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Encyclopedia > Apache
Apache
Group of Apaches
Group of Apaches
Total population

5,000–6,000 Group of Apaches Source: NPS This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Group of Apaches Source: NPS This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ...

Regions with significant populations
Arizona, New Mexico and Oklahoma (USA.)
Languages
Apache
Religions
Shamanism
Related ethnic groups
Navajo

Apache culturally related groups of Native Americans in the United States. Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) None Capital Oklahoma City Largest city Oklahoma City Largest metro area Oklahoma City metro area Area  Ranked 20th  - Total 69,898 sq mi (181,196 km²)  - Width 230 miles (370 km)  - Length 298 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... Apachean, also known as Southern Athabaskan, refers to members of the Apachean language family (including Navajo) which is in turn a member of the larger Athabaskan family. ... A shaman doctor of Kyzyl. ... For other uses, see Navajo (disambiguation). ... Apache is the name of group or related Native American tribes. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ...


These indigenous peoples of North America speak a Southern Athabaskan (Apachean) language, and are related linguistically to the Athabaskan speakers of Alaska and western Canada. The modern term Apache excludes the related Navajo people. However, the Navajo and the other Apache groups are clearly related through culture and language and thus are considered Apachean. Apachean peoples formerly ranged over eastern Arizona, northwestern Mexico, New Mexico, parts of Texas, and a small group on the plains. The term indigenous people has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Southern Athabaskan (also Apachean) refers to members of the Athabaskan language family (including Navajo) spoken in the Northern American Southwest. ... Areas in which Athabaskan languages and Eyak and Tlingit are traditionally spoken Athabaskan or Athabascan (also Athapascan or Athapaskan) is the name of a large group of distantly related Native American peoples, also known as the Athabasca Indians or Athapaskes, located in two main Southern and Northern groups in western... Official language(s) None[1] Spoken language(s) English 85. ... Map of the Navajo Nation The Navajo Nation (Dineé in Navajo language) is a Native American sovereignty. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ...


There was little political unity among the Apachean groups. The groups spoke seven different languages. The current division of Apachean groups includes the Navajo, Western Apache, Chiricahua, Mescalero, Jicarilla, Lipan, and Plains Apache (formerly Kiowa-Apache). Apache groups are now in Oklahoma and Texas and on reservations in Arizona and New Mexico. The Navajo reside on a large reservation in the United States. Some Apacheans have moved to large metropolitan areas, such as New York City. The Navajo (also Navaho) people of the southwestern United States call themselves the Diné (pronounced ), which roughly means the people. They speak the Navajo language, and many are members of the Navajo Nation, an independent government structure which manages the Navajo reservation in the Four Cs area of the United... Links Western Apache-English Dictionary (White Mountain) White Mountain Apache Tribe (Arizona Intertribal Council) San Carlos Apache Tribe (Arizona Intertribal Council) Tonto Apache Tribe (Arizona Intertribal Council) Yavapai-Apache Nation Official Website Yavapai-Apache Nation (Arizona Intertribal Council) White Mountain Apache Tribe White Mountain Apache photographs map of Fort Apache... For other uses, see Chiricahua (disambiguation). ... Gorgonia, Mescalero Medicine Man This article is about the Native American tribe; for other uses of the word see Mescalero (disambiguation). ... Jicarilla Apache refers to an Apache people currently living in New Mexico and to the Southern Athabaskan language they speak. ... the apaches are freaking awesome!!! oH sNap its morgan<3 ... Essa-queta, Plains Apache chief The Plains Apache (also Kiowa-Apache, Naʼisha, Naisha) are a Southern Athabaskan group that lived primarily on the plains of North America along the Kiowa. ...


The Apachean tribes were historically very powerful, constantly at enmity with the Spaniards and Mexicans for centuries. The first Apache raids on Sonora appear to have taken place during the late 17th century. The U.S. Army, in their various confrontations, found them to be fierce warriors and skillful strategists. Sonora is a state in northwestern Mexico, bordering the states of Chihuahua to the east, Sinaloa to the south, and Baja California to the northwest. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... For other uses, see Warrior (disambiguation). ...


The warfare between Apachean peoples and Euro-Americans has led to a stereotypical focus on certain aspects of Apachean cultures that are often distorted through misperception as noted by anthropologist Keith Basso (1983: 462):

"Of the hundreds of peoples that lived and flourished in native North America, few have been so consistently misrepresented as the Apacheans of Arizona and New Mexico. Glorified by novelists, sensationalized by historians, and distorted beyond credulity by commercial film makers, the popular image of 'the Apache' — a brutish, terrifying semihuman bent upon wanton death and destruction — is almost entirely a product of irresponsible caricature and exaggeration. Indeed, there can be little doubt that the Apache has been transformed from a native American into an American legend, the fanciful and fallacious creation of a non-Indian citizenry whose inability to recognize the massive treachery of ethnic and cultural stereotypes has been matched only by its willingness to sustain and inflate them."

Contents

Present-day Apache groups

Apachean tribes ca. 18th century (WA - Western Apache, N - Navajo, Ch - Chiricahua, M - Mescalero, J - Jicarilla, L - Lipan, Pl - Plains Apache
Apachean tribes ca. 18th century (WA - Western Apache, N - Navajo, Ch - Chiricahua, M - Mescalero, J - Jicarilla, L - Lipan, Pl - Plains Apache
Present-day primary locations of Apachean peoples
Present-day primary locations of Apachean peoples

The present-day Apache groups include the Jicarilla and Mescalero of New Mexico, the Chiricahua of the Arizona-New Mexico border area, the Western Apache of Arizona, the Lipan Apache of southwestern Texas, and the Plains Apache of Oklahoma. There undoubtedly existed other Apache groups which are not as well-known by modern anthropologists and historians. (See also Navajo.) Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (858x726, 73 KB) // Apachean tribes ca. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (858x726, 73 KB) // Apachean tribes ca. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1173x574, 108 KB) // The present-day primary locations of Apachean peoples (including reservations and cities) Note that here Navajo is included as Apachean. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1173x574, 108 KB) // The present-day primary locations of Apachean peoples (including reservations and cities) Note that here Navajo is included as Apachean. ... Jicarilla Apache refers to an Apache people currently living in New Mexico and to the Southern Athabaskan language they speak. ... Gorgonia, Mescalero Medicine Man This article is about the Native American tribe; for other uses of the word see Mescalero (disambiguation). ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... For other uses, see Chiricahua (disambiguation). ... Links Western Apache-English Dictionary (White Mountain) White Mountain Apache Tribe (Arizona Intertribal Council) San Carlos Apache Tribe (Arizona Intertribal Council) Tonto Apache Tribe (Arizona Intertribal Council) Yavapai-Apache Nation Official Website Yavapai-Apache Nation (Arizona Intertribal Council) White Mountain Apache Tribe White Mountain Apache photographs map of Fort Apache... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... Lipan Apache are also known as Nde buffalo hunters, called by anthropologists and historians for many years as Eastern Apache, Apache de los Llanos, Lipan, Ipande, and other names. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Essa-queta, Plains Apache chief The Plains Apache (also Kiowa-Apache, Naʼisha, Naisha) are a Southern Athabaskan group that lived primarily on the plains of North America along the Kiowa. ... Official language(s) None Capital Oklahoma City Largest city Oklahoma City Largest metro area Oklahoma City metro area Area  Ranked 20th  - Total 69,898 sq mi (181,196 km²)  - Width 230 miles (370 km)  - Length 298 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... For other uses, see Navajo (disambiguation). ...


Western Apaches are the only Apache group that remains within Arizona. The group is divided into a number of reservations that crosscut cultural divisions. The Western Apache reservations include the Fort Apache White Mountain, San Carlos, Yavapai-Apache, Tonto-Apache, and Fort McDowell Mohave-Apache reservations. There are also Apaches on the Yavapai-Prescott reservation and off-reservation in Arizona and throughout the United States. The White Mountain Apache Tribe is located in the east central region of Arizona, 194 miles northeast of Phoenix. The Tonto Apache Reservation was created in 1972 near Payson in eastern Arizona. Within the Tonto National Forest northeast of Phoenix it consists of 85 acres (344,000 m²) and serves about 100 tribal members. The tribe operates a casino. The Yavapai-Apache Nation Reservation southwest of Flagstaff, Arizona is shared with the Yavapai. There is a visitor center in Camp Verde, Arizona and at the end of February an Exodus Days celebration with a historic re-enactment and a pow-wow. Nickname: Location in Maricopa County and the state of Arizona Coordinates: , Country State Counties Maricopa Incorporated February 25, 1881 Government  - Type Council-Manager  - Mayor Phil Gordon (D) Area  - City  515. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... At 2,969,602 acres (12,018 km²), Tonto National Forest is the largest of the six national forests in Arizona, and has interesting, diverse scenery, with elevation ranging from 1,400 feet (427 m) in the Sonoran Desert to pine-forested mountains on the Mogollon Rim (pronounced muggy-own... Nickname: Location in Maricopa County and the state of Arizona Coordinates: , Country State Counties Maricopa Incorporated February 25, 1881 Government  - Type Council-Manager  - Mayor Phil Gordon (D) Area  - City  515. ... This article is about the unit of measure known as the acre. ... In 1987 the U.S. Supreme Court recognized that as sovereign political entities, Native American tribes could operate gaming facilities free of state regulation. ... Nickname: Location in Coconino County the state of Arizona Coordinates: , Country State County Coconino County Government  - Mayor Joseph C. Donaldson Area  - City  98. ... This article is about a Native American gathering. ...


The Chiricahua were divided into two groups after they were released from being prisoners of war. The majority moved to the Mescalero Reservation and are now subsumed under the larger Mescalero political group along with the Lipan. The other Chiricahuas remained in Oklahoma and eventually formed the Fort Sill Apache Tribe of Oklahoma.


The Mescalero are located on the Mescalero Reservation in southeastern New Mexico, near historic Fort Stanton. Fort Stanton (built 1855) was a U.S. military fort built in New Mexico in the United States. ...


The Jicarilla are located on the Jicarilla Reservation in Rio Arriba and Sandoval counties in northwestern New Mexico. Rio Arriba County is a county located in the state of New Mexico. ... Sandoval County is a county located in the state of New Mexico. ...


