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Encyclopedia > Anwar Ibrahim
Yang Berbahagia Datuk Seri
 Anwar Ibrahim

The Malay language has a complex system of titles and honorifics which is still extensively used in Malaysia and Brunei. ...


In office
December 1, 1993 – September 2, 1998
Preceded by Tun Ghafar Baba
Succeeded by Dato' Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi

In office
1982 – 1999
Preceded by unknown
Succeeded by Wan Azizah Wan Ismail

Born August 10, 1947 (1947-08-10) (age 60)
Cherok Tok Kun, Penang
Political party People's Justice Party - Pakatan Rakyat
Spouse Datin Seri Wan Azizah Wan Ismail
Occupation Politician
Religion Islam

Dato' Seri Anwar bin Ibrahim (born August 10, 1947) is a former deputy prime minister and finance minister of Malaysia. Early in his career, he became a protégé of the former prime minister of Malaysia, Mahathir bin Mohamad, but subsequently emerged as the most prominent critic of Mahathir's administration. Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia (Timbalan Perdana Menteri in Malay) is the second highest political post in Malaysia. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Tun Ghafar Baba (February 18, 1925–April 23, 2006) was a Malaysian politician from Melaka and a former Deputy Prime Minister. ... Dato Seri Abdullah bin Haji Ahmad Badawi [1] (born November 26, 1939 in Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang) is the 5th Prime Minister of Malaysia. ... The Malaysian Houses of Parliament in Kuala Lumpur. ... Permatang Pauh is a town in Penang, Malaysia. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Wan Azizah Wan Ismail (born 1952) is a Malaysian politician. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The hometown and birthplace of Anwar Ibrahim former deputy prime minister of Malaysia. ... State motto: Bersatu dan Setia (United and Loyal) (formerly Let Penang Lead) State anthem: Untuk Negeri Kita (For Our State) Capital George Town Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Yang Di-Pertua Negeri Tuan Yang Terutama Abdul Rahman bin Haji Abbas  - Ketua Menteri Tan Sri Dr. Koh Tsu Koon History    - Ceded by... This article is about the Peoples Justice Party of Malaysia. ... Wan Azizah Wan Ismail (born 1952) is a Malaysian politician. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Malay language has a complex system of titles and honorifics which is still extensively used in Malaysia and Brunei. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Prime Minister of Malaysia (in Malay Perdana Menteri) is the indirectly elected head of government of Malaysia. ... Tun Dr. Mahathir bin Mohamad (IPA: ) was the fourth Prime Minister of Malaysia. ...


In 1999, he was sentenced in a highly controversial trial to six years in prison for corruption, and in 2000, to another nine years for alleged homosexual acts. However, in 2004, Malaysia's highest court, the Federal Court reversed the second conviction and he was released. The Sultan Abdul Samad Building nearby Merdeka Square formerly housed the superior courts of the country. ...


Anwar is the only Malaysian to ever make it into Time magazine's 100 most influential people in the world[1]. He is also one of the signatories of A Common Word Between Us and You, an open letter by Islamic scholars to Christian leaders, calling for peace and understanding. TIME redirects here. ... Time 100 cover for 2007 The Time 100 is an annual list of the 100 most influential people in the world, as assembled by Time. ...

Contents

Early years

Anwar was born in Cherok Tok Kun, a village on the mainland side of the northern Malaysian state of Penang, to a hospital porter, Ibrahim Abdul Rahman (later to join politics and retire as Parliamentary Secretary in the Ministry of Health) and Che Yan, a housewife (and later UMNO politician). He was educated at University of Malaya, where he read Malay Studies. Prior to that, he took his secondary education at the Malay College Kuala Kangsar. The hometown and birthplace of Anwar Ibrahim former deputy prime minister of Malaysia. ... State motto: Bersatu dan Setia (United and Loyal) (formerly Let Penang Lead) State anthem: Untuk Negeri Kita (For Our State) Capital George Town Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Yang Di-Pertua Negeri Tuan Yang Terutama Abdul Rahman bin Haji Abbas  - Ketua Menteri Tan Sri Dr. Koh Tsu Koon History    - Ceded by... The Malay College Kuala Kangsar (Malay College, MCKK, MC or Koleq, Kolek and sometimes dubbed the Eton of the East) is the premier residential school in Malaysia. ...


