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Encyclopedia > Apartheid
A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. Blacks were only allowed on the left side of the boundary.
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A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. Blacks were only allowed on the left side of the boundary.

Apartheid (International Phonetic Alphabet [əˈpɑː(r)teɪt] or [-taɪt] in English and [aˈpartheid] in Afrikaans) is the policy and the system of laws implemented and continued by "White" minority governments in South Africa from 1948 to 1990; and by extension any legally sanctioned system of racial segregation. The first recorded use of the word, which means "separateness" in Afrikaans and Dutch, was in 1917 during a speech by Jan Smuts, who became Prime Minister of South Africa in 1919. A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet is a system of phonetic notation used by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) the human vocal apparatus can produce. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Afrikaans is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in South Africa and Namibia. ... 1948 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1990 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Racial segregation is a kind of formalized or institutionalized discrimination on the basis of race, characterized by the races separation from each other. ... Afrikaans is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in South Africa and Namibia. ... 1917 - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... Jan Christiaan Smuts, (May 24, 1870 - September 11, 1950) was a prominent South African statesman and soldier. ... A prime minister may be either: the chief or leading member of the cabinet of the top-level government in a country having a parliamentary system of government; or the official, in countries with a semi-presidential system of government, appointed to manage the civil service and execute the directives... 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


In some ways apartheid was an extension of the segregationist laws implemented by previous white minority governments. Examples include the 1913 Land Act and the various workplace "colour bars". These laws were required to comply with the peace treaty signed between the Boer republics and the British Empire at the end of the second Anglo-Boer war. However, by the end of the Second World War, the enforcement of these laws had been lessened by the United Party government of Jan Smuts. This culminated in the 1948 report of the Fagan Commission, which was set up by the government to investigate changes to the system. The report recommended that segregation in the cities be ended, thus also ending the migrant labour system whereby the permanent home of Black South Africans was in distant rural "reserves". Prime Minister Smuts was in favour of the findings of the Commission, stating that: "The idea that natives must all be removed and confined in their kraals is in my opinion, the greatest nonsense I have ever heard." Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... United Party is a term used in various variants by various political parties. ... This article needs to be wikified. ...


In response to the Fagan Commission, the National Party convened its own commission known as the Sauer Commission. The findings of this commission were almost the exact opposite of those of the Fagan Commission, as it recommended that not only should segregation continue, but it should be made even stricter, and implemented in all spheres of social and economic life. It recommended the concept of "apartheid", in which the races were to be completely separated as much as possible. The National Party (with its members sometimes known as Nationalists or Nats) was the governing party of South Africa from 1948 until 1994, and was disbanded in 2005. ...


The National Party won the national election of 1948, narrowly defeating Smuts' United Party (though losing the popular vote). It immediately began implementing stricter racial segregation policies, creating the system of "apartheid" which was to last for 42 years until it was dismantled in 1990 by F.W. de Klerk, after decades of domestic protest led by the African National Congress and extensive international outcry. 1990 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... President F.W. de Klerk Frederik Willem de Klerk (born March 18, 1936) is a former President of South Africa, serving from September 1989 to May 1994. ... The African National Congress (ANC), a center-left political party was originally (until 1923)called the South African Native National Congress and has been South Africas governing party (in a coalition) since the establishment of majority rule in May 1994. ...

Contents


Apartheid in South Africa from day to day

A sign from the District Six museum illustrating racial segregation policies
A sign from the District Six museum illustrating racial segregation policies

Apartheid was implemented by the law. The following restrictions were not only social but were strictly enforced by law: cropped from Image:Aprt-YStar. ... cropped from Image:Aprt-YStar. ... District Six is the name of a suburb of Cape Town, South Africa, best known for the forced removal of its mainly coloured inhabitants during the 1970s. ...