The Lipan, now few in number, are located primarily on the Mescalero Reservation. Other Lipans live in Texas.


Plains Apaches are located in Oklahoma concentrated around Anadarko. Anadarko Townsite, Oklahoma Territory, August 8, 1901. ...


Name and synonymy

Name

The word Apache entered English via Spanish, but the ultimate origin is uncertain. The first known written record in Spanish is by Juan de Oñate in 1598. The most widely accepted origin theory suggests it was borrowed from the Zuni word ʔa·paču meaning "Navajos" (the plural of paču "Navajo") (Newman 1958, 1965; de Reuse 1983). [1] Don Juan de Oñate Salazar (1552 – 1626) was a Spanish explorer, colonial governor of the New Spain (present-day Mexico) province of New Mexico, and founder of various settlements in the present day Southwest of the United States. ... Zuni language Zuni (also Zuñi or Shiwi) is spoken by over 10,000 people in New Mexico and much smaller numbers in parts of Arizona. ...


Another theory suggests the term comes from Yavapai ʔpačə meaning "people". Yavapai is a Native American language quite similar to Havasupai and Walapai. ...


The Zuni and Yavapai sources are rendered less certain due to Oñate using the term before he had encountered any Zuni or Yavapai. (de Reuse 1983: 385).


Less likely origin may be from Spanish mapache "raccoon" (de Reuse 1983: 385).


Or from an unspecified Quechan word meaning "running warrior horse" [citation needed]. Yumas. ...


The Spanish first use the term "Apachu de Nabajo" (Navajo) in the 1620s, referring to people in the Chama region east of the San Juan River. By the 1640s, the term was applied to Southern Athabaskan peoples from the Chama on the east to the San Juan on the west. The Rio Chama is a major tributary river of the Rio Grande, located in the states of Colorado and New Mexico. ... The San Juan River may refer to: The San Juan River in Argentina. ...


The tribes' tenacity and fighting skills, probably bolstered by dime novels, had an impact on Europeans. In early twentieth century Parisian society Apache essentially meant an outlaw. An example of the original dime novel series, circa 1860. ...


Difficulties in naming

Essa-queta, Plains Apache chief

Many written historical names of Apachean groups recorded by non-Apacheans are difficult to match to modern-day tribes or their sub groups. Many Spanish, French or English speaking authors over the centuries did not distinguish between Apachean and other semi-nomadic non-Apachean peoples that might pass through the same area. More commonly a name was acquired through a translation of what another group called them. While Anthropologists seem to agree on some traditional major sub grouping of Apaches, they often have used different criteria to name their finer divisions and these do not always match modern Apache groupings. Often groups residing in what is now Mexico are not considered Apaches by some. Adding to an outsider's confusion, an Apachean individual has different ways to identify themselves, such as their band or their clans, depending upon the context. ImageMetadata File history File links Kiowa_Apache_Essa-queta. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Kiowa_Apache_Essa-queta. ... Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ...


For example, Grenville Goodwin in the 1930s divided the Western Apaches into five groups (based on his informants' views on dialectal and cultural differences): White Mountain, Cibecue, San Carlos, North Tonto, and South Tonto. Other anthropologists (e.g. Albert Schroeder) consider Goodwin's classification inconsistent with pre-reservation cultural divisions. Willem de Reuse (2003, 2005, 2006) finds linguistic evidence supporting only three major groupings: White Mountain, San Carlos, and Dilze’e (Tonto) with San Carlos as the most divergent dialect and Dilze’e as a remnant intermediate member of a dialect continuum previously existing between the Western Apache language and Navajo.


John Upton Terrell divides the Apaches into Western and Eastern groups. In the western group he includes Toboso, Cholome, Jocome, Sibolo, Pelone, Manso as having definite Apache connections or names associated with Apaches by the Spanish.


David M. Brugge in a detailed study of New Mexico Church records lists 15 tribal names Spanish used that refer Apaches that represent about 1000 baptisms from 1704 to 1862.


List of names

The list below is based on Foster &McCollough (2001), Opler (1983b, 1983c, 2001), and de Reuse (1983).

  • Arivaipa (also Aravaipa) is a band of the San Carlos local group of the Western Apache. Albert Schroeder believes the Arivaipa was a separate section in pre-reservation times. Arivaipa *is a borrowing (via Spanish) from the O'odham language. The Arivaipa are known as Tsézhiné "Black Rock" in the Western Apache language.
  • Carlanas (also Carlanes). An Apache group southeastern Colorado on Raton Mesa. In 1726, they had joined together with the Cuartelejos and Palomas, and by the 1730s were living with the Jicarilla. It has been suggested that either the Llanero band of the modern Jicarilla or Mooney's Dáchizh-ó-zhn Jicarilla division are descendants of the Carlanas, Cuartelejos, and Palomas. The Carlanas as a whole were also called Sierra Blanca; parts of the group were called Lipiyanes or Llaneros. Otherwise, the term has been used synonymously with Jicarilla in 1812. The Flechas de Palo might have been a part of or absorbed by the Carlanas (or Cuartelejos).
  • Chiricahua. One of the 32.6 major Apachean groups, ranging in southeastern Arizona. (See also Chíshí.)
  • Chíshí (also Tchishi) is a Navajo word meaning "Chiricahua, southern Apaches in general".[2]
  • Chʼúúkʼanén (also Čʼókʼánéń, Čʼó·kʼanén, Chokonni, Cho-kon-nen, Cho Kŭnĕ́, Chokonen) refers to the Eastern Chiricahua band of Morris Opler. The name is an autonym from the Chiricahua language.
  • Cibecue. One of Goodwin's Western Apache groups, living to the North of the Salt River between the Tonto and White Mountain groups. Consisted of Canyon Creek, Carrizo, and Cibecue (proper) bands.
  • Coyotero usually refers to a southern division of the pre-reservation White Mountain local group of the Western Apache. However, the name has also been used more widely and can refer to Apaches in general, Western Apaches or a band in the high plains of southern Colorado to Kansas.
  • Faraones (also Paraonez, Sperm, Taraones, Taracones, Apaches Faraone) is derived from Spanish Faraón "Pharaoh". Before 1700, the name was vague without a specific referent. Between 1720-1726, it referred to Apaches between the Rio Grande in the east, the Pecos River in the west, the area around Santa Fe in the north, and the Conchos River in the south. After 1726, Faraones only referred to the north and central parts of this region. The Faraones probably were, at least in part, part of the modern-day Mescaleros or had merged with the Mescaleros. After 1814, the term Faraones disappeared having been replaced by Mescalero.
  • The Gileño (also Apaches de Gila, Apaches de Xila, Apaches de la Sierra de Gila, Xileños, Gilenas, Gilans, Gilanians, Gila Apache, Gilleños) was used to refer to several different Apachean and non-Apachean groups at different times. Gila refers to either the Gila River or the Gila Mountains. Some of the Gila Apaches were probably later known as the Mogollon Apaches, a subdivision of the Chiricahua, while others probably evolved into the Chiricahua proper. However, since the term was used indiscriminately for all Apachean groups west of the Rio Grande (i.e. in southeast Arizona and western New Mexico), the referent is often unclear. After 1722, Spanish documents start to distinguish between these different groups, in which case Apaches de Gila refers to Western Apaches living along the Gila River (and thus synonymous with Coyotero). American writers first used the term to refer to the Mimbres (another subdivision of the Chiricahua), while later the term was confusingly used to refer to Coyoteros, Mogollones, Tontos, Mimbreños, Pinaleños, Chiricahuas, as well as the non-Apachean Yavapai (then also known as Garroteros or Yabipais Gileños). Another Spanish usage (along with Pimas Gileños and Pimas Cileños) referred to the non-Apachean Pima living on the Gila River.
  • Jicarilla (from Spanish meaning "little basket"). The Jicarilla Apache are one of the 7 major Apachean groups and currently live in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado. Also referenced as living in Texas Panhandle.
  • Kiowa-Apache. See Plains Apache.
  • Llanero is a borrowing from Spanish meaning "plains dweller". The name was historically used to refer to a number of different groups that hunted buffalo seasonally on the Plains, also referenced in eastern New Mexico and western Texas. (See also Carlanas.)
  • Lipiyánes (also Lipiyán, Lipillanes). An uncertain term, probably of Athabascan origin, that may have been a synonym of Llanero or Natagés. This term is not to be confused with Lipan.
  • Lipan (also Ypandis, Ypandes, Ipandes, Ipandi, Lipanes, Lipanos, Lipaines, Lapane, Lipanis, etc.). One of the 7 major Apachean peoples. Once in eastern New Mexico and Texas to the southeast to Gulf of Mexico. This term is not to be confused with Lipiyánes or Le Panis (French for the Pawnee). First mentioned in 1718 around the new town of San Antonio.
  • Mescalero. The Mescalero are one of the 7 major Apachean groups, generally living in what is now eastern New Mexico and western Texas.
  • Mimbreños is an older name that refers to a section of Opler's Eastern Chiricahua band and to Albert Schroeder's Mimbres and Warm Springs Chiricahua bands (Opler lists three Chiricahua bands, while Schroeder lists five) in southwestern New Mexico.
  • Mogollon was considered by Schroeder a separate pre-reservation Chiricahua band while Opler considered the Mogollon to be part of his Eastern Chiricahua band in New Mexico.
  • Náʼįįsha (also Náʼęsha, Na´isha, Naʼisha, Naʼishandine, Na-i-shan-dina, Na-ishi, Na-e-ca, Nąʼishą́, Nadeicha, Nardichia, Nadíisha-déna, Naʼdíʼį́shą́ʼ, Nądíʼįįshąą, Naisha) all refer to the Plains Apache (see Kiowa).
  • Natagés (also Natagees, Apaches del Natafé, Natagêes, Yabipais Natagé, Natageses, Natajes). Term used 1726-1820 to refer to the Faraón, Sierra Blanca, and Siete Ríos Apaches of southeastern New Mexico. In 1745, the Natagés are reported to have consisted of the Mescaleros (around El Paso and the Organ Mountains) and the Salineros (around Rio Salado), but these were probably the same group. After 1749, the term was used synonymously with Mescalero, which eventually replaced it.
  • Navajo. The most numerous of the 7 major Apachean groups. General modern usage separates Navajo people from Apaches.
  • Pinal (also Pinaleños). One of the bands of the Goodwin's San Carlos group of Western Apache. Also used along with Coyotero to refer more generally to one of two major Western Apache divisions. Some Pinaleños were referred to by Gila Apaches.
  • Plains Apache. The Plains Apache (also called Kiowa-Apache, Naisha, Naʼishandine, etc.) are one of the 7 major Apachean groups, generally living in what is now Oklahoma. In historic times, they were found living among the (unrelated) Kiowa. The term has also been used to refer to any supposed Apachean tribe found on or associated (usually culturally) with the North American Plains.
  • Ramah. A group of Navajos currently living in the Ramah Navajo Indian Reservation in New Mexico. (The Navajo name for Ramah, NM is Tłʼohchiní meaning "wild onion place").
  • Querechos referred to by Coronado in 1541, possibly Plains Apaches, at times maybe Navajo. Other early Spanish might have also called them Vaquereo or Llanero.
  • San Carlos. A Western Apache group that ranged closest to Tucson according to Goodwin. This group consisted of the Apache Peaks, Arivaipa, Pinal, San Carlos (proper) bands.
  • Tchikun.
  • Tonto. Goodwin divided into Northern Tonto and Southern Tonto groups. Living in the north and west most areas of the Western Apache groups according to Goodwin. This is north of Phoenix, north of the Verde River. Schroeder has suggested that the Tonto are originally Yavapais who assimilated Western Apache culture. Tonto is one of the major dialects of the Western Apache language. Tonto Apache speakers are traditionally bilingual in Western Apache and Yavapai. Goodwin's Northern Tonto consisted of Bald Mountain, Fossil Creek, Mormon Lake, and Oak Creek bands; Southern Tonto consisted of the Mazatzal band and unidentified "semi-bands".
  • Warm Springs were located on upper reaches of Gila River, New Mexico. (See also Gileño and Mimbreños.)
  • Western Apache. In the most common sense, includes Northern Tonto, Southern Tonto, Cibecue, White Mountain and San Carlos groups. While these subgroups spoke the same language and had kinship ties, Western Apaches considered themselves as separate from each other, according to Goodwin. Other writers have used this term to refer to all non-Navajo Apachean peoples living west of the Rio Grande (thus failing to distinguish the Chiricahua from the other Apacheans). Goodwin's formulation: "all those Apache peoples who have lived within the present boundaries of the state of Arizona during historic times with the exception of the Chiricahua, Warm Springs, and allied Apache, and a small band of Apaches known as the Apache Mansos, who lived in the vicinity of Tucson" (Goodwin 1942: 55).
  • White Mountain. The easternmost group of the Western Apache according to Goodwin. Consisted of Eastern White Mountain and Western White Mountain bands.