From 1968 to 1971, as a student, Anwar was the president of a Muslim students organisation, Persatuan Kebangsaan Pelajar Islam Malaysia (PKPIM). He was one of the protem committee of Angkatan Belia Islam Malaysia (ABIM) or Muslim Youth Movement of Malaysia which was founded in 1971. He was also elected President of the Malaysian Youth Council or Majlis Belia Malaysia (MBM). In 1974, Anwar was arrested during student protests against rural poverty and hunger. He was imprisoned under the Internal Security Act, which allows for detention without trial, and spent twenty months in the Kamunting Detention Center for political prisoners. There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Internal Security Act 1960 (ISA) is a preventive detention law in force in Malaysia. ...


Groomed for leadership

In 1968-1971, he was first groomed in the National Union of Malaysian Muslim Students (Persatuan Kebangsaan Pelajar Islam Malaysia, PKPIM) as the president of the Union. He was very well known as one of the most prominent student movement leaders. In 1982, Anwar, who was the founding leader and second president of a youth Islamic organisation called Angkatan Belia Islam Malaysia (ABIM), shocked his liberal supporters by joining the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), led by Mahathir bin Mohamad, who became prime minister in 1981. He moved up the political ranks quickly: his first ministerial office was that of Minister of Culture, Youth and Sports in 1983; after that, he headed the agriculture ministry in 1984 before becoming Minister of Education in 1986. By then, speculation was rife about Anwar's ascent to the Deputy Prime Minister's position as it was a commonly-occurring phenomenon in Malaysia for the Education Minister to assume the position of Deputy PM in the near future. Angkatan Belia Islam Malaysia (ABIM) or the Malaysian Islamic Youth Movement was founded in 1972 and is considered the most organized force in Islamic revivalism in Malaysia. ... Sang Saka Bangsa The United Malays National Organisation, or UMNO, (Malay: Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu), is the right-Wing and the largest political party in Malaysia and a founding member of the Barisan Nasional coalition, which has ruled the country uninterruptedly since its independence. ...


During his tenure as Education Minister, Anwar introduced numerous pro-Malay policies in the national school curriculum. One of the major changes that he did was to rename the national language from Bahasa Malaysia to Bahasa Melayu. Non-Malays criticized this move as it would cause the younger generation to be detached from the national language, since they would attribute it to being something that belongs to the Malays and not to Malaysians.


In 1991 Anwar was appointed Minister of Finance. In 1993, he became Mahathir's Deputy Prime Minister after winning the Deputy Presidency of UMNO against Ghafar Baba. Anwar was being groomed to succeed Mahathir as prime minister, and frequently alluded in public to his "son-father" relationship with Mahathir; in early 1997, Mahathir appointed Anwar to be acting Prime Minister while he took a two-month holiday. Towards the end of the 1990s, however, their relationship began to deteriorate, triggered by their conflicting views on governance. In Mahathir's absence, Anwar had taken steps to improve the country's governing mechanisms which were in direct conflict with Mahathir's protectionist policies. Issues such as how Malaysia would respond to a financial crisis were often at the forefront of this conflict.


Anwar's frontal attack against what he described as the widespread culture of nepotism and cronyism within UMNO (and the ruling coalition as a whole) angered Mahathir, as did his attempts to dismantle the protectionist policies that Mahathir had set up. "Cronyism" was identified by Anwar as a major cause of corruption and misappropriation of funds in the country. Mahathir retaliated by isolating Anwar within UMNO. The events of late-1998 marked the beginning of Anwar's descent within UMNO and his subsequent ouster from the party and from Malaysian politics.


Financial crisis

During the Asian financial crisis in 1997 Anwar, in his capacity as finance minister, supported the International Monetary Fund (IMF) plan for recovery, which meant a restructuring of the economy involving opening up to greater foreign investment and competition. He also instituted an austerity package that slashed government spending by 18%, cut ministerial salaries and deferred major investment projects. Large-scale infrastructure development projects known as "mega projects" were set back as well, despite being a cornerstone of Mahathir's plans for developing the nation. These measures aroused bitter opposition from Mahathir. The Asian financial crisis was a financial crisis that started in July 1997 in Thailand and affected currencies, stock markets, and other asset prices in several Asian countries, many considered East Asian Tigers. ... IMF redirects here. ... Austerity is a term from economics that describes a policy where nations reduce living standards, curtail development projects, and generally shift the revenue stream out of the physical economy, in order to satisfy the demands of creditors. ...


