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Encyclopedia > Aortic valve

The aortic valve is one of the valves of the heart. It lies between the left ventricle and the aorta. Grays Fig. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... In the heart, a ventricle is a chamber which collects blood from an atrium (another heart chamber) and pumps it out of the heart. ... The aorta (generally pronounced or ay-orta) is the largest artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and bringing oxygenated blood to all parts of the body in the systemic circulation. ...


Right ventricle Left ventricle Aortic valve Mitral valve Left atrium Right atrium Aorta Pulmonary valve Tricuspid valve Inferior vena cava Superior vena cava Pulmonary artery Pulmonary vein

Anterior (frontal) view of the opened heart. White arrows indicate normal blood flow.
Anterior (frontal) view of the opened heart. White arrows indicate normal blood flow.

Contents

Image File history File links Diagram_of_the_human_heart_(cropped). ...

Morphology

The aortic valve has three cusps. These cusps are half moon shaped hence also called aortic semilunar valve. Each cusp has a small swelling in the center called the nodule. Dilatation of the wall of the aorta behind these cusps is called aortic sinus. When the aortic valve is open, the normal size of the orifice is 3-4 cm² in adults. In a typical mammalian body such as the human body, the body orifices are: the nostrils, for breathing and the associated sense of smell the mouth, for eating and vocalizations such as speech the ear canals, for the sense of hearing the anus, for defecation the urethra, for urination (and...


Function & Physiology

During ventricular systole, pressure rises in the left ventricle. When the pressure in the left ventricle rises above the pressure in the aorta, the aortic valve opens, allowing blood to exit the left ventricle into the aorta. When ventricular systole ends, pressure in the left ventricle rapidly drops. When the pressure in the left ventricle decreases, the aortic pressure forces the aortic valve to close. The closure of the aortic valve contributes the A2 component of the second heart sound (S2). Ventricular systole The parts of a QRS complex. ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... The heart sounds are the noises (sound) generated by the beating heart and the resultant flow of blood through it. ...


Disease of the aortic valve

There are two protypical processes that can affect the aortic valve - aortic stenosis in which the valve fails to open fully, thereby obstructing blood flow out from the heart, and aortic insufficiency, also called aortic regurgitation, in which the aortic valve is incompetent and blood flows passively back to the heart in the wrong direction. These two conditions frequently co-exist. Aortic valve stenosis (AS) is a heart condition caused by the incomplete opening of the aortic valve. ... Aortic insufficiency (AI), also known as aortic regurgitation (AR), is the leaking of the aortic valve of the heart that causes blood to flow in the reverse direction during ventricular diastole, from the aorta into the left ventricle. ... Aortic insufficiency (AI), also known as aortic regurgitation (AR), is the leaking of the aortic valve of the heart that causes blood to flow in the reverse direction during ventricular diastole, from the aorta into the left ventricle. ...

Aortic valve stenosis (AS) is a heart condition caused by the incomplete opening of the aortic valve. ... Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease which may develop after a Group A streptococcal infection (such as strep throat or scarlet fever) and can involve the heart, joints, skin, and brain. ... A bicuspid aortic valve is a heart condition that is usually due to a congenital deformity. ... Aortic insufficiency (AI), also known as aortic regurgitation (AR), is the leaking of the aortic valve of the heart that causes blood to flow in the reverse direction during ventricular diastole, from the aorta into the left ventricle. ... Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease which may develop after a Group A streptococcal infection (such as strep throat or scarlet fever) and can involve the heart, joints, skin, and brain. ... Endocarditis is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium. ... Marfan syndrome is a connective tissue disorder characterized by unusually long limbs. ...