For other uses, see Chiricahua (disambiguation). ... Jicarilla Apache refers to an Apache people currently living in New Mexico and to the Southern Athabaskan language they speak. ... Lipan Apache are also known as Nde buffalo hunters, called by anthropologists and historians for many years as Eastern Apache, Apache de los Llanos, Lipan, Ipande, and other names. ... Gorgonia, Mescalero Medicine Man This article is about the Native American tribe; for other uses of the word see Mescalero (disambiguation). ... Essa-queta, Plains Apache chief The Plains Apache (also Kiowa-Apache, Naʼisha, Naisha) are a Southern Athabaskan group that lived primarily on the plains of North America along the Kiowa. ... Links Western Apache-English Dictionary (White Mountain) White Mountain Apache Tribe (Arizona Intertribal Council) San Carlos Apache Tribe (Arizona Intertribal Council) Tonto Apache Tribe (Arizona Intertribal Council) Yavapai-Apache Nation Official Website Yavapai-Apache Nation (Arizona Intertribal Council) White Mountain Apache Tribe White Mountain Apache photographs map of Fort Apache... Oodham (often referred to by the names of its two nearly-identical main dialect groupings, Papago (Tohono) and Pima (Akimel)) is an Uto-Aztecan language of Southern Arizona and northern Sonora where the Tohono Oodham and Pima reside. ... The Western Apache language is a Southern Athabaskan language spoken by the Western Apache peoples living primarily in east central Arizona. ... James Mooney (1861-1921) was a notable anthropologist who lived for several years among the Cherokee. ... Morris Edward Opler (May 3, 1907-1996), American anthropologist and advocate of Japanese-American civil rights, was born in Buffalo, New York. ... An ethnonym (Gk. ... Chiricahua is a Southern Athabaskan language spoken by the Chiricahua tribe in Oklahoma and New Mexico. ... “Río Bravo” redirects here. ... Pecos River near Villanueva, New Mexico Pecos River near the Rio Grande Santa Rosa Lake and Dam on the Pecos River in Guadalupe County, New Mexico The Pecos River or Rio Pecos, as it is known in New Mexico, rises near Santa Fe, New Mexico, United States, and flows for... Nickname: Location in Santa Fe County, New Mexico Coordinates: , Country State County Santa Fe Founded ca. ... (Disambiguation: Rio Conchos is also a 1964 western movie featuring Richard Boone, Stuart Whitman, Tony Franciosa, Edmond OBrien, and Jim Brown. ... The Gila River, a tributary of the Colorado, is shown highlighted on a map of the United States The Gila River (Oodham [Pima]: Hila Akimel) is a tributary of the Colorado River, 630 mile (1,014 km) long, in the southwestern United States. ... “Río Bravo” redirects here. ... Languages Yavapai (three dialects of Upland Yuman language), English Religions Indigenous, Christianity Related ethnic groups Havasupai, Hualapai, Western Apache Footnotes ^ ... Yavapai (sometimes translated as mouthy, or talkative people, though many agree that it is a corruption of the Yuman word Nyavkopai - east people[2]) is an over-arching term for... The Akimel Oodham or Pima are a group of Native Americans living in an area consisting of what is now central and southern Arizona (USA) and Sonora (Mexico). ... Jicarilla Apache refers to an Apache people currently living in New Mexico and to the Southern Athabaskan language they speak. ... The Pawnee (also Paneassa, Pari, Pariki) are a Native American tribe that historically lived along the Platte, Loup and Republican Rivers in present-day Nebraska. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Texas Coordinates: Counties Bexar County Government  - Mayor Phil Hardberger Area  - City  412. ... Gorgonia, Mescalero Medicine Man This article is about the Native American tribe; for other uses of the word see Mescalero (disambiguation). ... This article needs cleanup. ... The Organ Mountains, looking east. ... The Salado River (Spanish Río Salado) may refer to: The Salado River (Río Salado) in Argentina, a tributary of the Paraná River. ... The Navajo (also Navaho) people of the southwestern United States call themselves the Diné (pronounced ), which roughly means the people. They speak the Navajo language, and many are members of the Navajo Nation, an independent government structure which manages the Navajo reservation in the Four Cs area of the United... Essa-queta, Plains Apache chief The Plains Apache (also Kiowa-Apache, Naʼisha, Naisha) are a Southern Athabaskan group that lived primarily on the plains of North America along the Kiowa. ... The Kiowa are a nation of Native Americans who lived mostly in the plains of west Texas, Oklahoma and eastern New Mexico at the time of the arrival of Europeans. ... The Ramah Navajo Indian Reservation is a non-contiguous section of the Navajo Nation lying in parts of west-central Cibola and southern McKinley Counties in New Mexico, USA, just east and southeast of the Zuni Indian Reservation. ... Yavapai is a Native American language quite similar to Havasupai and Walapai. ...

History

Entry into the Southwest

The Apache and Navajo (Diné) tribal groups of the American Southwest speak related languages of the language family referred to as Athabaskan. Other Athabaskan-speaking people in North America reside in an area from Alaska through west-central Canada, and some groups can be found along the Northwest Pacific Coast. Linguistic similarities indicate the Navajo and Apache were once a single ethnic group. Areas in which Athabaskan languages and Eyak and Tlingit are traditionally spoken Athabaskan or Athabascan (also Athapascan or Athapaskan) is the name of a large group of distantly related Native American peoples, also known as the Athabasca Indians or Athapaskes, located in two main Southern and Northern groups in western... Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ...


Archaeological and historical evidence seem to suggest the Southern Athabaskan entry into the American Southwest sometime after 1000 AD. Their nomadic way of life complicates accurate dating, primarily because they constructed less-substantial dwellings than other Southwestern groups. (Cordell, pl. 148) They also left behind a more austere set of tools and material goods. This group probably moved into areas that were concurrently or recently abandoned by other cultures. Other Athabaskan speakers, perhaps including the Southern Athabaskan, adapted many of their neighbors' technology and practices in their own cultures. Thus sites where early Southern Athabaskans may have lived are difficult to locate, and even more difficult to firmly identify as culturally Southern Athabaskan. Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words &#945;&#961;&#967;&#945;&#943;&#959;&#962; = ancient and &#955;&#972;&#947;&#959;&#962; = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ...


There are several hypotheses concerning Apachean migrations. One posits that they moved into the Southwest from the Great Plains. In the early 1500s, these mobile groups lived in tents, hunted bison and other game, and used dogs to pull travois loaded with their possessions. Substantial numbers and a wide range were recorded by the Spanish in the 16th Century. The Great Plains covers much of the central United States, portions of Canada and Mexico. ... Species †B. antiquus B. bison B. bonasus †B. latifrons †B. occidentalis †B. priscus Bison is a taxonomic group containing six species of large even-toed ungulates within the subfamily Bovinae. ... Cheyenne family using a horse-drawn travois, 1890 A travois (from the French travail, a frame for restraining horses) is a frame used by Native Americans, notably the Plains Indians of North America, to drag loads over land. ...


In April 1541, while traveling on the plains east of the Pueblo region, the Spanish Francisco Coronado called them “dog nomads.” He wrote: It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Pueblo Indians . ... Francisco Vásquez de Coronado (ca. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domestic subspecies of the wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. ... Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ...