Although many Malaysian companies faced the threat of bankruptcy, Anwar declared: "There is no question of any bailout. The banks will be allowed to protect themselves and the government will not interfere." Anwar advocated a free market approach, sympathetic to foreign investment and trade liberalisation, whereas Mahathir favored currency and foreign investment controls, blaming unchecked speculation by currency speculators like George Soros for the shrinking economy.[citation needed] There is disagreement among economists whether Anwar's policies would have been more or less successful than Mahathir's; however, most denounced Mahathir's hypothesis that George Soros was to blame. Economists proposed currency controls before the Malaysian currency, the ringgit, slid further, but their advice was not taken.[citation needed] By the time Mahathir decided to impose currency controls and preventive measures to keep hedge funds in check, the Malaysian economy had plummeted to its lowest level yet since the recession of the early-1980s. Soros redirects here. ... Ringgit (Malay for jagged) mostly refers to the Malaysian ringgit, which is the local currency in Malaysia, but it can also refer to the Singapore dollar and Brunei dollar in the Malay language. ...


In 1998 Newsweek magazine named Anwar the "Asian of the Year." However, in that year, matters between Anwar and Mahathir came to a head around the time of the quadrennial UMNO General Assembly. The Youth wing of UMNO, headed by Anwar's associate, Ahmad Zahid Hamidi, gave notice that it would initiate a debate on "cronyism and nepotism". The response was swift, as Mahathir issued lists of cronies who had benefited from government share allocations and privatisations. To the chagrin of Anwar and his allies, several of them were on the list, including Anwar and Zahid. The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ... The United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu in Malay, is the largest political party in Malaysia and a founding member of the Barisan Nasional coalition, which has ruled the country uninterrupted since independence. ...


Anwar continued his assault on what he called the rampant corruption within Mahathir's administration, by attempting to impose transparent audits on major conglomerates and business empires, which, he alleged, had been overcharging for government projects and evading taxes. One of the potential victims would have been Mahathir's son, Mirzan Mahathir, who was a director in almost 100 private and Government-linked companies. Conglomerates that were closely linked to the government, such as Renong, would have been adversely affected as well. A Government Linked Company (GLC) is a corporate entity that may private or public (listed on a stock exchange) where an existing government owns a stake using a holding company. ...


Allegations

At the UMNO General Assembly, a book, 50 Dalil Kenapa Anwar Tidak Boleh Jadi PM ("50 Reasons Why Anwar Cannot Become Prime Minister") was circulated containing graphic sexual allegations as well as accusations of corruption against Anwar. This book carried the byline Khalid Jafri, an ex-editor of the government-controlled newspaper Utusan Malaysia and former editor-in-chief of a failed magazine, Harian National. Anwar obtained a court injunction to prevent further distribution of the book and filed a defamation action against the author. In August, police charged the author of the book with malicious publishing of false news. In September, the judge who had banned the book's distribution was transferred to a lower court despite being a senior judge, further raising concerns among the public about the independence of the judiciary. Utusan Malaysia (literally translated from Malay to English as the Malaysian Messenger or the Malaysian Delegate) (formerly known as Utusan Melayu) is a Malay language newspaper in Malaysia. ...


Among the allegations in the book was that Anwar is a homosexual and that he is a serial adulterer. Many regarded the book as an outright fabrication but in a surprising turn of events, rather than investigating the author for libelous writing, the police were instructed to investigate instead the veracity of the claims. Consequently, Anwar was labeled by the government-controlled media as a womanizer and a homosexual even before any investigation had taken place to determine the truthfulness of the book's contents. The author died in 2005 of diabetic complications but not before the High Court found that the author had libeled Anwar Ibrahim in publishing the "50 Reasons" book and awarded Anwar Ibrahim millions of ringgit in compensation.