  • Non-whites were excluded from national government and were unable to vote except in elections for segregated bodies.
  • Non-whites were not allowed to run businesses or professional practices in any areas designated as being for whites only. Whites were not allowed to run businesses or professional practices in any areas designated as being for blacks only. Every significant metropolis, and practically every shopping and business district was in a white area.
  • Blacks (except for a few who had "Section 10" rights), being in excess of 60% of the population, were excluded from the two Boer republics and two colonies, unless they had a pass. Whites required passes in black areas.
  • Blacks must use separate equipment and transportation facilities from whites.
    • A pass was only issued to someone who had approved work; spouses and children had to be left behind.
    • A pass was issued for one magisterial district confining the holder to that area only.
    • Being without a valid pass made a person subject to immediate arrest, summary trial and "deportation" to the "homeland". Police vans containing sjambok-wielding officers roamed the "white area" to round up the "illegal" blacks.
The interior of a black man's pass book.
The interior of a black man's pass book.

Black areas rarely had plumbing or electricity. Hospitals were segregated, the white hospitals being the match of any in the western world. Black hospitals were seriously understaffed and underfunded and far too few in number to match the white hospitals. Ambulances were segregated, forcing the race of the person to be correctly identified when the ambulance was called. A "white" ambulance would not take a black to a hospital. Black ambulances typically contained little or no medical equipment. National Governments or National Unity Governments are broad coalition governments consisting of all parties (or all major parties) in the legislature and are often formed during times of war or national emergency. ... Downtown Honolulu in United States, an example of an urban downtown district Central business district, (CBD used in Australia, New Zealand and sometimes elsewhere), or downtown (used mainly in North America) are terms referring to the commercial heart of a city. ... The sjambok is the traditional whip of South Africa. ... A passbook that the South African blacks were required to carry. ... A passbook that the South African blacks were required to carry. ... The Pass Laws Act of 1952 made it compulsory for all black South Africans over the age of 16 to carry a pass book, at all times. ... The term Western world can have multiple meanings depending on its context. ...


In the 1970s each black child's education cost the state only a tenth of each white child's. Higher education was practically impossible for most blacks. Higher education is education provided by universities and other institutions that award academic degrees, such as university colleges, and liberal arts colleges. ...


Trains and buses were segregated. White trains also had no third class carriages, while black trains were overcrowded and had only third class carriages. Black buses stopped at black bus stops and white buses at white ones.


Beaches were racially segregated, with the majority (including all of the best ones) reserved for whites. Public swimming pools and libraries were racially segregated but there were practically no black pools or black libraries.


Sex and marriage between the races was prohibited.


Cinemas in white areas were not allowed to admit blacks. Restaurants and hotels were not allowed to admit blacks, except as staff.


Membership in trade unions was not allowed for blacks until the 1980s, and any "political" trade union was banned. Strikes were banned and severely repressed. The minimum yearly taxable income for blacks was 360 rand (30 rand a month), while the white threshold was much higher, at 750 rand (62.5 rand per month). A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers...


Apartheid pervaded South African culture, as well as the law. A white entering a shop would be served first, ahead of blacks already in the queue, regardless of age, dress, or any other factors. Until the 1980s, blacks and other non tax payers were always expected to step off the pavement to make way for tax paying pedestrians. A white boy would be referred to as "Klein Baas" (little boss) by a black; a grown black man would be addressed as "Boy" by whites.


Motivations behind the implementation of apartheid

A rural area in Ciskei, one of the apartheid-era "homelands."
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A rural area in Ciskei, one of the apartheid-era "homelands."

One explanation used by apologists to excuse white South Africans is that once apartheid had been implemented to the point where its victims were no longer citizens of South Africa, but instead citizens of the nominally independent "homelands" who worked in South Africa as holders of temporary work permits, they no longer regarded themselves as responsible for their welfare. Download high resolution version (1123x818, 364 KB)picture of rural Ciskei /my own photo /GFDL source: http://commons. ... Download high resolution version (1123x818, 364 KB)picture of rural Ciskei /my own photo /GFDL source: http://commons. ... Categories: Stub | South African Bantustans ... A homeland is the concept of the territory to which one belongs; usually, the country in which a particular nationality was born. ... Bantustan refers to any of the territories designated as tribal homelands for black South Africans during the Apartheid era. ...


