phylogenetics, a group is monophyletic (Greek: of one stem) if all organisms in that group are known to have developed from a common ancestral form, and all descendants of that form are included in the group. ...


A group of apes may be referred to as a troop or a shrewdness.


Biology

The gibbon family, Hylobatidae, is composed of thirteen medium-sized species. Their major distinction is their long arms, which they use to brachiate through the trees. As an evolutionary adaptation to this arboreal lifestyle, their wrists are ball and socket joints. The largest of the gibbons, the Siamang, weighs up to 23 kg (50 lb). In comparison, the smallest great ape is the Common Chimpanzee at a modest 40 to 65 kg (88 to 143 lb). This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The kinkajou is an arboreal mammal. ... Binomial name (Raffles, 1821) The Siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus) is an arboreal, black furred gibbon native to the forests of Malaysia, Thailand, and Sumatra. ... Binomial name (Blumenbach, 1775) distribution of Common Chimpanzee. ...


The great ape family was previously referred to as Pongidae, and humans (and fossil hominids) were omitted from it, but there is no biological case for doing this. However, this definition is still used by many anthropologists and by lay people. However, that definition makes Pongidae paraphyletic, whereas most taxonomists nowadays encourage monophyletic groups. Chimpanzees, gorillas, humans and orangutans are all more closely related to one another than any of these four genera are to the gibbons. However, the term "hominid" is still used with the specific meaning of extinct animals more closely related to humans than the other great apes (for example, australopithecines), even though "hominin" is now correct in that usage. It is now usual to use even finer divisions, such as subfamilies and tribes to distinguish which hominoids are being discussed. Current evidence implies that humans share a common, extinct, ancestor with the chimpanzee line, from which we separated more recently than the gorilla line. Genera Subfamily Ponginae Pongo - Orangutans Gigantopithecus (extinct) Sivapithecus (extinct) Subfamily Homininae Gorilla - Gorillas Pan - Chimpanzees Homo - Humans Paranthropus (extinct) Australopithecus (extinct) Sahelanthropus (extinct) Ardipithecus (extinct) Kenyanthropus (extinct) Pierolapithecus (extinct) (tentative) The Hominids (Hominidae) are a biological family which includes humans, extinct species of humanlike creatures and the other great apes... See Anthropology. ... In religious organizations, the laity comprises all lay persons collectively. ... Paraphyletic - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... In phylogenetics, a group is monophyletic (Greek: of one stem) if all organisms in that group are known to have developed from a common ancestral form, and all descendants of that form are included in the group. ... A hominid is any member of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes), including the extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. ... This term australopithecine refers to two very closely related hominin genera: Australopithecus Paranthropus When used alone, the term refers to both genera together. ... Genera Gorilla Pan (chimpanzees) Homo (humans) Paranthropus (extinct) Australopithecus (extinct) Sahelanthropus (extinct) Ardipithecus (extinct) Kenyanthropus (extinct) Homininae is a subfamily of Hominidae, including Homo sapiens and some extinct relatives, as well as the gorillas and the chimpanzees. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... In biology, a tribe is a taxonomic classification in between family and genus. ...


Both great apes and lesser apes fall within Catarrhini, which also includes the Old World monkeys of Africa and Eurasia. Within this group, both families of apes can be distinguished from these monkeys by the number of cusps on their molars (apes have five—the "Y-5" molar pattern, Old World monkeys have only four in a bilophodont pattern). Apes have more mobile shoulder joints and arms due to the dorsal position of the scapula, broad ribcages that are flatter front-to-back, and a shorter, less mobile spine compared to Old World monkeys (with caudal vertebrae greatly reduced, resulting in tail loss in some species). These are all anatomical adaptations to vertical hanging and swinging locomotion (brachiation) in the apes, as well as better balance in a bipedal pose. All living members of the Hylobatidae and Hominidae are tailless, and humans can therefore accurately be referred to as bipedal apes. However, there are also primates in other families that lack tails, and at least one (the Pig-Tailed Langur) that has been known to walk significant distances bipedally. The front skull is characterised by its sinuses, fusion of the frontal bone and Post-Orbital Constriction. Families Cercopithecidae Hylobatidae Hominidae Catarrhini is the unranked group of the Primates, one of the three major divisions of the suborder Haplorrhini. ... Subfamilies Cercopithecinae - 11 genera Colobinae - 9 genera The Old World monkeys or Cercopithecidae are a group of primates, falling in the superfamily Cercopithecoidea in the clade Catarrhini. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... Approximate worldwide distribution of monkeys. ... A cusp is an occlusal or incisal eminance on a tooth. ... Molars are the rearmost and most complicated kind of tooth in most mammals. ... Left scapula - front view () Left scapula - rear view () In anatomy, the scapula, or shoulder blade, is the bone that connects the humerus (arm bone) with the clavicle (collar bone). ... A biped is an animal that travels across surfaces supported by two legs. ... Binomial name Simias concolor Miller, 1903 The Pig-tailed Langur (Simias concolor, monotypic in genus Simias) is a large, rather heavily built Old World monkey, which is adapted to climbing with its long arms. ... In Physical Anthropology, Post-Orbital Constriction is a narrowing of the cranium (skull) just behind the eye sockets (the orbits, hence the name), in primates — including primitive hominids. ...