Recently, the former deputy President of Anwar's political party, Dr. Chandra Muzaffar, lambasted Anwar for his close ties to Paul Wolfowitz, a staunch Zionist and chief architect of the war in Iraq. In an interview on the BBC Hardtalk program after his release from prison, Anwar admitted to his friendship with Paul Wolfowitz, the former US deputy Secretary of Defence and former World Bank President. This allegation has strong repercussions in Muslim majority Malaysia[citation needed] which has no diplomatic ties with Israel. Most Malaysians also agree with the statement by former Malaysian Prime Minister[who?], Dr. Mahathir, that the "war on terror" is actually a "war on Islam".[2]


Trial and conviction

Anwar was fired from the Cabinet in September, amid police reports that he was under investigation. The following day, he was expelled from UMNO. Dr Munawar Anees, Anwar's former speechwriter, and Sukma Darmawan Sasmita Atmadja, Anwar's adoptive brother, were arrested under suspicion of engaging in homosexual acts. Five days later, they were given a jail sentence of six months after pleading guilty to "unnatural sex" with Anwar. They later recanted their confessions, and appealed the sentence, claiming to have been coerced into entering a plea of "guilty". Anees made a statutory declaration of how they were coerced into making a guilty plea[3]. Two of Anwar's secretaries, Ezam Mohamad and Mohamad Azmin Ali, were both held separately as part of police investigations into the "50 reasons" book. Both were later released.


A few days later Anwar addressed a protest gathering of nearly 100,000 people in Kuala Lumpur, after which a number of his supporters marched to Mahathir's then official residence demanding reformasi (economic and political reforms) and Mahathir's resignation. This march, a rare event in Malaysia, caused concern in the government. That night, Anwar's home was raided by a masked and armed SWAT team from the Royal Malaysian Police. His arrest was announced several hours later, as were those of several of Anwar's supporters, although most of them were later released. Nickname: Motto: Maju dan makmur (English: Progress and Prosper) Location in Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1857 Granted city status 1974 Government  - Mayor (Datuk Bandar) Datuk Abdul Hakim Borhan From 14 December 2006 Area  - Total 243. ...


Charges of corruption and sodomy

On September 29, 1998 Anwar appeared in court and pleaded innocent to charges of corruption and sodomy. A photo of Anwar with black eye (which he gained from a beating, while handcuffed and blindfolded, by then Inspector General of Police Rahim Noor) and one hand raised became a symbol of the political opposition in many reformasi posters. is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... François Elluin, Sodomites provoking the wrath of God, from Le pot pourri de Loth (1781). ... An Inspector General of Police is a high ranking police officer of the Indian Police Service or Royal Malaysian Police (Polis Di-Raja Malaysia) cadre or the Sri Lanka Police Service. ...


The black eye was explained by Mahathir Mohamad and Rahim Noor as being "self-inflicted" and caused by "pressing a glass over his eyes". Only after a Royal Commission was convened did Rahim Noor admit that he had administered the beating to Anwar. Both Anwar and Rahim Noor have denied the allegations that Anwar was sodomised in prison to "plant" the forensics evidence of anal sex in Anwar.


During the trial, a mattress was presented to court, supposedly stained with Anwar's semen. This was submitted as DNA evidence of Anwar's sexual acts. However, Anwar denied having anything to do with the mattress although the DNA tests came out positive. The defense team alleged that Anwar was masturbated while unconscious. Dr Lim Kong Boon, a doctor during the trial [4], testified that it is possible to massage the prostrate gland through the anus in order to stimulate ejaculation in an unconscious victim. The defense council presented this as evidence for police sexual abuse to obtain false forensics evidence to frame Anwar.


Anwar was also accused of corruption relating to the police investigation into and arrest of the author of the "50 Reasons" book. He was also accused of sodomy with his wife's chauffeur, Azizan Abu Bakar. Judge Augustine Paul wrote 320 page judgment in the Anwar Ibrahim case, the longest judgment in the country ever. [5] In that judgment, he explains meticulously point by point each and every piece of evidence involved and the rulings he made.


During the trial, Mahathir appeared on Malaysian television in a special appearance to explain the arrest of his deputy. This was one of several occasions in which Mahathir declared Anwar guilty of sodomy and homosexual acts, even as the trial still was underway. The government included the statements of the purported victims of Anwar's sodomy attacks, evidence that was widely considered to be tainted.[citation needed] Furthermore, the prosecution was unable to accurately decide on a date that the alleged acts of anal sex had occurred - the government originally alleged that a sodomy had occurred inside a building that had not been constructed at the time of the alleged event. Furthermore, the Attorney General's prosecution team (headed by Abdul Gani Patail) also submitted a scenario in which Dr Munawar Anees took an overnight flight from Britain all the way to Malaysia to be sodomized by Anwar, and flew back to Britain after that. The infamous "stained mattress" that was taken in and out of court over 20 times throughout the duration of the trial, was supposedly the same one that Anwar did his homosexual acts and extramarital sex on. However, according to the evidence, the sexual acts had taken place on the mattress a few years ago, and yet the DNA evidence obtained from it were rather recent in age.