The South African government attempted to divide the internationally recognized state of South Africa into a number of statelets. Some eighty-seven percent of the land was reserved for whites and coloureds, and Indians. About thirteen percent of the land was divided into ten fragmented "homelands" for Blacks (60% of the population) which were given "independence". The South African government attempted to draw an equivalence between their view of black "citizens" of the "homelands" and the European Union and the United States view of illegal immigrants from Eastern Europe and Latin America, respectively. Bantustan refers to any of the territories designated as tribal homelands for black South Africans during the Apartheid era. ... An illegal immigrant is a person who either enters a country illegally, or who enters legally but subsequently violates the terms of their visa, permanent resident permit or refugee permit. ... Eastern Europe is, by convention, that part of Europe from the Ural and Caucasus mountains in the East to an arbitrarily chosen boundary in the West. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...


Where South Africa differed from other countries is that while other countries were dismantling discriminatory legislation and were becoming more open on issues of race, South Africa was constructing a labyrinth of discriminatory racial legislation. That white South Africans considered the implementation of apartheid necessary may have been motivated by demographics; as a minority that was shrinking as a percentage of the total population, there was widespread unease at the thought of being swamped by the black majority, and of losing their identity through intermarriage if that were permitted. Demography is the study of human population dynamics. ...

The original architects of apartheid gathered around a map of a planned township.
The original architects of apartheid gathered around a map of a planned township.

The original architects of apartheid. ... The original architects of apartheid. ... The term township generally means the district or area associated with a town. ...

History of apartheid in South Africa

The earliest inhabitants of South Africa were the Khoisan. Bantu speakers migrating southwards originally from Cameroon had reached South Africa by c. 1000 with the Sotho-Tswana and Nguni having settled the Highveld and coastal plains respectively by c. 1600. The 17th century onwards saw the arrival of Europeans, initially the Dutch, German and French Huguenot ancestors of the Afrikaners. The English followed in the 19th century. (Subsequently immigrants from all over the world have come to South Africa.) The English dominated the other population groups through military and political control and the control of land and wealth, similar to the general situtation in other British colonies. Following the establishment of the Union of South Africa the Afrikaners grew in political power replacing the English as the dominant group as a result of the victory of the National Party in the general election of 1948. Following this, a large number of laws were enacted, further instituting the dominance of white people over other groups. The 1948 election was won despite the National Party having lost the popular vote because of gerrymandered voting districts overrepresenting the rural, farming areas that depended on cheap unskilled black labour. This article is about the Khoisan ethnic group. ... Map showing the approximate distribution of Bantu (dull yellow) vs. ... The Sotho-speaking people have lived in southern Africa since around 15th century. ... Tswana, also known as Setswana, is a Bantu language. ... For the cattle breed see Nguni cattle. ... The Highveld is a high plateau area of South Africa which includes the largest metropolitan area in the country, Johannesburg. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ... Huguenot - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Afrikaners (sometimes known as Boers) are white South Africans, predominantly of Calvinist German, French Huguenot, Friesian and Walloons descent who speak Afrikaans. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831 377/km² Ethnicity... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831 377/km² Ethnicity... Politics is the process and method of making decisions for groups. ... In politics and in history, a colony is a territory under the immediate political control of a geographically-distant state (or city, in ancient times). ... Union of South Africa is also the name of a LNER Class A4 locomotive, preserved on the Severn Valley Railway The Union of South Africa came into being on May 31, 1910 when the old Cape Colony and Natal Colony were combined with the defeated South African Republic and Orange... The National Party (with its members sometimes known as Nationalists or Nats) was the governing party of South Africa from 1948 until 1994, and was disbanded in 2005. ... An election is a decision making process whereby people vote for preferred political candidates or parties to act as representatives in government. ... 1948 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1948 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... The National Party (with its members sometimes known as Nationalists or Nats) was the governing party of South Africa from 1948 until 1994, and was disbanded in 2005. ... Redrawing electoral districts in this example creates a guaranteed 3-to-1 advantage for Party 1. ...


