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Encyclopedia > Anzac spirit
Simpson and his donkey statue by Peter Corlett outside the Australian War Memorial, Canberra.

The ANZAC Spirit refers to the National characteristics of Australian and New Zealand soldiers, specifically the qualities those soldiers are believed to have shown in World War I. The concept was first derived in the reporting of the Landing at ANZAC Cove by Ellis Ashmead-Bartlett; as well as later on and much more extensively by Charles Bean. It is regarded as an Australasian legend, although its critics refer to it as a mythology. The ANZAC Spirit includes the notion of 'mateship' and cheerful suffering. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (895x1236, 143 KB) Summary Simpson and his donkey supporting a wounded man. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (895x1236, 143 KB) Summary Simpson and his donkey supporting a wounded man. ... John Simpson Kirkpatrick (centre) with Duffy John Simpson Kirkpatrick (July 6, 1892 – May 19, 1915), also known as Jack Simpson, was a stretcher bearer with the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps at Gallipoli during World War I. He landed at Anzac Cove on April 25, 1915 and, on that... The Australian War Memorial is Australias national memorial to the members of all its armed forces and supporting organisations who have died or participated in the wars of the Commonwealth of Australia. ... For other uses, see Canberra (disambiguation). ... Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is the sixth-largest country in the world, the only country to occupy an entire continent, and the largest in the region of Australasia/Oceania. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Ellis Ashmead-Bartlett Ellis Ashmead-Bartlett (11 February 1881 – 4 May 1931) was a British war correspondent during the First World War. ... portrait by George Lambert, 1924. ... Australasia is the area that includes Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea, and the many smaller islands in the vicinity, most of which are the eastern part of Indonesia. ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and make it easier to understand, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Concepts of the ANZAC Spirit

ANZAC Spirit tends to capture the idea of an Australian "national character".[citation needed] The landing at ANZAC Cove is often described as the moment of birth of Australia's Nationhood. The British war correspondent Ellis Ashmead-Bartlett provided the first reports of the landing at ANZAC Cove by the newly formed ANZAC. His report was published in Australia on 8 May 1915: Anzac Cove looking towards Ari Burnu, 1915. ... Ellis Ashmead-Bartlett Ellis Ashmead-Bartlett (11 February 1881 – 4 May 1931) was a British war correspondent during the First World War. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Australian and New Zealand Army Corps was a First World War army corps of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force that was formed in Egypt in 1915 and operated during the Battle of Gallipoli. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

They waited neither for orders nor for the boats to reach the beach, but, springing out into the sea, they waded ashore, and, forming some sort of rough line, rushed straight on the flashes of the enemy’s rifles. [1]

In 1915, in response to the reporting of the efforts of the Australian troops, the Australian poet Banjo Paterson wrote "We're All Australians Now", including the verse: Andrew Barton Banjo Paterson (17 February 1864 – 5 February 1941)[2] was a famous Australian bush poet, journalist and author. ...

The mettle that a race can show
Is proved with shot and steel,
And now we know what nations know
And feel what nations feel. [2]

Despite the loss of the Battle of Gallipoli, Australian and New Zealand soldiers were reported as having "displayed great courage, endurance, initiative, discipline, and mateship". The stereotype developed that "the ANZAC rejected unnecessary restrictions, possessed a sardonic sense of humour, was contemptuous of danger, and proved himself the equal of anyone on the battlefield." [3] Combatants British Empire Australia British India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom Egyptian labourers[1] France Senegal  Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Lord Kitchener John de Robeck Otto von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Strength 5 divisions (initial) 16 divisions (final) 6 divisions (initial) 15 divisions (final) Casualties 252,000[2] 195...


An Australian concept of the ANZAC Spirit developed in the post-World War I period among returned servicemen, with some opinion of the ANZACs changing from an Edwardian conception of Australia within Empire, to a tolerance of larrikinism.[citation needed] It was particularly popularised by Charles Bean, Australia's official war historian. This development meant an increased tolerance for misbehavior by Australian troops. Larrikinism is the name given to the Australian folk tradition of irreverence, mockery of authority and disregard for rigid norms of propriety. ... portrait by George Lambert, 1924. ...


Following Australia's self-defence during the Second World War, the Australian myth of the ANZAC Spirit was transformed by conceptions of heroic suffering, particularly in the battlefields of Papua New Guinea and in Japanese controlled POW camps.[citation needed] Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... A Prisoner-of-war camp is a site for the containment of persons captured by the enemy in time of war. ...