On April 14, 1999, Anwar was sentenced to six years in prison for corruption and, on August 8, 2000, nine years in prison for sodomy. The sentences were to be served consecutively, and Anwar was given no credit for the six months he spent in jail during the trial. The following year, Anwar's corruption conviction was upheld by Malaysia's Court of Appeal. In July 2002, Anwar lost his final appeal against the corruption conviction in the Federal Court. is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


In a speech during the proceedings against him, Anwar explained what he believed to be the underlying motive behind his persecution. He told the court: "I objected to the use of massive public funds to rescue the failed businesses of his (Mahathir's) children and cronies." Both Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch expressed doubts about the fairness of the trials. [6] [7]. Amnesty International subsequently designated Anwar as a prisoner of conscience. The trial also provoked international criticism. US vice president Al Gore denounced the sodomy trial of Anwar as a "mockery", but Mahathir rejected all such international criticism as "foreign interference." [8] Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... Prisoner of conscience (POC) is a term coined by the human rights pressure group Amnesty International in the early 1960s. ... This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ...


Anwar's wife, Wan Azizah Ismail, subsequently formed Parti Keadilan Rakyat (the People's Justice Party), which based its platform on campaigning for Anwar's release and reformasi. At the following general election, the People's Justice Party performed poorly in the election, only retaining a single parliamentary seat, Anwar's old parliamentary seat of Permatang Pungkok Pauh, which was won by his wife. Wan Azizah Wan Ismail (born 1952) is a Malaysian politician. ... This article is about the Peoples Justice Party of Malaysia. ... General elections were held in Malaysia on March 21, 2004. ...


Release from prison

On September 2, 2004, a panel of three judges of the Federal Court (Malaysia's highest court) overturned the sodomy conviction by 2 to 1, finding contradictions in the prosecution's case. However, the judges noted "We find evidence to confirm that the appellants were involved in homosexual activities and we are more inclined to believe that the alleged incident at Tivoli Villa did happen." is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Anwar completed his term for corruption after his sentence was being reduced for good behaviour. Although the point was by now moot, an appeal on the corruption charges was heard on September 6, 2004. Under Malaysian law a person is banned from political activities for five years after the end of his sentence. Success in this appeal would allow him an immediate return to politics. On September 7, the court agreed to hear Anwar's appeal. However, on September 15, the of Court of Appeal ruled unanimously that its previous decision to uphold a High Court ruling that found Anwar guilty was in order, relegating Anwar to the sidelines of Malaysian politics until 14 April 2008. The only way out for Anwar would be for him to receive a pardon from the Yang di-Pertuan Agong. is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...


At the time of his release from prison, Anwar was reportedly suffering from serious back problems, which his family said was the result of the beating by the ex-police chief. However, the UMNO-owned newspaper, the New Straits Times, alleged that the injuries had actually been caused by a fall from a horse in 1993 during Anwar's tenure as deputy prime minister. His wife had argued during his imprisonment that he required treatment for his condition at a clinic in Germany. The government refused, claiming that such treatment was readily available in Malaysia, offering medical treatment if necessary. However, in September 2004, after the Federal Court quashed his conviction for sodomy, Anwar was free to travel to Munich for back surgery. Not to be confused with The Straits Times, the Singaporean newspaper. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ...


Since his release from prison Anwar has held a teaching positions at St. Antony's College, Oxford, where he was a Visiting fellow and Senior associate member and at Johns Hopkins School of Advance International Studies in Washington DC as a Distinguished Senior Visiting Fellow. He is currently a Distinguished Visiting Professor in the School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University. In March 2006 he was appointed as Honorary President of the London based organization Accountability (AccountAbility). College name St Antonys College Named after Established 1950 Warden Professor Roger Goodman (acting) Graduates 300 Homepage St Antonys College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... The Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, is a private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. ... The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS), based in Washington, D.C., is a graduate school devoted to the study of international affairs, economics, diplomacy, and policy research and education. ... Flag Seal Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location Location of Washington, D.C., with regard to the surrounding states of Maryland and Virginia. ... The Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service (commonly abbreviated SFS) is a school within Georgetown University in Washington, D.C., United States. ... Georgetown University is a Jesuit private university located in Georgetown, Washington, D.C. Father John Carroll founded the school in 1789, though its roots extend back to 1634. ...