The principal apartheid laws were as follows:

South African police officers standing over people killed in the Sharpeville Massacre.
South African police officers standing over people killed in the Sharpeville Massacre.

On 21 March 1960, 20,000 black people congregated in Sharpeville to demonstrate against the requirement for blacks to carry identity cards (under the stipulations of the Pass Law). Police opened fire on the demonstrators, killing 69 and injuring 180. All the victims were black. Most of them had been shot in the back. Colonel J. Pienaar, the senior police officer in charge on the day, was quoted as saying Apartheid (ap-ar-taet) is the policy and the system of laws implemented and enforced by White minority governments in South Africa from 1948 till 1990; and by extension any legally sanctioned system of racial segregation. ... 1949 is a common year starting on Saturday. ... The Immorality Act was one of the most controversial legislative acts of South African Apartheid. ... 1950 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... for other uses please see Crime (disambiguation) A crime is an act that violates a political or moral law. ... Sexual behavior is a form of physical intimacy that may be directed to reproduction (one possible goal of sexual intercourse), spiritual transcendence, and/or to the enjoyment of any activity involving sexual gratification. ... The Population Registration Act of 1950 required that all inhabitants of South Africa be classified in accordance with their racial characteristics as part of the system of apartheid. ... Citizenship is membership in a political community (originally a city but now a state), and carries with it rights to political participation; a person having such membership is a citizen. ... The 1950 Suppression of Communism Act was legislation of the National government in South Africa. ... A political party is a political organization that subscribes to a certain ideology and seeks to attain political power within a government. ... This article is about communism as a form of society built around a gift economy, as an ideology that advocates that form of society, and as a popular movement. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... 1950 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The term urban means cities and towns as distinct from rural areas. ... 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Flush toilet A toilet is a plumbing fixture devised for the disposal of bodily wastes, including urine, feces, menses and vomit. ... Bantu Education Act of 1953. ... The Mines and Work Act was a piece of legislation in South Africa, passed in 1956, that reserved skilled labour for European settlers and their descendants. ... 1956 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... To discriminate is to make a distinction. ... Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. ... 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bantustan refers to any of the territories designated as tribal homelands for black South Africans during the Apartheid era. ... 1971 is a common year starting on Friday (click for link to calendar). ... For the direction right, see left and right or starboard. ... Police and the Sharpeville Massacre File links The following pages link to this file: History of South Africa User:PZFUN/test Categories: Non-commercial use only images ... Police and the Sharpeville Massacre File links The following pages link to this file: History of South Africa User:PZFUN/test Categories: Non-commercial use only images ... For the band, see The Police. ... The Sharpeville Massacre occurred on March 21, 1960, when South African police opened fire on a crowd of black protesters. ... March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (81st in leap years). ... 1960 was a leap year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Sharpeville is black township set up by the then apartheid government in southern Gauteng, South Africa between two large industrial cities of Vanderbijlpark and Vereeniging. ... The Pass Laws Act of 1952 made it compulsory for all black South Africans over the age of 16 to carry a pass book, at all times. ... 1923 - The Native Urban Areas Act is passed by British Governors in South Africa - which deems the urban areas white & forces all African men in cities & towns to carry permits called passes at all times. ...

"Hordes of natives surrounded the police station. My car was struck with a stone. If they do these things they must learn their lesson the hard way."

The event became known as the Sharpeville Massacre. In its aftermath the government banned the African National Congress (ANC) and the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC). The Sharpeville Massacre occurred on March 21, 1960, when South African police opened fire on a crowd of black protesters. ... The African National Congress (ANC), a center-left political party was originally (until 1923)called the South African Native National Congress and has been South Africas governing party (in a coalition) since the establishment of majority rule in May 1994. ... The Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) (later the Pan Africanist Congress of Azania), was a South African liberation movement, that is now a minor political party. ...