Although the hominoid fossil record is far from complete, and the evidence is often fragmentary, there is enough to give a good outline of the evolutionary history of humans. The time of the split between humans and living apes used to be thought to have occurred 15 to 20 million years ago, or even up to 30 or 40 million years ago. Some apes occurring within that time period, such as Ramapithecus, used to be considered as hominins, and possible ancestors of humans. Later fossil finds indicated that Ramapithecus was more closely related to the orangutan, and new biochemical evidence indicated that the last common ancestor of humans and other hominins occurred between 5 and 10 million years ago, and probably in the lower end of that range. Binomial name Sivapithecus ramapithecus Ramapithecus is an extinct primate erected from a two inch piece of a jawbone, with four teeth. ... Genera Gorilla Pan (chimpanzees) Homo (humans) Paranthropus (extinct) Australopithecus (extinct) Sahelanthropus (extinct) Ardipithecus (extinct) Kenyanthropus (extinct) Homininae is a subfamily of Hominidae, including Homo sapiens and some extinct relatives, as well as the gorillas and the chimpanzees. ...


Cultural aspects of non-human apes

The name "Hominoidea" can be loosely translated as "ape". However, although the superfamily of Hominoidea has always included great apes such as humans, as well as the Hylobatidae, a different connotation of the word "ape" exists in the vernacular. The historical, common usage of the word often excludes humans when referring to apes. Humans are also often excluded from the larger classifications of "animal" and "primate" in common usage, despite belonging to both of these groups as well. The reason for this is that scientific nomenclature and everyday language abide by different rules. Other examples of this are "butterfly" (not a member of Diptera), "ladybird" (not a member of Aves) and "jellyfish" (not a fish). Taxonomic labels can be redefined according to the latest scientific findings; as such, they may or may not overlap with their vernacular counterparts. For an explanation of similar terms, see Hominid. ... Species 14 species, see text Gibbons are small apes that are traditionally grouped in the genus Hylobates. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... Superfamilies and families Superfamily Hedyloidea: Hedylidae Superfamily Hesperioidea: Hesperiidae Superfamily Papilionoidea: Papilionidae Pieridae Nymphalidae Lycaenidae Riodinidae A butterfly is an insect of the order Lepidoptera. ... Suborders Nematocera (includes Eudiptera) Brachycera Diptera (di - two, ptera - wings), or true flies, is the order of insects possessing only a single pair of wings on the mesothorax; the metathorax bears a pair of drumstick like structures called the halteres, the remnants of the hind wings. ... Subfamilies Chilocorinae Coccidulinae Coccinellinae Epilachninae Scymininae Sticholotidinae etc. ... For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jellyfish (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ...


Often, non-human apes are said to be the result of a curse—a Jewish folktale claims that one of the races who built the Tower of Babel became apes as punishment, while Muslim lore says that the Jews of Eilat became non-human apes as punishment for fishing on the Sabbath. Some sects of Christianity have folklore that claims that these apes are a symbol of lust and were created by Satan in response to God's creation of humans. It is uncertain whether any of these references are to any specific apes. All of these concepts date from a period when neither the distinction between apes and monkeys, nor the fact that humans are apes, was not widely understood, or understood at all. The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... Folklore is the ethnographic concept of the tales, legends, or superstitions current among a particular ethnic population, a part of the oral history of a particular culture. ... This article is about the Biblical story. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Hebrew אילת Founded in 1951 Government City (from 1959) District South Population 55,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 80,000 dunams (80 km²) Mayor Meir Yitzhak Halevi North Beach, Eilat, from southwest. ... For the computer security term, see Phishing. ... For other uses, see Sabbath. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Lust is any intense desire or craving for self gratification. ... This article is about the concept of Satan. ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...


