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Encyclopedia > Aortic coarctation
Aortic coarctation
ICD-10 Q251
ICD-9 747.10
OMIM 120000
DiseasesDB 2876
eMedicine med/154
MeSH C14.240.400.090
Sketch showing heart with coarctation of the aorta. A: Coarctation (narrowing) of the aorta. 1:inferior caval vein, 2:right pulmonary veins, 3: right pulmonary artery, 4:superior caval vein, 5:left pulmonary artery, 6:left pulmonary veins, 7:right ventricle, 8:left ventricle, 9:pulmonary artery, 10:Aorta
Sketch showing heart with coarctation of the aorta. A: Coarctation (narrowing) of the aorta. 1:inferior caval vein, 2:right pulmonary veins, 3: right pulmonary artery, 4:superior caval vein, 5:left pulmonary artery, 6:left pulmonary veins, 7:right ventricle, 8:left ventricle, 9:pulmonary artery, 10:Aorta
Schematic drawing of alternative locations of a coarctation of the aorta, relative to the ductus arteriosus. A: ductal coarctation, B: preductal coarctation, C: postductal coarctation. 1: Aorta ascendens, 2: Arteria pulmonalis, 3: Ductus arteriosus, 4: Aorta descendens, 5: Trunchus brachiocephalicus, 6: Arteria carotis communis sinister, 7: Arteria subclavia sinister
Schematic drawing of alternative locations of a coarctation of the aorta, relative to the ductus arteriosus. A: ductal coarctation, B: preductal coarctation, C: postductal coarctation. 1: Aorta ascendens, 2: Arteria pulmonalis, 3: Ductus arteriosus, 4: Aorta descendens, 5: Trunchus brachiocephalicus, 6: Arteria carotis communis sinister, 7: Arteria subclavia sinister

Aortic coarctation is narrowing of the aorta in the area where the ductus arteriosus (ligamentum arteriosum after regression) inserts. The following codes are used with International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... // Q00-Q99 - Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities (Q00-Q07) Congenital malformations of the nervous system (Q00) Anencephaly and similar malformations (Q01) Encephalocele (Q02) Microcephaly (Q03) Congenital hydrocephalus (Q04) Other congenital malformations of brain (Q05) Spina bifida (Q06) Other congenital malformations of spinal cord (Q07) Other congenital malformations of nervous... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The Diseases Database is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (615x768, 74 KB) Schetch showing heart with coarctation of the aorta. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (615x768, 74 KB) Schetch showing heart with coarctation of the aorta. ... Image File history File links Coarctation_and_PDA.png‎ Summary Schematic drawing of alternative locations of a coarctation of the aorta. ... Image File history File links Coarctation_and_PDA.png‎ Summary Schematic drawing of alternative locations of a coarctation of the aorta. ... The largest artery in the human body, the aorta originates from the left ventricle of the heart and brings oxygenated blood to all parts of the body in the systemic circulation. ... In the developing fetus, the ductus arteriosus (DA) is a shunt connecting the pulmonary artery to the aortic arch that allows much of the blood from the right ventricle to bypass the fetus fluid-filled lungs. ...

Contents


Types

There are three types (Valdes-Cruz 1998):

  1. Preductal coarctation: The narrowing is proximal to the ductus arteriosus. If severe, blood flow to the aorta distal (to lower body) to the narrowing is dependent on a patent ductus arteriosus, and hence its closure can be life-threatening.
  2. Ductal coarctation: The narrowing occurs at the insertion of the ductus arteriosus. This kind usually appears when the ductus arteriosus closes.
  3. Postductal coarctation: The narrowing is distal to the insertion of the ductus arteriosus. Even with an open ductus arteriosus blood flow to the lower body can be impaired. Newborns with this type of coarctation may be critically sick from the birth.

Signs, symptoms and diagnosis

(Depending on different types of aortic coarctation,) Arterial hypertension in the left arm with normal to low blood pressure in the right arm (should be "in the upper extremities with normal to low blood pressure in the lower extremities) is classic. Poor peripheral pulses, especially of (right carotid artery?) and the femoral arteries, may be found in severe cases. Arterial hypertension, or high blood pressure is a medical condition where the blood pressure is chronically elevated. ...


If the coarctation is situated before the left subclavian artery, asynchronous radial pulses will be detected in the right and left arms. A radial-femoral delay between the right arm and the femoral artery would be apparent, whilst no such delay would occur under left arm radial-femoral palpation.


A coarctation occurring after the left subclavian artery will produce synchronous radial pulses, but radial-femoral delay will be present under palpation in either arm.


On chest X-ray, resorption of the lower part of the ribs may be seen, due to increased blood flow over the neurovascular bundle that runs there. Coarctation of the aorta can be accurately diagnosed with magnetic resonance angiography. In teenagers and adults echocardiograms may not be conclusive.. In adults with untreated coarctation blood often reaches the lower body through collaterals, eg. internal thoracic arteries via. the subclavian arteries. Those can be seen on MR or angiography. An untreated coarctation may also result in hypertrophy of the left ventricle. In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... The echocardiogram is an ultrasound of the heart. ... Angiography or arteriography is a medical imaging technique in which an X-ray picture is taken to visualize the inner opening of blood filled structures, including arteries, veins and the heart chambers. ...


Therapy

Therapy is conservative if asymptomatic, but may require surgical resection of the narrow segment if there is arterial hypertension. In some cases angioplasty can be performed to dilate the narrowed artery. If the coarctation is left untreated, arterial hypertension may become permanent due to irreversible changes in some organs (such as the kidney). Arterial hypertension, or high blood pressure is a medical condition where the blood pressure is chronically elevated. ... Angioplasty is the mechanical, hydraulic dilation of a narrowed or totally obstructed arterial lumen, generally caused by atheroma (the lesion of atherosclerosis). ... Arterial hypertension, or high blood pressure is a medical condition where the blood pressure is chronically elevated. ... Human kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ...


Reference

  • Valdes-Cruz LM, Cayre RO: Echocardiographic diagnosis of congenital heart disease. Philadelhia, 1998.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Aortic coarctation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (517 words)
Aortic coarctation is narrowing of the aorta in the area where the ductus arteriosus (ligamentum arteriosum after regression) inserts.
Preductal coarctation: The narrowing is proximal to the ductus arteriosus.
Postductal coarctation: The narrowing is distal to the insertion of the ductus arteriosus.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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