The event led to a great change in the ANC tactics, switching from nonviolent means to violent means. Although their units detonated bombs in government buildings over the next years, the ANC and PAC were not a military threat to the state, which had a monopoly of modern weapons. Small Arms See also List of firearms Small Arms (Pistols) Semi-automatic handgun Beretta Beretta 92F/FS (M9) Colt Model 1900 Model 1902 Sporting Model 1902 Military Model 1903 Pocket Hammerless Model 1903 Pocket Hammer Model 1905 Military Model 1907 Military Model 1908 Vest Pocket Model 1908 Pocket Hammerless Model...


The United Nations General Assembly passed Resolution 1761 on 6 November 1962 which condemned South Africa's racist apartheid policies and called for all UN member states to cease military and economic relations with South Africa. The United Nations, or UN, is an international organization established in 1945 and now made up of 191 states. ... The term general assembly can refer to The largest unit of organisation in the polity of a (national) Presbyterian church, containing several synods or presbyteries. ... United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1761 was passed on 6 November 1962 in response to the racist policies of apartheid established by the South African Government. ... November 6 is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 55 days remaining. ... 1962 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... There are currently 191 member states in the United Nations. ... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ...


In 1964 Nelson Mandela,deputy leader of the ANC, was sentenced to life imprisonment. 1964 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... President Nelson Mandela, 1995-1999 Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, OM CC, (18 July 1918 –) was the first democratically-elected President of South Africa. ... Life imprisonment is a term used for a particular kind of sentence of imprisonment. ...


In 1974 the government issued the Afrikaans Medium Decree which forced all schools to use the Afrikaans language when teaching blacks mathematics, social sciences, geography and history at the secondary school level. Punt Janson, the Deputy Minister of Bantu Education was quoted as saying: "I have not consulted the African people on the language issue and I'm not going to. An African might find that 'the big boss' only spoke Afrikaans or only spoke English. It would be to his advantage to know both languages." 1974 is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). ... Afrikaans is a West Germanic language mainly spoken in South Africa and Namibia. ... Mathematics is the study of quantity, structure, space and change. ... The social sciences comprise the claimed application of scientific methods to the study of the human aspects of the world. ... History Forums - History is Happening -Discuss all historical topics, as well as current events, in an academic setting. ... Japanese high school students in uniform Secondary education is a period of education which follows directly after primary education (such as intermediate school or elementary school), and which may be followed by tertiary or post-secondary education. ... In Canada, a Deputy Minister is the senior civil servant in a government department and assists the Minister of the department who is a member of the Canadian Cabinet. ... Map showing the approximate distribution of Bantu (dull yellow) vs. ...

Famous photograph of the Soweto Riots.
Famous photograph of the Soweto Riots.

The policy was deeply unpopular. On 30 April 1976, children at Orlando West Junior School in Soweto went on strike, refusing to go to school. Their rebellion spread to other schools in Soweto. The students organised a mass rally for 16 June 1976, which turned violent — police responded with bullets to stones thrown by children. Hector Pieterson, aged 12, was one of the first of 566 children who died at the hands of the police. The incident triggered widespread violence throughout South Africa, which claimed further lives. Riots in Soweto. ... Riots in Soweto. ... Johannesburg, including Soweto, from the International Space Station Soweto is an urban area in Johannesburg, in Gauteng province South Africa. ... Riots in Newark, New Jersey Riots occur when crowds of people have gathered and are committing crimes or acts of violence. ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining, as the last day in April. ... 1976 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Johannesburg, including Soweto, from the International Space Station Soweto is an urban area in Johannesburg, in Gauteng province South Africa. ... June 16 is the 167th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (168th in leap years), with 198 days remaining. ... 1976 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Hector Pieterson (1964 - 16 June 1976) became the iconic image of the 1976 Soweto Uprising in apartheid South Africa when a news photograph by Sam Mzima of the dying Hector being carried by a fellow student, was published around the world. ...