During the 1950s and 1960s, due to lack of observance of ANZAC Day in general society, the idea of a unique ANZAC Spirit began to fade,[citation needed] as the Australian anti-war movement developed into a popular movement opposed to Australia's involvement in the Vietnam war, and there were attempts by women's groups to disrupt the commemoration of ANZAC Day during the 1970s and early 1980s.[citation needed] Vietnam veterans, especially those taken in the forced draft, were represented by some in the 1970s as lacking the ANZAC Spirit.[citation needed] While less dominant views of ANZAC mythology remain current in some quarters, they are not the orthodox conception of the ANZAC Spirit.[citation needed]Alternative views, for example those held by the FRANZAC movement, emphasise the significant though lesser remembered loss of French troops during the Gallipoli campaign.[citation needed]


A resurgence in popular commemoration of ANZAC Day in the 1980s (possibly linked to the release of the film Gallipoli) brought the idea of an ANZAC Spirit back into prominence in Australian political discourse.[citation needed] There has been an increase in people, especially youth, attending ANZAC Day Dawn Services in Australia and New Zealand. For other uses, see Gallipoli (disambiguation). ... Anzac Day is commemorated by Australia and New Zealand on 25 April every year to remember members of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) who landed at Gallipoli in Turkey during World War I. Anzac Day is also a public holiday in the Cook Islands, Niue, Samoa and...


In remembering the Australian and New Zealand war effort, the ANZAC Spirit is often called upon.[citation needed] The ANZAC Spirit is also said to come through in Australian and New Zealand civilian crises. For example, the Returned and Services League of Australia states: RSL National HQ, on Constitution Ave, Canberra, near the Australian Defence Force Russell Offices HQ The Returned and Services League of Australia (often abbreviated to RSL) is a support organisation for men and women who have served or are serving in the Australian Defence Force. ...

The Spirit of the ANZAC continues today in times of hardship such as cyclones, floods and bush fires. At those times Australians come together to rescue one another, to ease suffering, to provide food and shelter, to look after one another, and to let the victims of these disasters know they are not alone. [4]

References

  1. ^ The dawn of the legend:Ellis Ashmead-Bartlett. Australian War Memorial. Retrieved on 2006-11-10.
  2. ^ Paterson, A. B. (1915). "We're All Australians Now". Oldpoetry. allpoetry.com. Retrieved on 2006-11-10.
  3. ^ The dawn of the legend. Australian War Memorial. Retrieved on 2006-11-10.
  4. ^ The ANZAC Spirit. Returned and Services League of Australia Western Australian Branch (2003). Retrieved on 2006-11-10.

The Australian War Memorial is Australias national memorial to the members of all its armed forces and supporting organisations who have died or participated in the wars of the Commonwealth of Australia. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Andrew Barton Banjo Paterson (17 February 1864 – 5 February 1941)[2] was a famous Australian bush poet, journalist and author. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... RSL National HQ, on Constitution Ave, Canberra, near the Australian Defence Force Russell Offices HQ The Returned and Services League of Australia (often abbreviated to RSL) is a support organisation for men and women who have served or are serving in the Australian Defence Force. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

  • The ANZAC Spirit. Encyclopaedia. Australian War Memorial. Retrieved on 2006-11-10.
  • Ball, M Re-Reading Bean's Last Paragraph Australian Historical Studies. Vol 34 No 122 October 2003 pp 248-270
  • ANZAC Quotes
  • Burgmann, Verity. Revolutionary industrial unionism : the industrial workers of the world in Australia. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1995. Chapters 12-14.
The Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (popularly abbreviated as ANZAC) was originally an army corps of Australian and New Zealand troops who fought in World War I at Gallipoli against the Turks. ... Anzac Day is commemorated by Australia and New Zealand on 25 April every year to remember members of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) who landed at Gallipoli in Turkey during World War I. Anzac Day is also a public holiday in the Cook Islands, Niue, Samoa and... Combatants British Empire Australia British India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom Egyptian labourers[1] France Senegal  Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Lord Kitchener John de Robeck Otto von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Strength 5 divisions (initial) 16 divisions (final) 6 divisions (initial) 15 divisions (final) Casualties 252,000[2] 195... John Simpson Kirkpatrick (centre) with Duffy John Simpson Kirkpatrick (July 6, 1892 – May 19, 1915), also known as Jack Simpson, was a stretcher bearer with the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps at Gallipoli during World War I. He landed at Anzac Cove on April 25, 1915 and, on that... The Royal New Zealand Returned and Services Association Inc, often referred to as the Returned Services Association, RSA or the RNZRSA, is a voluntary ex-service organisation, dedicated to the welfare of veterans. ... The Australian War Memorial is Australias national memorial to the members of all its armed forces and supporting organisations who have died or participated in the wars of the Commonwealth of Australia. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
ANZAC Spirit (445 words)
From 1915 the word was applied to military formations (there were ANZAC corps in both world wars); to places (notably “ANZAC area” on Gallipoli and “ANZAC Cove” itself); to people (“ANZAC” at first meant a man who had served on Gallipoli, and later acquired broader applications).
It refers to the representation of Australians in war, the way in which they think, speak and write of their war experience (which is not always the same thing as how they experienced it).
ANZAC came to signify the qualities which Australians have seen their forces exhibit in war.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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