After seventeen days of travel, I came upon a rancheria of the Indians who follow these cattle (bison). These natives are called Querechos. They do not cultivate the land, but eat raw meat and drink the blood of the cattle they kill. They dress in the skins of the cattle, with which all the people in this land clothe themselves, and they have very well-constructed tents, made with tanned and greased cowhides, in which they live and which they take along as they follow the cattle. They have dogs which they load to carry their tents, poles, and belongings. (ref: Hammond and Rey.)

The Spaniards described Plains dogs as very white, with black spots, and “not much larger than water spaniels.” Plains dogs were slightly smaller than those used for hauling loads by modern northern Canadian peoples. Recent experiments show these dogs may have pulled loads up to 50 lb (20 kg) on long trips, at rates as high as two or three miles an hour (3 to 5 km/h) (ref: Henderson). This Plains migration theory associates Apachean peoples with the Dismal River aspect, an archaeological culture known primarily from ceramics and house remains, dated 1675-1725 excavated in Nebraska, eastern Colorado, and western Kansas. For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... Most spaniels, like this English Cocker Spaniel, are small-to-medium dogs with drop ears and a longer coat. ... Officially the pound is the name for at least three different units of mass: The pound (avoirdupois). ... KG, kg or Kg can refer to several things: Kilogram, the SI base unit of mass. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... In archaeology, culture refers to either of two separate but allied concepts: An archaeological culture is a pattern of similar artefacts and features found within a specific area over a limited period of time. ... Official language(s) English Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Largest metro area Omaha Area  Ranked 16th  - Total 77,421 sq mi (200,520 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English[2] Capital Topeka Largest city Wichita Area  Ranked 15th  - Total 82,277 sq mi (213,096 km²)  - Width 211 miles (340 km)  - Length 417 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ...


Another competing theory posits migration south, through the Rocky Mountains, ultimately reaching the Southwest. Only the Plains Apache have any significant Plains cultural influence while all tribes have distinct Athabaskan characteristics. The descriptions of peoples such as the Mountain Querechos and the Apache Vaqueros are vague and could apply to many other Plains tribes and the specific traits of these groups do not seem particularly Apachean. Additionally, Harry Hoijer's classification of Plains Apache as an Apachean language has been disputed. Harry Hoijer Harry Hoijer (September 6, 1904 - March 11, 1976) was a linguist and anthropologist who worked on primarily Athabaskan languages and culture. ...


When the Spanish arrived in the area, trade between the long established Pueblo peoples and the Southern Athabaskans was well established. They reported the Pueblos exchanged maize and woven cotton goods for bison meat, hides and materials for stone tools. Coronado observed Plains people wintering near the Pueblos in established camps. Later Spanish sovereignty over the area disrupted trade between the Pueblos and the now diverging Apache and Navajo groups. The Apache quickly acquired horses, improving their mobility for quick raids on settlements. In addition, as the Pueblo were forced to work Spanish mission lands and care for mission flocks, they had fewer surplus goods to trade with their neighbors. (Cordell, p. 151) This article is about the maize plant. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ...


In 1540 Coronado also reported that the modern Western Apache area as uninhabited. Other Spaniards first mention "Querechos" living west of the Rio Grande in the 1580s. To some historians this implies the Apaches moved into their current southwestern homelands in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. Others historians note that Coronado reported that Pueblos women and children had often been evacuated by the time his party attacked these dwellings and some dwellings had been recently abandoned as he moved up the Rio Grande. This might indicate the semi-nomadic Southern Athabaskans had advance warning about his hostile approach and so they were not seen and reported by the Spanish. Links Western Apache-English Dictionary (White Mountain) White Mountain Apache Tribe (Arizona Intertribal Council) San Carlos Apache Tribe (Arizona Intertribal Council) Tonto Apache Tribe (Arizona Intertribal Council) Yavapai-Apache Nation Official Website Yavapai-Apache Nation (Arizona Intertribal Council) White Mountain Apache Tribe White Mountain Apache photographs map of Fort Apache... “Río Bravo” redirects here. ...


Conflict with Mexico and the United States

An image of Mangas, son of Mangas Coloradas. There is no known photo of Mangas Coloradas.

In general, there seemed to be a pattern between the recently arrived Spanish who settled in villages and Apache bands over a few centuries. Both raided and traded with each other. Records of the period seem to indicate that relationships depended upon the specific villages and specific bands that were involved with each other. For example, one band might be friends with one village and raid another. When war happened between the two, the Spanish would send troops, after a battle both sides would "sign a treaty" and both sides would go home. There were no reservations. Image File history File links Mangascoloradas. ...


The traditional and sometimes treacherous relationships continued between the villages and bands with the independence of Mexico in 1821. By 1835 Mexico had placed a bounty on Apache scalps but some bands were still trading with certain villages. When Juan José Compas, the leader of the Mimbreño Apaches, was killed for bounty money in 1837, Mangas Coloradas or Dasoda-hae (Red Sleeves) became principal chief and war leader and began a series of retaliatory raids against the Mexicans. Mangas Coloradas Mangas Coloradas or Dasoda-hae (Red Sleeves), 1793?-1863 was a famous Apache chief, a member of the Eastern Chiricahuas, whose homeland stretched west from the Rio Grande to include most of what is present-day southwestern New Mexico. ...

Geronimo
Geronimo

When the United States went to war against Mexico, many Apache bands promised U.S. soldiers safe passage through their lands. When the U.S. claimed former territories of Mexico in 1846, Mangas Coloradas signed a peace treaty, respecting them as conquerors of the Mexican's land. An uneasy peace (a centuries old tradition) between the Apache and the now citizens of the United States held until the 1850s, when an influx of gold miners into the Santa Rita Mountains led to conflict. This period is sometimes called the Apache Wars. Download high resolution version (500x840, 53 KB)Geronimo (Goyathlay) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (500x840, 53 KB)Geronimo (Goyathlay) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Santa Rita Mountains is a mountain range extending 42 km (26 mi) from northwest to southeast, located 65 km (40 mi) southeast of Tucson, Arizona. ... Geronimo, before surrender to General Crook, 17 Apr 1886 The Apache Wars were fought during the nineteenth century between the U.S. military and many western tribes. ...


The United States' concept of a reservation had not been used by the Spanish, Mexicans or other Apache neighbors before. Reservations were often badly managed and bands that had no kinship relationships were forced to live together. There were also no fences to keep people in or out. It was not uncommon for a band to be given permission to leave for a short period of time. Other times a band would leave without permission, to raid, return to their land to forage, or to simply get away. The military usually had forts nearby. Their job was keeping the various bands on the reservations by finding and returning those who left. The reservation policies of the United States kept various Apache bands leaving the reservations (at war) for almost another quarter century.


Most American histories of this era say the final defeat of an Apache band took place when 5,000 troops forced (Geronimo's) group of 30 to 50 men, women and children to surrender in 1886. This band and the Chiricahua scouts who tracked them were all sent to military confinement in Florida, and, subsequently, Ft. Sill, Oklahoma. Geronimo Geronimo (Chiricahua Goyaałé One Who Yawns; often spelled Goyathlay in English) (June 16, 1829–February 17, 1909) was a prominent Native American leader of the Chiricahua Apache who warred against the encroachment of the United States on his tribal lands and people for over 25 years. ... Surrender is when soldiers give up fighting and become prisoners of war, either as individuals or when ordered to by their officers. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Many books were written on the stories of Hunting and Trapping during the late 1800s. Many of these stories involve Apache raids and agreements with Americans and Mexicans.


Post-war period

Apache children were taken for adoption by white Americans in programs similar in nature to those involving the Stolen Generation of Australia. They would also have camp outs under the stars.--76.185.25.231 20:28, 29 September 2007 (UTC) Portrayal of The taking of the children on the Great Australian Clock, Queen Victoria Building, Sydney The Stolen Generation (or Stolen Generations) is a term used to describe the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children, usually of mixed descent who were taken from their families, under the rationale of...


Pre-reservation culture

Social organization

Apache bride
Apache bride

All Apachean peoples lived in extended family units (or family clusters) that usually lived close together with each nuclear family in separate dwellings. An extended family generally consisted of a husband and wife, their unmarried children, their married daughters, their married daughters' husbands, and their married daughters' children. Thus, the extended family is connected through a lineage of women that live together (that is, matrilocal residence), into which men may enter upon marriage (leaving behind his parents' family). When a daughter was married, a new dwelling was built nearby for her and her husband. Among the Navajo, residence rights are ultimately derived from a head mother. Although the Western Apache usually practiced matrilocal residence, sometimes the eldest son chose to bring his wife to live with his parents after marriage. All tribes practiced sororate and levirate marriages. Apache bride. ... Apache bride. ... Sororate marriage is the sociological custom of a man marrying (or engaging in sexual activity) with his wifes sister (rarely with her brother), usually after the wife is dead or has proved infertile. ... Levirate marriage is the practice of a woman marrying one of her husbands brothers after her husbands death, if there were no children, in order to continue the line of the dead husband. ...


All Apachean men practiced varying degrees of avoidance of his wife's close relatives — often strictest between mother-in-law and son-in-law. The degree of avoidance differed in different Apachean groups. The most elaborate system was among the Chiricahua where men must use indirect polite speech toward and were not allowed to be within visual sight of his relatives that he was in an avoidance relationship with. His female Chiricahua relatives also did likewise to him.


Several extended families worked together as a local group, which carried out certain ceremonies, and economic and military activities. Political control was mostly present at the local group level. Local groups were headed by a chief, a male who had considerable influence over others in the group due to his effectiveness and reputation. The chief was the closest societal role to a leader in Apachean cultures. The office was not hereditary and often filled by members of different extended families. The chief's leadership was only as strong as he was evaluated to be — no group member was ever obliged to follow the chief. The Western Apache criteria for evaluating a good chief included: industriousness, generosity, impartiality, forbearance, conscientiousness, and eloquence in language.


Many Apachean peoples joined together several local groups into bands. Band organization was strongest among the Chiricahua and Western Apache, while in the Lipan and Mescalero it was weak. The Navajo did not organize local groups into bands perhaps because of the requirements of the sheepherding economy. However, the Navajo did have the outfit, a group of relatives that was larger than the extended family, but not as large as a local group community or a band.