Internationally, South Africa became isolated. Numerous conferences were held and the United Nations passed resolutions condemning South Africa, including the World Conference Against Racism in 1978 and 1983. An immense divestment movement started, pressuring investors to refuse to invest in South African companies or companies that did business with South Africa. South African sports teams were barred from participation in international events, and South African culture and tourism were boycotted. The United Nations, or UN, is an international organization established in 1945 and now made up of 191 states. ... The World Conference against Racism (WCAR) has been held three times: in 1978, 1983, and 2001. ... 1978 was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... 1983 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Divestment (divestiture) is a term in finance and economics. ... A boycott is a refusal to buy, sell, or otherwise trade with an individual or business who is generally believed by the participants in the boycott to be doing something morally wrong. ...


These international movements, combined with internal troubles, persuaded the South African government that its hard-line policies were untenable, and in 1984 some reforms were introduced. Many of the apartheid laws were repealed, and a new constitution was introduced which gave limited representation to certain non-whites, although not to the black majority. The violence continued throughout the 1980s. In the vernacular, hardline means taking an intellectual or political position that is extreme and uncompromising. ... 1984 is a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events and trends The 1980s marked an abrupt shift towards more conservative lifestyles after the momentous cultural revolutions which took place in the 1960s and 1970s and the definition of the AIDS virus in 1981. ...

Police in Alexandra Township, 1985.
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Police in Alexandra Township, 1985.

The most violent time of the 1980s were 1985-1988, when the P.W. Botha government embarked on a savage campaign to eliminate opposition. For three years police and soldiers patrolled South African towns in armed vehicles, destroying black squatter camps and detaining, abusing and killing thousands of blacks and coloureds. Rigid censorship laws tried to conceal the events by banning media and newspaper coverage. South African police at Alexandra Township in 1985. ... South African police at Alexandra Township in 1985. ... 1985 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1988 is a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1989, F. W. de Klerk succeeded P. W. Botha as president. On 2 February 1990, at the opening of Parliament, he declared that apartheid had failed and that the bans on political parties, including the ANC, were to be lifted. Nelson Mandela was released from prison. De Klerk went on to abolish all the remaining apartheid laws. A period of political instability ensued. More South Africans died from political violence from 1990 to 1994 than in the preceding 42 years. 1989 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... President F.W. de Klerk Frederik Willem de Klerk (born March 18, 1936) is a former President of South Africa, serving from September 1989 to May 1994. ... P.W. Botha Pieter Willem Botha, (born January 12, 1916) commonly known as P.W. and as die groot krokodil (the big crocodile) or die ou krokodil (the old crocodile) was Prime Minister of South Africa from 1978 to 1984 and State President of South Africa from 1984 to 1989. ... February 2 is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1990 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The debating chamber or hemicycle of the European Parliament in Brussels. ...


On March 10, 1994, Nelson Mandela was sworn in as president of South Africa before a euphoric crowd. Among his first actions were rewriting the constitution and setting up the Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate abuses from the apartheid era. In the preceding all-race elections, Mandela's ANC won a landslide victory, effectively terminating the apartheid era. March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (70th in Leap years). ... 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was a court-like body assembled in South Africa after the end of Apartheid. ... The African National Congress (ANC), a center-left political party was originally (until 1923)called the South African Native National Congress and has been South Africas governing party (in a coalition) since the establishment of majority rule in May 1994. ...


On April 15, 2003, President Thabo Mbeki announced that the South African government would pay 660 million rand (85 million US dollars) to about 22,000 people who were tortured, detained, or lost family members under apartheid rule. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission had recommended the government pay 3 billion rand in compensation, over the next five years. April 15 is the 105th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (106th in leap years). ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... President Thabo Mbeki Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki (born June 18, 1942) is the President of the Republic of South Africa. ...