In July 2006, Anwar was elected Chair of the Washington-based Foundation for the Future [9]. In this capacity, he signed the October 1, 2006 letter to Robin Cleveland of the World Bank, requesting the transfer of the secondment of Shaha Riza from the US Department of State to the Foundation for the Future [10]. The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... Shaha Riza Shaha Ali Riza, (Arabic: ) (born 1953 or 1954), is a World Bank staffer who is currently on external assignment. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ...


Political future

In November 2006, Anwar announced he planned to run for Parliament in 2008, after his disqualification expired. Anwar has been critical of government policies since his release from prison, most notably of the controversial New Economic Policy (NEP), which provides affirmative action for the Malays. The policy sets a number of quotas, such as for units of housing and initial public offerings, that must be met.[11] Under the Malaysian New Economic Policy, Bumiputras are given discounts on real estate. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... IPO redirects here. ...


He is also the Advisor of Parti Keadilan Rakyat, the party of which his wife Dr. Wan Azizah is president. He was in the forefront in organising a November 2007 mass rally, called the 2007 Bersih Rally, which took place in the Dataran Merdeka Kuala Lumpur to demand clean and fair elections. The gathering was organised by BERSIH, a coalition comprising political parties and civil society groups, and drew supporters from all over the country. This article is about the Peoples Justice Party of Malaysia. ... Rallying crowd in front of the Istana Negara. ... This article needs to be wikified. ...


The 2008 election date, however, was set for 8 March 2008, sparking criticisms that Barisan Nasional called for early elections in a bid to deny Anwar's plans for a return to Parliament. In response, Anwar's wife, Wan Azizah Wan Ismail, declared that she would step down should she retain her Permatang Pauh parliamentary seat to force a by-election in which Anwar himself will contest[12]. is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...


When asked about the possibility of Anwar becoming the next Prime Minister, former leader Tun Dr. Mahathir has reacted by saying rather sarcastically, "He would make a good Prime Minister of Israel".[13]


On 14 April 2008, Anwar celebrated his official return to the political stage, as his ban from public office expires a decade after he was sacked as deputy prime minister. One of the main reasons the opposition seized a third of parliamentary seats and five states in the worst ever showing for the Barisan Nasional coalition that has ruled for half a century, was due to him leading at the helm.[14] A gathering of more than 1,000 supporters greeted Anwar in a rally welcoming back his return to politics. In the midst of the rally, police interrupted Anwar after he had addressed the rally for nearly two hours and called him to stop the gathering since there is no legal permission of the rally.[15]


On April 29, 2008, and after 10 years of absence, Anwar Ibrahim returned to the Parliament, albeit upon invitation as a spouse guest of Wan Azizah Wan Ismail, People's Justice Party and the first female opposition leader in Malaysian Parliament's history.[16] is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Wan Azizah Wan Ismail (born 1952) is a Malaysian politician. ...


Publications and Speeches

Anwar giving a speech in 2005.
Anwar giving a speech in 2005.

Articles Image File history File links Anwar_Ibrahim_speaking. ... Image File history File links Anwar_Ibrahim_speaking. ...

  • "Radical Islam in Southeast Asia" (password required) Far Eastern Economic Review, November 2006, 60th Anniversary Issue. Published in Arabic [1], [2], [3], [4], [5], and in al-Bayane al-Youm (Morocco) on Jan 1, 2007.
  • "Accountability and the Future of Freedom" Islamica Magazine, Issue #16, Winter 2006.
  • "Universal Values and Muslim Democracy" Journal of Democracy, July 2005. Published in Arabic [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13].
  • "Political Accountability and the Moral Imperative" Accountability Forum, Issue 7, Fall 2005
  • "On Shah Wali Allah's Socio-Political Thought and Ibn Hazm's Kitab al-Fasl fi al-Milal wa al-Ahwa' wa al-Nihal." In Islamic Studies, Vol. 43, No. 2, 371-377.
  • "The Quest for Social Justice" Global Agenda Magazine, January 2005