On the larger level, the Western Apache organized bands into what Grenville Goodwin called groups. He reported five groups for the Western Apache: Northern Tonto, Southern Tonto, Cibecue, San Carlos, and White Mountain. The Jicarilla grouped their bands into moieties perhaps due to influence from northeastern Pueblos. Additionally the Western Apache and Navajo had a system of matrilineal clans that were organized further into phratries (perhaps due to influence from western Pueblos). Look up moiety in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Pueblo Indians . ... Matrilineality is a system in which one belongs to ones mothers lineage; it may also involve the inheritance of property or titles through the female line. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A phratry (Greek φρατρία, brotherhood, kinfolk, derived from φρατήρ - brother, see also frater) is an anthropological term for a kinship division consisting of two or more distinct clans which are considered a single unit, but which retain separate indentities within the phratry. ...


The notion of tribe in Apachean cultures is very weakly developed essentially being only a recognition "that one owed a modicum of hospitality to those of the same speech, dress, and customs" (Opler 1983a: 369). The seven Apachean tribes had no political unity (despite such portrayals in common perception (Basso 1983)) and often were enemies of each other — for example, the Lipan fought against the Mescalero just as with the Comanche. For other uses, see Comanche (disambiguation). ...


Kinship systems

The Apachean tribes have basically two surprisingly different kinship term systems: a Chiricahua type and a Jicarilla type (Opler 1936b). The Chiricahua type system is used by the Chiricahua, Mescalero, and Western Apache with the Western Apache differing slightly from the other two systems and having some shared similarities with the Navajo system. Kinship terminology refers to the words used in a specific culture to describe a specific system of familial relationships. ...


The Jicarilla type, which is similar to the Dakota-Iroquois kinship systems (see Iroquois kinship), is used by the Jicarilla, Navajo, Lipan, and Plains Apache. The Navajo system is more divergent having similarities with Chiricahua type system. The Lipan and Plains Apache systems are very similar. The Sioux (IPA ) are a Native American and First Nations people. ... For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ... Iroquois kinship (also known as bifurcate merging) is a kinship system used to define family. ...


Chiricahua

Chiricahua has four different words for grandparents: -chú[3] "maternal grandmother", -tsúyé "maternal grandfather", -chʼiné "paternal grandmother", -nálé "paternal grandfather". Additionally, a grandparent's siblings are identified by the same word; thus, one's maternal grandmother, one's maternal grandmother's sisters, and one's maternal grandmother's brothers are all called -chú. Furthermore, the grandparent terms are reciprocal (i.e. same terms for alternating generations), that is, a grandparent will use the same term to refer to their grandchild in that relationship. For example, a person's maternal grandmother will be called -chú and that maternal grandmother will also call that person -chú as well (i.e. -chú means one's opposite-sex sibling's daughter's child). This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Chiricahua cousins are not distinguished from siblings through kinship terms. Thus, the same word will refer to either a sibling or a cousin (there are not separate terms for parallel-cousin and cross-cousin). Additionally, the terms are used according to the sex of the speaker (unlike the English terms brother and sister): -kʼis "same-sex sibling or same-sex cousin", -´-ląh "opposite-sex sibling or opposite-sex cousin". This means if one is a male, then one's brother is called -kʼis and one's sister is called -´-ląh. If one is a female, then one's brother is called -´-ląh and one's sister is called -kʼis. Chiricahuas in a -´-ląh relationship observed great restraint and respect toward that relative; cousins (but not siblings) in a -´-ląh relationship may practice total avoidance. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... “Nephew” redirects here. ... Parallel cousin is an anthropological term denoting consanguinial kin who are in the same descent group as the subject and are from the parents same-sexed sibling. ... Cross Cousin is an anthropological term describing kin who are in the same descent group as the subject (ego) and are from the parents opposite-sexed sibling. ...


Two different words are used for each parent according to sex: -mááʼ "mother", -taa "father". Likewise, there are two words for a parent's child according to sex: -yáchʼeʼ "daughter", -gheʼ "son".


A parent's siblings are classified together regardless of sex: -ghúyé "maternal aunt or uncle (mother's brother or sister)", -deedééʼ "paternal aunt or uncle (father's brother or sister)". These two terms are reciprocal like the grandparent/grandchild terms. Thus, -ghúyé also refers to one's opposite-sex sibling's son or daughter (that is, a person will call their maternal aunt -ghúyé and that aunt will call them -ghúyé in return).


Jicarilla

Unlike the Chiricahua system, the Jicarilla have only two terms for grandparents according to sex: -chóó "grandmother", -tsóyéé "grandfather". There are no separate terms for maternal or paternal grandparents. The terms are also used of a grandparent's siblings according to sex. Thus, -chóó refers to one's grandmother or one's grandaunt (either maternal or paternal); -tsóyéé refers to one's grandfather or one's granduncle. These terms are not reciprocal. There is only a single word for grandchild (regardless of sex): -tsóyí̱í̱.


There two terms for each parent. These terms also refer to that parent's same-sex sibling: -ʼnííh "mother or maternal aunt (mother's sister)", -kaʼéé "father or paternal uncle (father's brother)". Additionally, there are two terms for a parent's opposite-sex sibling depending on sex: -daʼá̱á̱ "maternal uncle (mother's brother)", -béjéé "paternal aunt (father's sister).


Two terms are used for same-sex and opposite-sex siblings. These terms are also used for parallel-cousins: -kʼisé "same-sex sibling or same-sex parallel cousin (i.e. same-sex father's brother's child or mother's sister's child)", -´-láh "opposite-sex sibling or opposite parallel cousin (i.e. opposite-sex father's brother's child or mother's sister's child)". These two terms can also be used for cross-cousins. There are also three sibling terms based on the age relative to the speaker: -ndádéé "older sister", -´-naʼá̱á̱ "older brother", -shdá̱zha "younger sibling (i.e. younger sister or brother)". Additionally, there are separate words for cross-cousins: -zeedń "cross-cousin (either same-sex or opposite-sex of speaker)", -iłnaaʼaash "male cross-cousin" (only used by male speakers). Parallel cousin is an anthropological term denoting consanguinial kin who are in the same descent group as the subject and are from the parents same-sexed sibling. ... Cross Cousin is an anthropological term describing kin who are in the same descent group as the subject (ego) and are from the parents opposite-sexed sibling. ...


A parent's child is classified with their same-sex sibling's or same-sex cousin's child: -zhácheʼe "daughter, same-sex sibling's daughter, same-sex cousin's daughter", -gheʼ "son, same-sex sibling's son, same-sex cousin's son". There are different words for an opposite-sex sibling's child: -daʼá̱á̱ "opposite-sex sibling's daughter", -daʼ "opposite-sex sibling's son".


Housing

Apache wickiup (1903)
Apache wickiup (1903)

All people in the Apache tribe lived in one of three types of houses. The first of which is the teepee, for those who lived in the plains. Another type of housing is the wickiup, an eight-foot tall frame of wood held together with yucca fibers and covered in brush usually in the Apache groups in the highlands. If a family member lived in a wickiup and they died the wickiup would be burned. The final housing is the hogan, an earthen structure in the desert area that was good for keeping cool in the hot weather of northern Mexico. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2500x1854, 2233 KB) Image information TITLE: Apache Wickiup CALL NUMBER: LOT 12310-A [item] [P&P] Check for an online group record (may link to related items) REPRODUCTION NUMBER: LC-USZ62-101173 (b&w film copy neg. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2500x1854, 2233 KB) Image information TITLE: Apache Wickiup CALL NUMBER: LOT 12310-A [item] [P&P] Check for an online group record (may link to related items) REPRODUCTION NUMBER: LC-USZ62-101173 (b&w film copy neg. ... Categories: Stub | Buildings and structures | Survival skills ... Apache wickiup Wigwam redirects here. ... many types of hogans any articles owned by family set in or by the house Navajo winter hogan A hogan or hoghan (pronounced IPA or , from Navajo hooghan, ) is the primary traditional home of the Navajo people. ...


Food

Apachean peoples obtained food from four main sources:[4]

  • hunting wild animals,
  • gathering wild plants,
  • growing domesticated plants, and
  • interaction with neighboring peoples for livestock and agricultural products (through raiding or trading).

The Western Apache diet consisted of 35-40% meat and 60-65% plant foods.


As the different Apachean tribes lived in different environments, the particular types of foods eaten varied according to their respective environment.


Hunting

Hunting was done primarily by men, although there were sometimes exceptions depending on animal and culture (e.g. Lipan women could help in hunting rabbits and Chiricahua boys were also allowed to hunt rabbits).


Hunting often had elaborate preparations, such as fasting and religious rituals performed by medicine men before and after the hunt. In Lipan culture, since deer were protected by Mountain Spirits, great care was taken in Mountain Spirit rituals in order to ensure smooth deer hunting.


The Western Apache hunted deer and pronghorns (antelope) mostly in the ideal late fall season. After the meat was smoked into jerky around November, a migration from the farm sites along the stream banks in the mountains to winter camps in the Salt, Black, and Gila river valleys. Binomial name Antilocapra americana Ord, 1815 Subspecies The Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) is the only surviving member of the family Antilocapridae, and the fastest mammal in North America running at speeds of 58 mph (90 km/h). ... The Salt River, a tributary of the Gila, is shown highlighted on a map of the United States and Mexico The Salt River along side State Route 77 The Salt River as seen in Salt River Canyon The Salt River (Oodham [Pima]: Onk Akimel) is a tributary of the... The Gila River, a tributary of the Colorado, is shown highlighted on a map of the United States The Gila River (Oodham [Pima]: Hila Akimel) is a tributary of the Colorado River, 630 mile (1,014 km) long, in the southwestern United States. ...


The primary game of the Chiricahua was the deer followed by pronghorn (antelope). Lesser game included: cottontail rabbits (but not jack rabbits), opossums, squirrels, surplus horses, surplus mules, wapiti elk, wild cattle, wood rats. Type species Lepus sylvaticus Bachman, 1837 (=Lepus sylvaticus floridanus J. Allen, 1890) Species 16, see text The cottontail rabbits are the 16 lagomorph species in the genus Sylvilagus, found in the Americas. ... Genera Lepus Caprolagus Pronolagus Hares and Jackrabbits belong to family Leporidae, and mostly in genus Lepus. ... This article is about red deer. ... Species See text. ...