Apartheid in international law

South African apartheid was condemned internationally as unjust and racist. In 1973 the General Assembly of the United Nations agreed the text of the International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid. The immediate intention of the Convention was to provide a formal legal framework within which member states could apply sanctions to press the South African government to change its policies. However, the Convention was phrased in general terms, with the express intention of prohibiting any other state from adopting analogous policies. The Convention came into force in 1976. 1973 was a common year starting on Monday. ... United Nations General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations. ... 1976 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Article II of the Convention defines apartheid as follows:


For the purpose of the present Convention, the term "the crime of apartheid", which shall include similar policies and practices of racial segregation and discrimination as practised in southern Africa, shall apply to the following inhuman acts committed for the purpose of establishing and maintaining domination by one racial group of persons over any other racial group of persons and systematically oppressing them:

(a) Denial to a member or members of a racial group or groups of the right to life and liberty of person
(i) By murder of members of a racial group or groups;
(ii) By the infliction upon the members of a racial group or groups of serious bodily or mental harm, by the infringement of their freedom or dignity, or by subjecting them to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment;
(iii) By arbitrary arrest and illegal imprisonment of the members of a racial group or groups;
(b) Deliberate imposition on a racial group or groups of living conditions calculated to cause its or their physical destruction in whole or in part;
(c) Any legislative measures and other measures calculated to prevent a racial group or groups from participation in the political, social, economic and cultural life of the country and the deliberate creation of conditions preventing the full development of such a group or groups, in particular by denying to members of a racial group or groups basic human rights and freedoms, including the right to work, the right to form recognised trade unions, the right to education, the right to leave and to return to their country, the right to a nationality, the right to freedom of movement and residence, the right to freedom of opinion and expression, and the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association;
(d) Any measures including legislative measures, designed to divide the population along racial lines by the creation of separate reserves and ghettos for the members of a racial group or groups, the prohibition of mixed marriages among members of various racial groups, the expropriation of landed property belonging to a racial group or groups or to members thereof;
(e) Exploitation of the labour of the members of a racial group or groups, in particular by submitting them to forced labour;
(f) Persecution of organisations and persons, by depriving them of fundamental rights and freedoms, because they oppose apartheid.

The crime was also defined in the formation of the International Criminal Court: The International Criminal Court (ICC) was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes, as defined by several international agreements, most prominently the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. ...

"The crime of apartheid" means inhumane acts of a character similar to those referred to in paragraph 1, committed in the context of an institutionalised regime of systematic oppression and domination by one racial group over any other racial group or groups and committed with the intention of maintaining that regime [1]

Allegations of apartheid and institutionalized racism in other nations

Controversially, arguments are often made that the actions of other nations are analogous to apartheid in South Africa, or constitute apartheid under the definition adopted in international law. In particular, racial segregation was the law in the American South until the mid-1960s. International law deals with the relationships between states, or between persons or entities in different states. ... Racial segregation is a kind of formalized or institutionalized discrimination on the basis of race, characterized by the races separation from each other. ...


Some Basques have argued that the Navarrese laws (in Spain) that do not grant official status to the Basque language are a form of apartheid. Supporters of Batasuna also call its illegalisation "apartheid". Navarre (Spanish Navarra, Basque Nafarroa) is an autonomous community and province of Spain. ... Basque (Euskara in Basque) is the language spoken by the Basque people, who live in northern Spain and the adjoining area of southwestern France. ... Batasuna (Unity) is a Basque political party based mainly in Spain but with a French presence, which is presumed to be associated with the Basque separatist armed group ETA. It has been banned in Spain since 2003, ostensibly for failing to condemn the atrocities of ETA, but is not illegal...


The State of Jordan's Constitution denies Jews citizenship. Saudi Arabia denies citizenship not only to Jews, but to Christians as well, and non-Muslims are not permitted to reside permanently in the country. [2] The term Christian means belonging to Christ and is derived from the Greek noun Χριστός Khristós which means anointed one, which is itself a translation of the Hebrew word Moshiach (Hebrew: משיח, also written Messiah), (and in Arabic it is pronounced Maseeh مسيح). Christian is primarily an adjective, describing an object associated...