History of hominoid taxonomy

The history of hominoid taxonomy is somewhat confusing and complex. The names of subgroups have changed their meaning over time as new evidence, from fossil discoveries and comparisons of anatomy and DNA sequences, has changed understanding of the relationships between hominoids. The story of the hominoid taxonomy is one of gradual demotion of humans from a special position in the taxonomy to being one branch among many. It also illustrates the growing influence of cladistics (the science of classifying living things by strict descent) on taxonomy. It has been suggested that Clade be merged into this article or section. ...


As of 2006, there are eight extant genera of hominoids. They are the four great ape genera (Homo (humans), Pan (chimpanzees), Gorilla, and Pongo (orangutans)), and the four genera of gibbons (Hylobates, Hoolock, Nomascus, and Symphalangus).[1] (The genus for the hoolock gibbons was recently changed from Bunopithecus to Hoolock.[3]) 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Species Homo sapiens See text for extinct species. ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species of apes in the genus Pan. ... Type species Troglodytes gorilla Savage, 1847 distribution of Gorilla Species Gorilla gorilla Gorilla beringei The gorilla, the largest of the living primates, is a ground-dwelling omnivore that inhabits the forests of Africa. ... For the chess opening, see Sokolsky Opening. ... Genera Hylobates Hoolock Nomascus Symphalangus Gibbons are the small apes that are grouped in the family Hylobatidae. ... Hylobates are also known as the lesser apes. ... Binomial name Hylobates (Bunopithecus) hoolock (Harlan, 1834) The Hoolock Gibbon (Hylobates hoolock), also known as just the Hoolock, is a primate species from the family of the gibbons (Hylobatidae). ... Species 14 species, see text Gibbons are small apes that are traditionally grouped in the genus Hylobates. ... Binomial name Hylobates (Symphalangus) syndactylus (Raffles, 1821) The Siamang (Hylobates syndactylus) is an arboreal black furred gibbon native to the forests of Malaysia and Sumatra. ... Binomial name Bunopithecus hoolock (Harlan, 1834) The Hoolock Gibbon (Bunopithecus hoolock), also known as just the Hoolock, is a primate species from the family of the gibbons (Hylobatidae) and the only one in the genus Bunopithecus. ... Binomial name Hylobates (Bunopithecus) hoolock (Harlan, 1834) The Hoolock Gibbon (Hylobates hoolock), also known as just the Hoolock, is a primate species from the family of the gibbons (Hylobatidae). ...


In 1758, Carolus Linnaeus, relying on second- or third-hand accounts, placed a second species in Homo along with H. sapiens: Homo troglodytes ("cave-dwelling man"). It is not clear to which animal this name refers, as Linnaeus had no specimen to refer to, hence no precise description. Linnaeus named the orangutan Simia satyrus ("satyr monkey"). He placed the three genera Homo, Simia and Lemur in the family of Primates. Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... In his Systema Naturae of 1758, Carolus Linnaeus divided the primates into three genera: Homo, Simia, and Lemur. ...


The troglodytes name was used for the chimpanzee by Blumenbach in 1775 but moved to the genus Simia. The orangutan was moved to the genus Pongo in 1799 by Lacépède. Johann Friedrich Blumenbach Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (May 11, 1752 - January 22, 1840) was a German physiologist and anthropologist. ... For the chess opening, see Sokolsky Opening. ... Lacépède Bernard Germain Étienne de la Ville, Comte de Lacépède (December 26, 1756 – October 6, 1825) was a French naturalist. ...


Linnaeus's inclusion of humans in the primates with monkeys and apes was troubling for people who denied a close relationship between humans and the rest of the animal kingdom. Linnaeus's Lutheran Archbishop had accused him of "impiety." In a letter to Johann Georg Gmelin dated February 25, 1747, Linnaeus wrote: In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... Johann Georg Gmelin (August 8, 1709 - May 20, 1755) was a German naturalist, botanist and geographer. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1747 (MDCCXLVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...