Op-ed

  • "A Test for the West in Turkey" Washington Post, Friday July 6, 2007, A15. Published in Arabic [14], [15], [16], [17], [18], [19] and [20].
  • "Seeing the Bigger Picture" Accountability21 December 22, 2006. Published in Arabic [21], [22], [23], and [24]
  • "Malaysian Mudslinging" Wall Street Journal, October 3, 2006
  • "Cultivating the Seeds of Democracy" L.A. Times, March 25, 2006
  • "Whither East Asia" Wall Street Journal, December 15, 2005
  • "Destructive Engagement" Asian Wall Street Journal, June 15, 2005 Also available on BurmaNet
  • "Democratic Contagion Hits ASEAN Countries" New Perspectives Quarterly, Spring 2005
  • "A passion for freedom" The World in 2004, The Economist
  • "Who Hijacked Islam?" Time October 8, 2001

Speeches

  • "The Central Role of Governance and Accountability in Achieving Development Goals in the 21st Century" Inter-American Development Bank Forum on the Americas, December 7, 2006, Washington DC.
  • “The Challenges of Islam and Democracy” University of Chicago, November 8, 2006.
  • "Democracy and the Muslim World" Stanford University, October 11, 2006.
  • "Democracy, Human Rights, and the Destiny of Southeast Asia" Severyns-Ravenholt Lecture at the University of Washington, October 10, 2006
  • "Islam & Democracy" Center for Democratic Institutions Annual Address, Canberra, Australia, July 20, 2006.
  • "Between Tyranny and Freedom: A Brief Voyage with the Bard" World Shakespeare Congress, Brisbane, Australia, July 19, 2006 Text
  • "Accountability and the Future of Freedom" Presidential Fellows Lecture at the World Bank in Washington DC June 19, 2006
  • "Islam and Democracy" Keynote address at World Movement for Democracy Fourth Assembly, Istanbul, Turkey, April 2, 2006
  • "Freedom or Sharia" Columbia University, January 30, 2006
  • "The Future of Muslim Democracy" December 1 2005
  • "Examining the Challenges of Islam and Democracy" Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, November 7, 2005
  • "The United States and the Muslim World" Asia Society Keynote Address delivered at SAIS in Washington DC, April 18, 2005
  • "Between Force and Persuasion" Keynote Address at Inaugural Session of the Conference "Inter-Civilisational Dialogue in a Globalising World", New Delhi, India, April 8, 2005
  • Anwar Ibrahim's speeches from 1990s posted at the The Institute for Policy Research
  • UNESCO General Council On the occasion of Anwar Ibrahim's election to the presidency of the 25th Session, Paris, October 17, 1989

Media and News

Interviews

  • "A Talk with Malaysia's Anwar Ibrahim" BusinessWeek, April 10, 2007.
  • "Anwar’s ‘new’ agenda" The Star, April 8, 2007.
  • "Malaysian Pledges to Defy Ban on His Return to Politics" Washington Post, Page A14, April 5, 2007.
  • "Anwar Ibrahim: An Optimist of Freedom and Democracy" The Jakarta Post, January 31, 2007.
  • "Islam and Democracy" A discussion with Saad el-Din Ibrahim" "One-on-One" hosted by Riz Khan, Al-Jazeera English, November 30, 2006
  • Bloomberg News Interview with Kathleen Hayes Bloomberg TV, November 29, 2006 "(Print article)"
  • "Saying no to corruption" Fortune Magazine, October 23, 2006
  • "Anwar returns: the public reinvention of Malaysia's former deputy PM" Radio Free Australia, July 24, 2006
  • "Anwar bin Ibrahim's political rollercoaster" Worldview Magazine, Summer 2006
  • "Islam in Southeast Asia" Interview by Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, April 7, 2006
  • Foreign Exchange interview hosted by Fareed Zakaria (Scroll to middle of page for transcript) November 4, 2005
  • Interview with Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty From the "Forum 2000" Meeting in Prague, October 11, 2005
  • "HardTALK" with Stephen Sackur, 2005