The Israeli West Bank barrier is often referred to by critics as the Apartheid wall, and some critics of Israel refer to it as a "racist" and/or "Apartheid" state. The barrier route as of February 2005 The Israeli West Bank barrier (also called the West Bank security fence by its supporters, or West Bank wall by its opponents) is a physical barrier consisting of a network of fences, walls, and trenches, which is being constructed by Israel. ...


Saudi Arabia's discriminatory practices against women and non-Muslim minorities can also be described as forms of apartheid (see also [3] for Human Rights Watch report).


Global Apartheid

Global apartheid is the view that rich democratic Western nations are acting in much the same way as white South Africa, by exploiting or ignoring the plight of people in developing countries. White South Africans justified their actions by citing black South Africans as nominally removed from them in terms of geography and therefore citizens of another territory.


See also

Afrikaner Calvinism is a unique cultural development that combined the Calvinist religion with the political aspirations of the white Afrikaans speaking people of South Africa. ... The word Caste is derived from the Portuguese word casta, meaning lineage, breed or race. ... Archbishop Desmond Tutu Desmond Mpilo Tutu (b. ... To discriminate is to make a distinction. ... The history of South Africa encompasses over three million years. ... Integration may be any of the following: Usually integration is the construction of an object, a theory, etc. ... A depiction of T.D. Rices Jim Crow In the United States, the so-called Jim Crow laws were made to enforce racial segregation, and included laws that would prevent African Americans from doing things that a white person could do. ... Sir Laurens Jan van der Post by Frances Baruch Sir Laurens Jan van der Post (aka Laurens van der Post) December 13, 1906 - December 16, 1996. ... Minoritarianism (often also called minority rule) is a political philosophy or agenda which asserts that a segment of a countrys population (sometimes categorized by religion, language or some other identifying factor) to which a minority of its citizens belong is entitled to obstruct political progress sought by a majority... Multiculturalism is a policy, that emphasizes the unique characteristics of different cultures in the world, especially as they relate to one another in receiving nations. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... President Nelson Mandela, 1995-1999 Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, OM CC, (18 July 1918 –) was the first democratically-elected President of South Africa. ... Pieter-Dirk Uys is a South African satirist, particularly well known for his character Evita Bezuidenhout, a white Afrikaner socialite and self-proclaimed political activist, inspired by Australian comedian Barry Humphries character Dame Edna Everage. ... Racism - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Racial segregation is a kind of formalized or institutionalized discrimination on the basis of race, characterized by the races separation from each other. ... Stephen Biko Stephen Bantu Biko (December 18, 1946–September 12, 1977) was a noted anti-apartheid nonviolent activist in South Africa in the 1960s. ... White supremacy is the variety of white nationalism that believes the white race should rule over other races. ...

External links

Look up Apartheid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary

  Results from FactBites:
 
Apartheid -- Africana (541 words)
The system of apartheid was enforced by a series of laws passed in the 1950s: the Group Areas Act of 1950 assigned races to different residential and business sections in urban areas, and the Land Acts of 1954 and 1955 restricted nonwhite residence to specific areas.
Though the implementation and enforcement of apartheid was accompanied by tremendous suppression of opposition, continual resistance to apartheid existed within South Africa.
Apartheid was also denounced by the international community: in 1961 South Africa was forced to withdraw from the British Commonwealth by member states who were critical of the apartheid system, and in 1985 the governments of the United States and Great Britain imposed selective economic sanctions on South Africa in protest of its racial policy.
The History of Apartheid in South Africa (737 words)
Initially, aim of the apartheid was to maintain white domination while extending racial separation.
With the enactment of apartheid laws in 1948, racial discrimination was institutionalized.
The apartheid policy was highly effective of achieving its goal of preferential treatment for whites, as is demonstrated by the statistics in Figure 1.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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