The Mescalero primarily hunted deer. Other animals hunted include: bighorn sheep, buffalo (for those living closer to the plains), cottontail rabbits, elk, horses, mules, opossums, pronghorn, wild steers, and wood rats. Beavers, minks, muskrats, and weasels were also hunted for their hides and body parts but were not eaten. Binomial name Shaw, 1804 Synonyms Desmarest Cuvier[1] Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis)[2] is one of three species of mountain sheep in North America and Siberia; the other two species being Ovis dalli, that includes Dall Sheep and Stones Sheep, and the Siberian Snow sheep Ovis nivicola. ...


The principle game of the Jicarilla was bighorn sheep, buffalo, deer, elk, and pronghorn. Other game animals include: Beaver, bighorn sheep, chief hares, chipmunks, doves, ground hogs, grouse, peccaries, porcupines, prairie dogs, quail, rabbits, skunks, snow birds, squirrels, turkeys, wood rats. Burros and horses were only eaten in emergencies. Minks, weasels, wildcats, and wolves were not eaten but hunted for their body parts.


The main food of the Lipan was the buffalo with a 3-week hunt during the fall and smaller scale hunts continuing until the spring. The second most utilized animal was deer. Fresh deer blood was drunk for good health. Other animals included: beavers, bighorns, black bears, burros, ducks, elk, fish, horses, mountain lions, mourning doves, mules, prairie dogs, pronghorns, quail, rabbits, squirrels, turkeys, turtles, wood rats. Skunks were eaten only in emergencies.


Plains Apache hunters pursued primarily buffalo and deer. Other hunted animals were badgers, bears, beavers, geese, fowls (of various varieties), opossums, otters, rabbits, and turtles.


Eating certain animals was taboo. Although different cultures had different taboos, some common examples of taboo animals included: bears, peccaries, turkeys, fish, snakes, insects, owls, and coyotes. An example of taboo differences: the black bear was a part of the Lipan diet (although not as common as buffalo, deer, or antelope), but the Jicarilla never ate bear as it was considered an evil animal. Some taboos were a regional phenomena, such as of eating fish, which was taboo throughout the southwest (e.g. in certain Pueblo cultures like the Hopi and Zuni) and considered to be snake-like (an evil animal) in physical appearance (Brugge 1983: 494; Landar 1960).


A common practice among Southern Athabascan hunters was the distribution of successfully slaughtered game. For example, among the Mescalero a hunter was expected to share as much as one half of his kill with a fellow hunter and with needy persons back at the camp.


Non-domesticated plants & other foodstuffs

Apache girl with basket, 1902
Apache girl with basket, 1902

The gathering of plants and other foodstuffs was primarily a female chore. However, in certain activities, such as the gathering of heavy agave crowns, men helped. Numerous plants were used for medicine and religious ceremonies in addition their nutrional usage. Other plants (not mentioned here) were utilized for only their religious or medicinal value. Below are listed (but not exhaustively) some of the items gathered by different Southern Athabascan groups. Download high resolution version (516x640, 32 KB)Apache girl with basket Carl Werntz: Apache girl with basket, ca. ... Download high resolution version (516x640, 32 KB)Apache girl with basket Carl Werntz: Apache girl with basket, ca. ... Species see text. ...


In May, the Western Apache baked and dried agave crowns that were pounded into pulp and formed into rectangular cakes. At the end of June and beginning of July, saguaro, prickly pear, and cholla fruits were gathered. In July and August, mesquite beans, Spanish bayonet fruit, and Emory oak acorns were gathered. In late September, gathering was stopped as attention moved toward harvesting cultivated crops. In late fall, juniper berries and pinyon nuts were gathered. Binomial name Carnegiea gigantea Britton & Rose Synonyms Cereus giganteus Engelm. ... Species Many, see text Opuntia is a genus in the cactus family Cactaceae. ... Species Cylindropuntia abyssi Cylindropuntia alcahes Cylindropuntia caribaea Cylindropuntia cholla Cylindropuntia fulgida Cylindropuntia kelvinensis Cylindropuntia munzii Cylindropuntia rosea Cylindropuntia versicolor Cylindropuntia whipplei etc. ... Species Many; see text. ... Binomial name (Torr. ... Binomial name Quercus emoryi Torr. ... For other uses, see Acorn (disambiguation). ... Juniper berries, here still attached to a branch, are actually modified conifer cones. ... Species Section Cembroides     Pinus cembroides     Pinus orizabensis     Pinus johannis     Pinus culminicola     Pinus remota     Pinus edulis     Pinus monophylla     Pinus quadrifolia Section Rzedowskiae     Pinus rzedowskii     Pinus pinceana     Pinus maximartinezii Section Nelsoniae     Pinus nelsonii The pinyon pines (or piñon pines), are a group of pines, which grow in the southwestern United States... Pine nuts are the edible seeds of pine trees (family Pinaceae, genus Pinus). ...


The most important plant food used by the Chiricahua was the Century plant (also known as mescal or agave). The crowns (the tuberous base portion) of this plant (which were baked in large underground ovens and sun-dried) and also the shoots were used. Other plants utilized by the Chiricahua include: acorns, agarita berries, cactus fruits (of various species), chokecherries, grass seeds (of various varieties), greens (of various varieties), juniper berries, locust blossoms, mesquite beans, mulberries, onions, pine inner bark (used as a sweetner), pine nuts, pinyon nuts, potatoes, prickly pears, raspberries, screwbean fruit, strawberries, sumac berries, sunflower seeds, tule rootstocks, walnuts, wild grapes, yucca blossoms, yucca fruit, and yucca stalks. Other items include: honey from ground hives and hives found within agave, sotol, and yucca plants. Binomial name Agave americana L. The Century Plant or Maguey (Agave americana) is an agave originally from Mexico but cultivated worldwide. ... Mezcal is a Mexican distilled spirit made from the agave plant. ... Oca tubers For the fungal genus, see Truffle. ... This article is about the plant section. ... Binomial name Synonyms Berberis trifoliolata, Mahonia trifoliata Agarita (Mahonia trifoliolata) is a rounded evergreen shrub in the family Berberidaceae. ... Genera See Taxonomy of the Cactaceae A cactus (plural cacti, cactuses or cactus)SEE REBECCA I WAS RIGHT is any member of the succulent plant family Cactaceae, native to the Americas. ... Binomial name Prunus virginiana The Chokecherry is the name for a species of suckering shrub or small tree, Prunus virginiana. ... Fresh Swiss chard Fresh water spinach Creamed spinach Steamed kale Leaf vegetables, also called potherbs, greens, or leafy greens, are plant leaves eaten as a vegetable, sometimes accompanied by tender petioles and shoots. ... Locust can refer to: In nature: The locust, a swarming grasshopper. ... Species Morus alba - White Mulberry Morus australis - Chinese Mulberry Morus indica - Indian Mulberry Morus microphylla - Texas Mulberry Morus nigra - Black Mulberry Morus rubra - Red Mulberry Morus serrata - Himalayan Mulberry For other meanings, see Mulberry (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Prosopis pubescens (Screwbean Mesquite), is a small tree or shrub found in the southwestern United States (Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, California) and Mexico. ... Species About 250 species; see text Rhus is a genus approximately 250 species of woody shrubs and small trees in the family Anacardiaceae. ... Binomial name Schoenoplectus acutus (Muhl. ... A rootstock is a plant, and sometimes just the stump, which already has an established, healthy root system, used for grafting a cutting or budding from another plant. ... Wild grape may refer to: Vitis species; specially Vitis vinifera subsp. ... Species many, see text Yucca filamentosa in New Zealand Yucca decipiens in Zacatecas, Mexico Joshua Trees growing in the Mojave Desert. ... Binomial name Dasylirion wheeleri S. Watson ex Rothrock Dasylirion wheeleri (Desert Spoon or Common Sotol) is a flowering plant native to arid environments of the southwestern United States, in Arizona, New Mexico and western Texas, and in northern Mexico, in Chihuahua and Sonora. ...