It is not pleasing to me that I must place humans among the primates, but man is intimately familiar with himself. Let's not quibble over words. It will be the same to me whatever name is applied. But I desperately seek from you and from the whole world a general difference between men and simians from the principles of Natural History. I certainly know of none. If only someone might tell me one! If I called man a simian or vice versa I would bring together all the theologians against me. Perhaps I ought to, in accordance with the law of Natural History.[4]

Accordingly, Johann Friedrich Blumenbach in the first edition of his Manual of Natural History (1779), proposed that the primates be divided into the Quadrumana (four-handed, i.e. apes and monkeys) and Bimana (two-handed, i.e. humans). This distinction was taken up by other naturalists, most notably Georges Cuvier. Some elevated the distinction to the level of order. Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... Families Cebidae Aotidae Pitheciidae Atelidae Cercopithecidae Hylobatidae Hominidae The simians (infraorder Simiiformes) are the higher primates very common to most people: the monkeys and the apes, including humans. ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ... In his Systema Naturae of 1758, Carolus Linnaeus divided the primates into three genera: Homo, Simia, and Lemur. ... Theology is literally rational discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, rational discourse). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. ... Johann Friedrich Blumenbach Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (May 11, 1752 - January 22, 1840) was a German physiologist and anthropologist. ... Quadrumana and Bimana form an obsolete division of the primates: the Quadrumana (four-handed ones) being primates with opposable digits (thumbs) on all four limbs, and the Bimana (two-handed ones) being those with opposable digits on the forelimbs only, this latter group contains humans only. ... Quadrumana and Bimana form an obsolete division of the primates: the Quadrumana (four-handed ones) being primates with opposable digits (thumbs) on all four limbs, and the Bimana (two-handed ones) being those with opposable digits on the forelimbs only, this latter group contains humans only. ... Georges Cuvier Baron Georges Léopold Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert Cuvier (August 23, 1769–May 13, 1832) was a French naturalist and zoologist. ... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ...


However, the many affinities between humans and other primates — and especially the great apes — made it clear that the distinction made no scientific sense. Charles Darwin wrote, in The Descent of Man: For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Title page of the first edition of Charles Darwins The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. ...

The greater number of naturalists who have taken into consideration the whole structure of man, including his mental faculties, have followed Blumenbach and Cuvier, and have placed man in a separate Order, under the title of the Bimana, and therefore on an equality with the orders of the Quadrumana, Carnivora, etc. Recently many of our best naturalists have recurred to the view first propounded by Linnaeus, so remarkable for his sagacity, and have placed man in the same Order with the Quadrumana, under the title of the Primates. The justice of this conclusion will be admitted: for in the first place, we must bear in mind the comparative insignificance for classification of the great development of the brain in man, and that the strongly-marked differences between the skulls of man and the Quadrumana (lately insisted upon by Bischoff, Aeby, and others) apparently follow from their differently developed brains. In the second place, we must remember that nearly all the other and more important differences between man and the Quadrumana are manifestly adaptive in their nature, and relate chiefly to the erect position of man; such as the structure of his hand, foot, and pelvis, the curvature of his spine, and the position of his head.[5]

Johann Friedrich Blumenbach Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (May 11, 1752 - January 22, 1840) was a German physiologist and anthropologist. ... Georges Cuvier Baron Georges Léopold Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert Cuvier (August 23, 1769–May 13, 1832) was a French naturalist and zoologist. ... Families 17, See classification The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: or ; from Latin carō (stem carn-) flesh, + vorāre to devour) includes over 260 species of placental mammals. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Quadrumana and Bimana form an obsolete division of the primates: the Quadrumana (four-handed ones) being primates with opposable digits (thumbs) on all four limbs, and the Bimana (two-handed ones) being those with opposable digits on the forelimbs only, this latter group contains humans only. ... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... Theodor Ludwig Wilhelm Bischoff (1807 - 1882) was a German biologist and anatomist. ...