Bicuspid aortic valve

The most common congenital abnormality of the heart is the bicuspid aortic valve. In this condition, instead of three cusps, the aortic valve has two cusps. This condition is often undiagnosed until later in life when the person develops symptomatic aortic stenosis. Aortic stenosis occurs in this condition usually in patients in their 40s or 50s, an average of 10 years earlier than can occur in people with congenitally normal aortic valves. A congenital disorder is a medical condition or defect that is present at or before birth (for example, congenital heart disease). ... A bicuspid aortic valve is a heart condition that is usually due to a congenital deformity. ...


Aortic Valve Replacement

Aortic valve replacement means that a patient's aortic valve is replaced by a different valve. The aortic valve can be affected by a range of diseases and require aortic valve replacement. The valve can either become leaky (regurgitant or insufficient) or stuck partially shut (stenotic). Aortic valve replacement currently requires open heart surgery. Research is being done now to develop valves that can be implanted using a catheter without open heart surgery. There are two basic types of artificial heart valve, mechanical valves and tissue valves. Tissue heart valves are usually made from animal tissues, either animal heart valve tissue or animal pericardial tissue. The tissue is treated to prevent rejection and to prevent calcification. Mitral regurgitation (MR), also known as mitral insufficiency, is the abnormal leaking of blood through the mitral valve, from the left ventricle into the left atrium of the heart. ... A stenosis is an abnormal narrowing in a blood vessel or other tubular organ or structure. ... Catheter disassembled In medicine, a catheter is a tube that can be inserted into a body cavity, duct or vessel. ... Cardiac surgery is surgery on the heart, typically to correct congenital heart disease or the complications of ischaemic heart disease or valve problems caused by endocarditis. ...


There are alternatives to animal tissue valves. In some cases a human aortic valve can be implanted. These are called homografts. Homograft valves are donated by patients and harvested after the patient expires. The durability of homograft valves is probably the same for porcine tissue valves. Another procedure for aortic valve replacement is the Ross procedure (after Donald Ross) or pulmonary autograft. The Ross procedure involves going to surgery to have the aortic valve removed and replacing it with the patient's own pulmonary valve. A pulmonary homograft (a pulmonary valve taken from a cadaver) or a valvular prothesis is then used to replace the patient's own pulmonary valve. The Ross procedure (or pulmonary autograft) is a cardiac surgery operation where a diseased aortic valve is replaced with the persons own pulmonary valve. ... An allograft is a transplanted organ or tissue from a genetically non-identical member of the same species. ... The pulmonary valve, also known as pulmonic valve, is the semilunar valve of the heart that lies between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery and has three cusps. ...


The first minimally invasive aortic valve surgery took place at the Cleveland Clinic in 1996. [1] Cleveland Clinic is a multispecialty academic medical center located in Cleveland, Ohio. ...


Additional images

See also

Aortic valve stenosis (AS) is a heart condition caused by the incomplete opening of the aortic valve. ... Aortic insufficiency (AI), also known as aortic regurgitation (AR), is the leaking of the aortic valve of the heart that causes blood to flow in the reverse direction during ventricular diastole, from the aorta into the left ventricle. ... Mechanical Heart Valves are prosthetics designed to replicate the function of the natural valves in our heart. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.universitycircle.org/content/healthcare.asp

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Aortic valve stenosis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1665 words)
Aortic valve stenosis (AS) is a heart condition caused by the incomplete opening of the aortic valve.
While this method directly measures the valve area, the image may be difficult to obtain due to artifacts during echocardiography, and the measurements are dependant on the technician who has to manually trace the perimeter of the open aortic valve.
The flow across the aortic valve is calculated by taking the cardiac output (measured in liters/minute) and dividing it by the heart rate (to give output per cardiac cycle) and then dividing it by the systolic ejection period measured in seconds per beat (to give flow per ventricular contraction).
Aortic valve - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (370 words)
The aortic valve is one of the valves of the heart.
When the aortic valve is open, the normal size of the orifice is 3-4 cm².
Aortic stenosis occurs in this condition usually in patients in their 40s or 50s, an average of 10 years earlier than can occur in people with congenitally normal aortic valves.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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