Articles

  • "Democracy for Muslims?" The Stanford Daily, October 12, 2006
  • "Anwar's return" The Economist, August 24, 2006
  • "An ode to democracy delivered by Anwar Ibrahim" UQ News Online, July 27, 2006
  • "Anwar Ibrahim a possible candidate for UN Secretary-General" ABC News, July 19, 2006
  • "Anwar Ibrahim on comeback trail" Al-Jazeera English, March 16, 2006
  • "Voice of moderate Islam wins support" The Sunday Times, October 02, 2005
  • "Anwar Ibrahim asked to apply for top UN job" Sydney Morning Herald June 28, 2006
  • "An Unlikely but Eager Voice Between Islam and the West" Washington Post September 2, 2005
  • Asean News Network 22 September 2004 Malaysia's Ruling Party Members Urged to Shun Anwar Ibrahim.
  • "Anwar Ibrahim free at last" Economist.com Global Agenda Magazine, September 7, 2004
  • "Anwar Ibrahim's long shadow" The Economist, April 3, 2003
  • Malaysia Today online newspaper including a column by Anwar Ibrahim.
  • Pro Anwar News Portal

is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ Time 100 list for 2008 May 2, 2008, Time Magazine
  2. ^ Muslims can win, Mahathir tells OIC Oct 16, 2003, Sify News
  3. ^ Statutory Declaration from Dr. Munawar Ahmad Anees (part 1) Dec 3, 1998
  4. ^ Anwar trial hears DNA evidence Dec 30, 1998, BBC News
  5. ^ Public Prosecutor v Dato’ Seri Anwar bin Ibrahim[1998] 4 MLJ 481;Public Prosecutor v Dato’ Seri Anwar bin Ibrahim (No 2) 1999] 2 MLJ 249; Public Prosecutor v Dato’ Seri Anwar bin Ibrahim (No 3)[1999] 2 MLJ 1; and Public Prosecutor v Dato’ Seri Anwar bin Ibrahim (No 4)[1999] 5 MLJ 545
  6. ^ Malaysia: Double injustice heaped on Anwar Ibrahim Apr 18, 2003, Amnesty International
  7. ^ Human Rights Watch Monitors Second Anwar Trial June 11, 1999, Human Rights Watch
  8. ^ Gore: Anwar trial a 'mockery Gore: Anwar trial a 'mockery' Aug 9, 2000, BBC News
  9. ^ Foundation for the Future Holds its First Board Meeting in Doha, Qatar, July 15, 2006
  10. ^ Ethics Committee Case No2 and President's Paper, p.102, Jun 2, 2005, World Bank
  11. ^ Malaysia's Anwar Says He Plans to Run for Parliament Nov 30, 2006, Bloomberg.
  12. ^ Wan Azizah declares she is Anwar proxy Feb 25, 2008, Channel NewsAsia
  13. ^ "When Mahathir lashes out at Anwar, will it catch fire?" March 31, 2008, The Malaysian Insider.
  14. ^ "Malaysian opposition leader Anwar marks end of political ban" April 14, 2008, AFP
  15. ^ "Malaysia Police Halt Anwar Speech" April 14, 2008, AFP
  16. ^ Malaysia's Anwar returns to Parliament, Apr 29, 2008, Associated Press

Other references

  • Kamarudin, Raja Petra (Nov. 7, 2005). "The stuff politicians are made of". Malaysia Today.
  • Kamarudin, Raja Petra (Nov. 9, 2005). "The Anwar Factor". Malaysia Today.
  • Yeoh, Oon (Dec. 6, 2005). "The return of Anwar Ibrahim". Malaysia Today.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Anwar Ibrahim
Wikinews has related news:
Anwar's lawsuit over gay slur by former Malaysian premier is dismissed

Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ...

Home pages

  • Anwar Ibrahim Home Page

Affiliations and appointments

  • Senior Fellow in the School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University,Washington D.C.
  • International Advisory Board, International Crisis Group
  • Honorary President, AccountAbility
  • Chairman, Broader Middle East North Africa Foundation for the Future
Preceded by
Tun Ghafar Baba
Deputy Prime Ministers of Malaysia
1993-1998
Succeeded by
Abdullah Ahmad Badawi
Tun Ghafar Baba (February 18, 1925–April 23, 2006) was a Malaysian politician from Melaka and a former Deputy Prime Minister. ... Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia (Timbalan Perdana Menteri in Malay) is the second highest political post in Malaysia. ... Dato Seri Abdullah bin Haji Ahmad Badawi [1] (born November 26, 1939 in Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang) is the 5th Prime Minister of Malaysia. ...

 
 

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