Changes in taxonomy over time

Until about 1960, the hominoids were usually divided into two families: humans and their extinct relatives in Hominidae, the other apes in Pongidae.[6]
The 1960s saw the application of techniques from molecular biology to primate taxonomy. Goodman used his 1964 immunological study of serum proteins to propose a division of the hominoids into three families, with the non-human great apes in Pongidae and the lesser apes (gibbons) in Hylobatidae.[7] The trichotomy of hominoid families, however, prompted scientists to ask which family speciated first from the common hominoid ancestor.
Within the superfamily Hominoidea, gibbons are the outgroup: this means that the rest of the hominoids are more closely related to each other than any of them are to gibbons. This led to the placing of the other great apes into the family Hominidae along with humans, by demoting the Pongidae to a subfamily; the Hominidae family now contained the subfamilies Homininae and Ponginae. Again, the three-way split in Ponginae led scientists to ask which of the three genera is least related to the others.
Investigation showed orangutans to be the outgroup, but comparing humans to all three other hominid genera showed that African apes (chimpanzees and gorillas) and humans are more closely related to each other than any of them are to orangutans. This led to the placing of the African apes in the subfamily Homininae, forming another three-way split. This classification was first proposed by M. Goodman in 1974.[8]
To try to resolve the hominine trichotomy, some authors proposed the division of the subfamily Homininae into the tribes Gorillini (African apes) and Hominini (humans).
However, DNA comparisons provide convincing evidence that within the subfamily Homininae, gorillas are the outgroup. This suggests that chimpanzees should be in Hominini along with humans. This classification was first proposed (though one rank lower) by M. Goodman et al. in 1990.[2] See Human evolutionary genetics for more information on the speciation of humans and great apes.
Later DNA comparisons split the gibbon genus Hylobates into four genera: Hylobates, Hoolock, Nomascus, and Symphalangus.[1][3]

Genera The hominids are the members of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes), which includes humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. ... Genera Subfamily Ponginae Pongo - Orangutans Gigantopithecus (extinct) Sivapithecus (extinct) Subfamily Homininae Gorilla - Gorillas Pan - Chimpanzees Homo - Humans Paranthropus (extinct) Australopithecus (extinct) Sahelanthropus (extinct) Ardipithecus (extinct) Kenyanthropus (extinct) Pierolapithecus (extinct) (tentative) The Hominids (Hominidae) are a biological family which includes humans, extinct species of humanlike creatures and the other great apes... Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... Species 14 species, see text Gibbons are small apes that are traditionally grouped in the genus Hylobates. ... A trichotomy is a splitting into three parts, and, apart from its normal literal meaning, can refer to: trichotomy (mathematics), in the mathematical field of order theory trichotomy (philosophy), for the idea that man has a threefold nature In taxonomy, a trichotomy is speciation of three groups from a common... Charles Darwins first sketch of an evolutionary tree from his First Notebook on Transmutation of Species (1837) Speciation is the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise. ... Tribes Gorillini Hominini and see text Homininae is a subfamily of Hominidae, including Homo sapiens and some extinct relatives, as well as the gorillas and the chimpanzees. ... For the chess opening, see Sokolsky Opening. ... This article is about the primate. ... Human evolutionary genetics studies how one human genome differs from the other, the evolutionary past that gave rise to it, and its current effects. ... Hylobates are also known as the lesser apes. ... Binomial name Hylobates (Bunopithecus) hoolock (Harlan, 1834) The Hoolock Gibbon (Hylobates hoolock), also known as just the Hoolock, is a primate species from the family of the gibbons (Hylobatidae). ... Species 14 species, see text Gibbons are small apes that are traditionally grouped in the genus Hylobates. ... Binomial name Hylobates (Symphalangus) syndactylus (Raffles, 1821) The Siamang (Hylobates syndactylus) is an arboreal black furred gibbon native to the forests of Malaysia and Sumatra. ...

Classification and evolution

As discussed above, hominoid taxonomy has undergone several changes. Current understanding is that the apes diverged from the Old World monkeys about 25 million years ago. The lesser and greater apes split about 18 mya, and the hominid splits happened 14 mya (Pongo), 7 mya (Gorilla), and 3-5 mya (Homo & Pan). Subfamilies Cercopithecinae - 11 genera Colobinae - 10 genera The Old World monkeys or Cercopithecidae are a group of primates, falling in the superfamily Cercopithecoidea in the clade Catarrhini. ...


Listed are the families and genera of apes; also listed are the extant species.