The abundant agave (mescal) was also important to the Mescalero, who gathered the crowns in late spring after reddish flower stalks appeared. The smaller sotol crowns were also important. Both crowns of both plants were baked and dried. Other plants include: acorns, agarita berries, amole stalks (roasted & peeled), aspen inner bark (used as a sweetner), bear grass stalks (roasted & peeled), box elder inner bark (used as a sweetner), box elder sap (used as a sweetner), cactus fruits (of various varieties), cattail rootstocks, chokecherries, currants, datil fruit, datil flowers, dropseed grass seeds (used for flatbread), elderberries, gooseberries, grapes, hackberries, hawthorne fruit, hops (used as condiment), horsemint (used as condiment), juniper berries, Lamb's-quarters leaves, locust flowers, locust pods, mesquite pods, mint (used as condiment), mulberries, pennyroyal (used as condiment), pigweed seeds (used for flatbread), pine inner bark (used as a sweetner), pinyon pine nuts, prickly pear fruit (dethorned & roasted), purslane leaves, raspberries, sage (used as condiment), screwbeans, sedge tubers, shepherd's purse leaves, strawberries, sunflower seeds, tumbleweed seeds (used for flatbread), vetch pods, walnuts, western white pine nuts, western yellow pine nuts, white evening primrose fruit, wild celery (used as condiment), wild onion (used as condiment), wild pea pods, wild potatoes, and wood sorrel leaves. Species Chlorogalums angustifolium Chlorogalum grandiflorum Chlorogalum parviflorum Chlorogalum pomeridianum Chlorogalum purpureum The Soap Plants, Soaproots or Amoles are the genus Chlorogalum of flowering plants. ... For other uses, see Aspen (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Pursh) Nutt. ... Binominal name Acer negundo Manitoba Maple (Acer negundo), also known as Ash-leaved Maple or (confusingly) Boxelder, is a species of maple, which occurs throughout most of North America. ... Species See text. ... A currant can refer to Redcurrants and blackcurrants, berries of the genus Ribes. ... Datil pepper (Capsicum chinense v. ... Crisp bread Making Tortillas A flatbread is a simple bread made from flattened dough. ... Species See text Elder or Elderberry (Sambucus) is a genus of between 5-30 species of fast-growing shrubs or small trees (two species herbaceous), formerly treated in the honeysuckle family Caprifoliaceae, but now shown by genetic evidence to be correctly classified in the moschatel family Adoxaceae. ... Binomial name Ribes uva-crispa L. Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Ribes uva-crispa See Cape Gooseberry for a tomato like fruit The Gooseberry Ribes uva-crispa (syn. ... Species About 60-70 species including: Celtis australis - European Hackberry Celtis bungeana Bunges Hackberry Celtis caucasica - Caucasian Hackberry Celtis labilis - Hubei Hackberry Celtis koraiensis - Korean Hackberry Celtis jessoensis - Japanese Hackberry Celtis laevigata - Southern Hackberry Celtis occidentalis - Common hackberry Celtis reticulata - Netleaf hackberry Celtis sinensis - Chinese Hackberry Celtis tenuifolia - Georgia... Species See text Crataegus (Hawthorn) is a large genus of in the family Rosaceae, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere in Europe, Asia and North America. ... Hop umbel (branched floral structure resembling nested-inverted umbrellas) in a Hallertau hop yard Hops are a flower used primarily as a flavouring and stability agent in beer, as well as in herbal medicine. ... Species About 16 species, including: Monarda citriodora Monarda clinopodia Monarda didyma Monarda fistulosa Monarda menthifolia Monarda pectinata Monarda punctata Monarda (Bee Balm, Horsemint or Bergamot) is a genus of about 16 species of annual or perennial plants in the Lamiaceae, native to North America. ... Binomial name Chenopodium album L. Fat Hen (Chenopodium album), also called white goosefoot, lambs quarters, lambsquarters, or pigweed, is a fast-growing, upright, weedy annual species of goosefoot, very common in temperate regions, growing almost everywhere in soils rich in nitrogen, especially on wasteland. ... Binomial name L. The herb Pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium, family Lamiaceae), is a member of the mint genus; an essential oil extracted from it is used in aromatherapy. ... pigweed can mean any of a number of weedy plants which may be used as pig fodder: Amaranthus species Chenopodium species Portulaca species Category: ... Binomial name Portulaca oleracea L. Purslane, also known as Little Hogweed or Pusley, is an annual succulent in the Portulacaceae family. ... Genera See text The family Cyperaceae, or the Sedge family, is a taxon of monocot flowering plants that superficially resemble grasses or rushes. ... Binomial name Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. ... Species About 100-130 species; see text Salsola (Saltwort*, Tumbleweed or Russian thistle) is a genus of herbs, subshrubs, shrubs and small trees in the family Amaranthaceae, native to Africa, Asia, and Europe. ... Binomial name Vicia sativa Vetch or tare is a nitrogen fixing leguminous plant. ... Binomial name Pinus monticola Douglas ex D. Don Western White Pine (Pinus monticola; family Pinaceae) is a species of pine that occurs in the mountains of the western United States and Canada, specifically the Sierra Nevada, the Cascade Range, the Coast Range, and the northern Rocky Mountains. ... Evening Primrose was a television musical written in 1966 by Stephen Sondheim and James Goldman for ABC Televisions Stage 67. ... Binomial name Vallisneria americana Michx. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Species See text Oxalis is the largest genus in the wood sorrel family Oxalidaceae. ...


The Jicarilla used acorns, chokecherries, juniper berries, mesquite beans, pinyon nuts, prickly pear fruit, and yucca fruit, as well as many different kinds of other fruits, acorns, greens, nuts, and seed grasses.


The most important plant food used by the Lipan was agave (mescal). Another important plant was sotol. Other plants utilized by the Lipan include: agarita, blackberries, cattails, devil's claw, elderberries, gooseberries, hackberries, hawthorn, juniper, Lamb's-quarters, locust, mesquite, mulberries, oak, palmetto, pecan, pinyon, prickly pears, raspberries, screwbeans, seed grasses, strawberries, sumac, sunflowers, Texas persimmons, walnuts, western yellow pine, wild cherries, wild grapes, wild onions, wild plums, wild potatoes, wild roses, yucca flowers, and yucca fruit. Other items include: salt obtained from caves and honey. Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus (from Latin oak tree), and some related genera, notably Cyclobalanopsis and Lithocarpus. ... Palmetto may refer to the following: Two closely related genera of palms: the genus Sabal, containing species such the Dwarf Palmetto and the Sabal palmetto the Saw Palmetto Amtraks Palmetto passenger train. ... Species See text A Persimmon is any of a number of species of trees of the genus Diospyros, and the edible fruit borne by them. ... Wild Rose is the name given to certain flowering shrubs of the genus Rosa, including the following: Rosa acicularis, or Wild Rose, a rose species which occurs in Asia, Europe, and North America Rosa arkansana, or Wild Prairie Rose, a rose species native to a large area of central North...


Plants utilized by the Plains Apache include: chokecherries, blackberries, grapes, prairie turnips, wild onions, and wild plums. Numerous other fruits, vegetables, and tuberous roots were also used. Binomial name Pursh. ...


Crop cultivation

The different Apachean groups varied greatly with respect to growing domesticated plants. The Navajo practiced the most crop cultivation while the Western Apache, Jicarilla, and Lipan also doing so but to a lesser extent. The one Chiricahua band (of Opler's) and Mescalero practiced very little cultivation. The other two Chiricahua bands and the Plains Apache did not grow any crops.


Trading and raiding

Although not distinguished by Europeans or Euro-Americans, all Apachean tribes made clear distinctions between raiding (for profit) and war. Raiding was done with small parties with a specific economic target. Warfare was waged with large parties (often using clan members) with the sole purpose of retribution.


Religion

Apachean religious stories relate two culture heros (one of the sun/fire, Killer-Of-Enemies/Monster Slayer, and one of water/moon/thunder, Child-Of-The-Water/Born For Water) that destroy a number of creatures (including the Vagina dentata) that are harmful to humankind. Another story is of a hidden ball game where good and evil animals decide whether or not the world should be forever dark. Coyote, the trickster, is an important being that usually has inappropriate behavior (such as marrying his own daughter, etc.). The Navajo, Western Apache, Jicarilla, and Lipan have an emergence story while this is lacking in the Chiricahua and Mescalero (Opler 1983a: 368-369). The word mythology (from the Greek μυολογία mythología, from mythologein to relate myths, from mythos, meaning a narrative, and logos, meaning speech or argument) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use the supernatural to interpret natural events and... A culture hero is a historical or mythological hero who changes the world through invention or discovery. ... Vagina dentata is Latin for toothed vagina. ... Coyote is a mythological character common to many Native American cultures, based on the coyote (Canis latrans) animal. ... The trickster figure Reynard the Fox as depicted in an 1869 childrens book by Michel Rodange. ...


Most Southern Athabascan gods are personified natural forces that run through the universe and are used for human purposes through ritual ceremonies. These ceremonies are known by medicine men (shamans) or can be acquired by direct revelation to the individual. Different Apachean cultures had different views of ceremonial practice. Most Chiricahua and Mescalero ceremonies were learned by personal religious visions while the Jicarilla and Western Apache used standardized rituals as the more central ceremonial practice. Important standardized ceremonies include the puberty ceremony (sunrise dance) of young women, Navajo chants, Jicarilla long-life ceremonies, and Plains Apache sacred-bundle ceremonies. Among Native Americans and other traditional peoples as far back as Paleolithic times, a person believed to possess supernatural healing powers. ...


Certain animals are considered spiritually evil and are prone to cause sickness: owls, snakes, bears, coyotes.


Many Apachean ceremonies use masked representations of religious spirits. Sandpainting is important to the Navajo, Western Apache, and Jicarilla. Both the use of masks and sandpainting is believed to be a product of cultural diffusion from neighboring Pueblo cultures (Opler 1983a: 372-373). Sandpainting is the art of painting ritual paintings for religious or healing ceremonies. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Diffusionism. ...


The Apaches participate in many spiritual dances including the rain dance, a harvest and crop dance, and a spirit dance. These dances were mostly for enriching their food resources.


Languages

Apachean peoples speak one or more of seven Southern Athabascan languages, which have relatively similar grammatical structures and sound systems. Southern Athabascan (or Apachean) is sub-family of the larger Athabascan family (itself a branch of Nadene). Pre-contact distribution of Southern Athabaskan languages Southern Athabaskan (also Apachean) is a subfamily of Athabaskan languages spoken in the North American Southwest. ... Athabaskan or Athabascan (also Athapascan or Athapaskan) is the name of a large group of distantly related Native American peoples, also known as the Athabasca Indians or Athapaskes, and of their language family. ... Athabaskan or Athabascan (also Athapascan or Athapaskan) is the name of a large group of distantly related Native American peoples, also known as the Athabasca Indians or Athapaskes, and of their language family. ... Na-Dené (also Na-Dene, Nadene) is a Native American language family which includes the Athabaskan languages, Eyak, and Tlingit. ...


Navajo is notable for being the indigenous language of the United States with the largest number of native speakers. However, all Apachean languages are endangered, including even Navajo. Lipan is reported extinct. First language (native language, mother tongue) is the language a person learns first. ... An endangered language is a language with so few surviving speakers that it is in danger of falling out of use. ... An extinct language is a language which no longer has any native speakers, in contrast to a dead language, which is is a language which has stopped changing in grammar, vocabulary, and the complete meaning of a sentence. ...


The Southern Athabascan branch was defined by Harry Hoijer primarily according to its merger of stem-initial consonants of the Proto-Athabascan series *k̯ and *c into *c (in addition to the widespread merger of and *čʷ into also found in many Northern Athabascan languages). Harry Hoijer Harry Hoijer (September 6, 1904 - March 11, 1976) was a linguist and anthropologist who worked on primarily Athabaskan languages and culture. ... Sound change or phonetic change is a historical process of language change consisting in the replacement of one speech sound or, more generally, one phonetic feature by another in a given phonological environment. ... In-Silico Modeling and Conformational Mobility of String Pointer Reduction System (SPRS) Based on DNA Computers ... In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... Proto-language may refer to either: a language that is the common ancestor of a set of related languages (a language family), or a system of communication during a stage in glottogony that may not yet be properly called a language. ... Northern Athabaskan is a geographic sub-grouping of the Athabaskan language family spoken in the northern part of North America, particularly in Alaska and the Yukon. ...