Species 14 species, see text Gibbons are small apes that are traditionally grouped in the genus Hylobates. ... Hylobates are also known as the lesser apes. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1771) The Lar Gibbon (Hylobates lar), also known as the White-handed Gibbon, is a primate in the Hylobatidae or gibbon family. ... Binomial name Hylobatesagilis F. Cuvier, 1821 The Agile Gibbon (Hylobates agilis), also known as the Black-handed Gibbon, is a primate in the Hylobatidae or gibbon family. ... Binomial name Hylobates muelleri Martin, 1841 Müllers Bornean Gibbon (Hylobates muelleri), also known as the Grey Gibbon, is a primate in the Hylobatidae or gibbon family. ... Binomial name Hylobates (Hylobates) moloch (Audebert, 1798) The Silvery Gibbon (Hylobates (Hylobates) moloch) is a primate in the Hylobatidae or gibbon family. ... Binomial name Hylobates pileatus (Gray, 1861) The Pileated Gibbon (Hylobates pileatus) is a primate in the Hylobatidae or gibbon family. ... Binomial name Hylobates klossii (Miller, 1903) Klosss Gibbon (Hylobates klossii), also known as the Mentawai Gibbon or the Bilou, is a primate in the Hylobatidae or gibbon family. ... Binomial name Hylobates (Bunopithecus) hoolock (Harlan, 1834) The Hoolock Gibbon (Hylobates hoolock), also known as just the Hoolock, is a primate species from the family of the gibbons (Hylobatidae). ... Binomial name Hylobates (Symphalangus) syndactylus (Raffles, 1821) The Siamang (Hylobates syndactylus) is an arboreal black furred gibbon native to the forests of Malaysia and Sumatra. ... Binomial name (Raffles, 1821) The Siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus) is an arboreal, black furred gibbon native to the forests of Malaysia, Thailand, and Sumatra. ... Species 14 species, see text Gibbons are small apes that are traditionally grouped in the genus Hylobates. ... Binomial name (Harlan, 1826) Subspecies Nomascus concolor concolor Nomascus concolor lu Nomascus concolor jingdongensis Nomascus concolor furvogaster The Black Crested Gibbon (Nomascus concolor)[3], also known as the Crested Gibbon, the Black Gibbon, the White-cheeked Gibbon, or the Concolor Gibbon, is an endangered species of gibbon found in India... Binomial name Nomascus nasutus (Kunkel dHerculais, 1884) The Eastern Black Crested Gibbon (Nomascus nasutus) is a gibbon that was once widespread in China and Vietnam. ... Binomial name Nomascus leucogenys (Ogilby, 1840) Subspecies Nomascus leucogenys leucogenys - Northern White-cheeked Crested Gibbon Nomascus leucogenys siki - Southern White-cheeked Crested Gibbon Synonyms Hylobates leucogenys (Ogilby, 1840) The White-cheeked Crested Gibbon is a species of gibbon native to Yunnan, Vietnam and Laos. ... Binomial name Nomascus gabriellae (Thomas, 1909) Synonyms Hylobates gabriellae (Thomas, 1909) The Yellow-cheeked Crested Gibbon, also called Golden-cheeked Crested Gibbon or Buffed-cheeked gibbon, is a species of gibbon native to Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. ... Genera The hominids are the members of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes), which includes humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. ... For the chess opening, see Sokolsky Opening. ... Binomial name Pongo pygmaeus (Linnaeus, 1760) The Bornean Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) is a species of orangutan native to the island of Borneo. ... Binomial name Lesson, 1827 The Sumatran Orangutan (Pongo abelii) is the rarer of the two species of orangutans. ... Type species Troglodytes gorilla Savage, 1847 distribution of Gorilla Species Gorilla gorilla Gorilla beringei The gorilla, the largest of the living primates, is a ground-dwelling omnivore that inhabits the forests of Africa. ... Binomial name Gorilla gorilla Savage, 1847 Subspecies G. g. ... Binomial name Gorilla beringei Matschie, 1903 Subspecies G. b. ... Species Homo sapiens See text for extinct species. ... This article is about modern humans. ... Type species Simia troglodytes Blumenbach, 1775 distribution of Species Pan troglodytes Pan paniscus Chimpanzee, often shortened to chimp, is the common name for the two extant species of apes in the genus Pan. ... Binomial name (Blumenbach, 1775) distribution of Common Chimpanzee. ... For other uses, see Bonobo (disambiguation). ...

Behaviour and cognition

Although there had been earlier studies, the scientific investigation of behaviour and cognition in non-human apes expanded enormously during the latter half of the twentieth century. Major studies of behaviour in the field were completed on the three better-known great apes, for example by Jane Goodall, Dian Fossey and Birute Galdikas (field work on gibbons and the Bonobo is still relatively underdeveloped). These studies have shown that in their natural environments, the different apes show sharply varying social structure: gibbons are monogamous, territorial pair-bonders, orangutans are solitary, gorillas live in small troops dominated by a single adult male, while chimpanzees live in larger troops with Bonobos exhibiting promiscuous sexual behaviour. Their diets also vary; gorillas are foliovores while the others are all primarily frugivores, although the Common Chimpanzee does some hunting for meat. Foraging behaviour is correspondingly variable. Dame Jane Goodall, DBE, PhD, (born 3 April 1934 as Valerie Jane Morris Goodall) is an English UN Messenger of Peace, primatologist, ethologist, and anthropologist. ... Dian Fossey (January 16, 1932 – December 26, 1985) was an American zoologist who completed an extended study of eight gorilla groups. ... Image:Birute. ... For other uses, see Bonobo (disambiguation). ... In Zoology, a folivore is an animal that specializes in eating leaves. ... A frugivore is an animal that feeds primarily or less commonly exclusively on fruit. ...


All the apes are generally thought of as highly intelligent, and scientific study has broadly confirmed that they perform outstandingly well on a wide range of cognitive tests - though again there is relatively little data on gibbon cognition. The early studies by Wolfgang Köhler demonstrated exceptional problem-solving abilities in chimpanzees, which Köhler attributed to insight. The use of tools has been repeatedly demonstrated; more recently, the manufacture of tools has been documented, both in the wild and in laboratory tests. Imitation is much more easily demonstrated in great apes than in other primate species. Almost all the studies in animal language acquisition have been completed with great apes, and though there is continuing dispute as to whether they demonstrate real language abilities, there is no doubt that they involve significant feats of learning. Chimpanzees in different parts of Africa have developed tools that are used in food acquisition, demonstrating a form of animal culture.[9] Maluma type shape Takete type shape Wolfgang Köhler (January 21, 1887, Reval (now Tallinn), Estonia – June 11, 1967, New Hampshire) was a German Gestalt psychologist. ... Problem solving forms part of thinking. ... Look up Insight in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the instrument. ... Imitation is an advanced animal behaviour whereby an individual observes anothers behaviour and replicates it itself. ... In linguistics, animal language acquisition (ALA) refers to controversial claims and experiments which assert, or are otherwised based in a view that non-human animals hold abilities for generating and communicating the symbols of abstract language, though they have not manifest such abilities in nature. ...


Legal status

See Primate#Legal status

The United States classifies only humans as persons, all other are not considered persons. Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... For other uses, see Person (disambiguation). ...


See also

This article is about modern humans. ... This is a list of fictional apes (Bonobos, Chimpanzees, Gorillas, Orangutans, and Gibbons) and other non-human higher primates. ... This is a list of apes of encyclopedic interest. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Groves, Colin (16 November 2005). in Wilson, D. E., and Reeder, D. M. (eds): Mammal Species of the World, 3rd edition, Johns Hopkins University Press, 178-184. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  2. ^ a b M. Goodman, D. A. Tagle, D. H. Fitch, W. Bailey, J. Czelusniak, B. F. Koop, P. Benson, J. L. Slightom (1990). "Primate evolution at the DNA level and a classification of hominoids". Journal of Molecular Evolution 30: 260–266. 
  3. ^ a b Mootnick, A.; Groves, C. P. (2005). "A new generic name for the hoolock gibbon (Hylobatidae)". International Journal of Primatology (26): 971-976. 
  4. ^ Letter, Carl Linnaeus to Johann Georg Gmelin. Uppsala, Sweden, 25 February 1747. Swedish Linnaean Society.
  5. ^ Charles Darwin (1871). The Descent of Man. 
  6. ^ G. G. Simpson (1945). "The principles of classification and a classification of mammals". Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 85: 1–350. 
  7. ^ M. Goodman (1964). "Man’s place in the phylogeny of the primates as reflected in serum proteins", in S. L. Washburn: Classification and human evolution. Aldine, Chicago, 204–234. 
  8. ^ M. Goodman (1974). "Biochemical Evidence on Hominid Phylogeny". Annual Review of Anthropology 3: 203–228. 
  9. ^ William McGrew (1992). Chimpanzee material culture: implications for human evolution. 

Dr Colin Groves is a Professor of Biological Anthropology at the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex by British naturalist Charles Darwin was first published in 1871. ... George Gaylord Simpson (June 16, 1902 - October 6, 1984) was an American paleontologist. ...

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