Proto-
Athabascan
Navajo Western
Apache
Chiricahua Mescalero Jicarilla Lipan Plains
Apache
*k̯uʔs "handle fabric-like object" -tsooz -tsooz -tsuuz -tsuudz -tsoos -tsoos -tsoos
*ce· "stone" tsé tséé tsé tsé tsé tsí tséé

Hoijer (1938) divided the Apachean sub-family into an Eastern branch consisting of Jicarilla, Lipan, and Plains Apache and a Western branch consisting of Navajo, Western Apache (San Carlos), Chiricahua, and Mescalero based on the merger of Proto-Apachean *t and *k to k in the Eastern branch. Thus, as can be seen in the example below, when the Western languages have noun or verb stems that start with t, the related forms in the Eastern languages will start with a k:

Western Eastern
Navajo Western
Apache
Chiricahua Mescalero Jicarilla Lipan Plains
Apache
"water" kóó
"fire" kǫʼ kǫʼ kųų ko̱ʼ kǫǫʼ kǫʼ

He later revised his proposal in 1971 when he found that Plains Apache did not participate in the *k̯/*c merger to consider Plains Apache as a language equi-distant from the other languages, now called Southwestern Apachean. Thus, some stems that originally started with *k̯ in Proto-Athabascan start with ch in Plains Apache while the other languages start with ts.

Proto-
Athabascan
Navajo Chiricahua Mescalero Jicarilla Plains
Apache
*k̯aʔx̣ʷ "big" -tsaa -tsaa -tsaa -tsaa -cha

Morris Opler (1975) has suggested that Hoijer's original formulation that Jicarilla and Lipan in an Eastern branch was more in agreement with the cultural similarities between these two and the differences from the other Western Apachean groups. Other linguists, particularly Michael Krauss (1973), have noted that a classification based only on the initial consonants of noun and verb stems is arbitrary and when other sound correspondences are considered the relationships between the languages appear to be more complex. Additionally, it has been pointed out by Martin Huld (1983) that since Plains Apache does not merge Proto-Athabascan *k̯/*c, Plains Apache cannot be considered an Apachean language as defined by Hoijer. Michael E. Krauss is a linguist who has worked extensively on the Na-Dené language family, especially on proto-Athabaskan, pre-proto-Athabaskan, and the Eyak language. ... The comparative method (in linguistics) is a method used to detect genetic relationships between languages and to establish a consistent relationship hypothesis by reconstructing: the common ancestor of the languages in question, a plausible sequence of regular changes by which the historically known languages can be derived from that common...


Apachean languages are tonal languages. Regarding tonal development, all Apachean languages are low-marked languages, which means that stems with a "constricted" syllable rime in the proto-language developed low tone while all other rimes developed high tone. Other Northern Athabascan languages are high-marked languages in which the tonal development is the reverse. In the example below, if low-marked Navajo and Chiricahua have a low tone, then the high-marked Northern Athabascan languages, Slavey and Chilcotin, have a high tone, and if Navajo and Chiricahua have a high tone, then Slavey and Chilcotin have a low tone. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Tonal language be merged into this article or section. ... In the study of phonology in linguistics, the rime or rhyme of a syllable consists of a nucleus and an optional coda. ... The Slavey language is a spoken language used among the Slavey Native American people of Canada. ... Chilcotin (also Tsilhqot’in, Tzilkotin) is a Northern Athabaskan language spoken in British Columbia and Washington. ...

Low-Marked High-Marked
Proto-
Athabascan
Navajo Chiricahua Slavey Chilcotin
*taʔ "father" -taaʼ -taa -táʔ -tá
*tu· "water"

Notable Apache

Dragoon Mountains where Cochise hid with his warriors Cochise (Kuu-chish = firewood) (c. ... Mangas Coloradas (Red Sleeves), 1793?-1863 was a famous Apache chief, a member of the Eastern Chiricahuas, whose homeland stretched west from the Rio Grande to include most of what is present-day southwestern New Mexico. ... Look up loco in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Taza is a city in northern Morocco, about 100 km east of Fez. ... Nana may refer to: Look up Nana in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the state in Mexico. ... Geronimo Geronimo (Chiricahua Goyaałé One Who Yawns; often spelled Goyathlay in English) (June 16, 1829–February 17, 1909) was a prominent Native American leader of the Chiricahua Apache who warred against the encroachment of the United States on his tribal lands and people for over 25 years. ... Naiche (c. ... Victorio. ... Chatto may be a reference to: Chatto and Windus, London publisher Andrew Chatto, 1841-1913, founder of that publishing house Pickering & Chatto, London publisher Virendranath Chattopadhyaya, 1880-1937, known as Chatto, Indian revolutionary Lady Sarah Chatto, formerly known as Lady Sarah Armstrong-Jones; daughter of Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon... Raoul Trujillo Apache Actor, dancer, former soloist with the Nikolais Dance Theatre and the original choreographer and co-director for the American Indian Dance Theatre. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Other Zuni words identifying specific Apache groups are wilacʔu·kʷe "White Mountain Apache" and čišše·kʷe "San Carlos Apache" (Newman 1958, 1965: 32, 63, 65; de Reuse 1983: 385). J.P. Harrington reports that čišše·kʷe can also be used to refer to Apaches in general.
  2. ^ Similar words occur in Jicarilla Chíshín and Lipan Chishį́į́hį́į́ "Forest Lipan".
  3. ^ All kinship terms in Apachean languages are inherently possessed, which means they must be preceded by a possessive prefix. This is signified by the preceding hyphen.
  4. ^ Information on Apache subsistence are in Basso (1983: 467-470), Foster & McCollough (2001: 928-929), Opler (1936b: 205-210; 1941: 316-336, 354-375; 1983b: 412-413; 1983c: 431-432; 2001: 945-947), and Tiller (1983: 441-442).

John Peabody Harrington (1884-1961) was an American linguist and ethnologist and a specialist in the native peoples of California. ... Jicarilla matron photographed by Edward S. Curtis, 1907 Jicarilla Apache refers to an Apache people currently living in New Mexico and to the Southern Athabaskan language they speak. ... Lipan Apache are a Southern Athabascan (Apachean) people that were located in Texas in at least as early as the first half of the 18th century. ... Possession, in the context of linguistics, is an asymmetric relationship between two constituents, one of which possesses (owns, rules over, has as a part, has as a relative, etc. ... In linguistics, a prefix is a type of affix that precedes the morphemes to which it can attach. ...

References

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  • Opler, Morris E. (1983b). Chiricahua Apache. In A. Ortiz (Ed.), Handbook of North American Indians: Southwest (Vol. 10, pp. 401-418). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.
  • Opler, Morris E. (1983c). Mescalero Apache. In A. Ortiz (Ed.), Handbook of North American Indians: Southwest (Vol. 10, pp. 419-439). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.
  • Opler, Morris E. (2001). Lipan Apache. In R. J. DeMallie (Ed.), Handbook of North American Indians: Plains (Vol. 13, pp. 941-952). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.
  • Plog, Stephen. (1997). Ancient peoples of the American Southwest. London: Thames and London, LTD. ISBN 0-500-27939-X.
  • Reuse, Willem J., de. (1983). The Apachean culture pattern and its origins: Synonymy. In A. Ortiz (Ed.), Handbook of North American Indians: Southwest (Vol. 10, pp. 385-392). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.
  • Schroeder, Albert H. (1963). Navajo and Apache relationships west of the Rio Grande. El Palacio, 70 (3), 5-23.
  • Schroeder, Albert H. (1974a). A study of the Apache Indian: Parts 1-3. American Indian ethnology: Indians of the Southwest. New York: Garland.
  • Schroeder, Albert H. (1974b). A study of the Apache Indian: Parts 4-5. American Indian ethnology: Indians of the Southwest. New York: Garland.
  • Schroeder, Albert H. (1974c). The Jicarilla Apache. American Indian ethnology: Indians of the Southwest. New York: Garland.
  • Sweeney, Edwin R. (1998). Mangas Coloradas: Chief of the Chiricahua Apaches. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-3063-6
  • Terrell, John Upton. (1972). Apache chronicle. World Publishing. ISBN 0-529-04520-6.
  • Tiller, Veronica E. (1983). Jicarilla Apache. In A. Ortiz (Ed.), Handbook of North American Indians: Southwest (Vol. 10, pp. 440-461). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.
  • Witherspoon, Gary. (1983). Navajo social organization. In A. Ortiz (Ed.), Handbook of North American Indians: Southwest (Vol. 10, pp. 524-535). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.

The University of New Mexico (UNM) is a public university in Albuquerque, New Mexico. ... The University of New Mexico Press, founded in 1929, is a university press that is part of the University of New Mexico. ... The University of Oklahoma Press is a university press that is part of the University of Oklahoma. ... The University of New Mexico Press, founded in 1929, is a university press that is part of the University of New Mexico. ... Stephen Plog is a notable American archaeologist and anthropologist, who specializes in the pre-Columbian cultures of the American Southwest. ... Gary J. Witherspoon is Professor of American Indian studies at the University of Washington. ...

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Apache HTTP Server - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (995 words)
Apache is developed and maintained by an open community of developers under the auspices of the Apache Software Foundation.
Apache is redistributed as part of various proprietary packages, such as the Oracle database or the IBM WebSphere application server.
Version 2 of the Apache server was a substantial re-write of much of the code, with a strong focus on further modularisation and the development of a portability layer; the APR.
Apache - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2963 words)
The Apache were a powerful and warlike people, anxious to defend their territory and constantly at enmity with the whites.
The major modern Apache groups include the Jicarilla and Mescalero of New Mexico, the Chiricahua of the Arizona-New Mexico border area, the Western Apache of Arizona, the Lipan Apache of southwestern Texas, and the Plains Apache of Oklahoma.
Apache children were taken for adoption by white Americans in programs similar in nature to those involving the Stolen Generation of Australia.
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