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Encyclopedia > Anushilan Samiti

Anushilan Samiti was the principal secret revolutionary organisation operating in Bengal in the first quarter of the 20th century. This association, like its offshoot the Jugantar party, operated under the guise of suburban fitness club.The members were committed towards the path of armed revolution for independence of India from British rule.Kolkata and, later, Dhaka were the two major strongholds of the association. However, the group succeeded in penetrating rural Bengal and had branches all over Bengal and also other parts of India. Bengal, known as Bôngo (Bengali: বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bôngodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in Bangla, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ... Jugantar or Yugantar (nearest English word epoch-making) was one of the secret revolutionary organisations operating in Bengal for Indian independence. ... Kolkata (Bangla: কলকাতা, Hindi: कोलकाता), formerly known as Calcutta, is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal and was capital of British India until 1912. ... Panorama of Dhakas skyline Dhaka (previously Dacca; Bangla: ঢাকা Đhaka), population 12,560,000[1] (2005 UN projection for statistical metropolitan area), is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh. ... Bengal, known as Bôngo (Bengali: বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bôngodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in Bangla, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ...

Contents


A few Notable Revolutionaries

Pramatha Nath Mitra (1853-1910) Sri Aurobindo Chittaranjan Das (1870-1925) Sri Aurobindo Sri Aurobindo (Bangla: শ্রী অরবিন্দ, Sri Ôrobindo Sanskrit: श्री अरविन्द Srī Aravinda) (August 15, 1872–December 5, 1950) was an Indian nationalist, scholar, poet, Hindu mystic, evolutionary philosopher, yogi and guru. ... Chittaranjan Das(C.R.Das) (Bangla: চিত্তরঞ্জন দাস), popularly called Deshbandhu) (November 25, 1870 - June 16, 1925) was a Bengali lawyer and a major figure in the Indian independence movement. ...


The beginning

The Anushilan Samiti was established in Kolkata by Pramatha Math Mitra , a barrister and a patron of the revolutionary movements, in 1902. Sri Aurobindo and Deshabandhu Chittaranjan Das were the vice-presidents, Suren Tagore the treasurer. [1]Jatindra Nath Banerjee (Niralamba Swami), Jatindra Nath Mukherjee (Bagha Jatin), Bhupendra Nath Datta (Swami Vivekananda's brother), Barindra Ghosh were among other initial leaders. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (467x675, 122 KB) Summary Bagha Jatin at the age 24, Darjeeling, 1903. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (467x675, 122 KB) Summary Bagha Jatin at the age 24, Darjeeling, 1903. ... Jatindranath Mukherjee, popularly known as Bagha Jatin Bagha Jatin, born Jatindranath Mukherjee (8 December 1879–10 September 1915) was a Bengali Indian revolutionary activist against British rule. ... Image File history File links JatinDas. ... Image File history File links JatinDas. ... Jatindra Nath Das (also known as Jatin Das) (27 October 1904 - 13 September 1929) was an Indian freedom fighter and revolutionary. ... Kolkata (Bangla: কলকাতা, Hindi: कोलकाता), formerly known as Calcutta, is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal and was capital of British India until 1912. ... Sri Aurobindo Sri Aurobindo (Bangla: শ্রী অরবিন্দ, Sri Ôrobindo Sanskrit: श्री अरविन्द Srī Aravinda) (August 15, 1872–December 5, 1950) was an Indian nationalist, scholar, poet, Hindu mystic, evolutionary philosopher, yogi and guru. ... Barindra Kumar Ghosh ,or,Barindra Ghosh,or,popularly,Barin Ghosh (1880-1959) was an Indian freedom fighter,revolutionary and journalist. ...


An inner circle of the Anushilan Samiti formed Jugantar, the main outfit for revolutionary activities. They believed in Sri Aurobindo's global programme including a secret preparation for a timely armed uprising, out of which Bagha Jatin developed the Jugantar, a decentralised federation of loose regional units; this name came to limelight with the Howrah conspiracy case in 1910 [1] The Dhaka branch of the Anushilan Samiti was formed by Pulin Bihari Das, who was once a teacher in the Dhaka Government College and, later, a founding headmaster of 'National School' (Dhaka), along with his followers , in 1906. He, like Barindra Ghosh, believed in a highly centralised one-leader organisation. Under their leadership, respectively in Dhaka and elsewhere, in a spirit of a boastful showdown, Anushilan Samiti slowly adopted terrorism programmes during the first decade of 20th century, with 1905 Partition of Bengal acting as a major catalyst. Jugantar or Yugantar (nearest English word epoch-making) was one of the secret revolutionary organisations operating in Bengal for Indian independence. ... Jugantar or Yugantar (nearest English word epoch-making) was one of the secret revolutionary organisations operating in Bengal for Indian independence. ... Panorama of Dhakas skyline Dhaka (previously Dacca; Bangla: ঢাকা Đhaka), population 12,560,000[1] (2005 UN projection for statistical metropolitan area), is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh. ... Barindra Kumar Ghosh ,or,Barindra Ghosh,or,popularly,Barin Ghosh (1880-1959) was an Indian freedom fighter,revolutionary and journalist. ... East Bengal was the name used during two periods in the 20th century for a territory that roughly included the modern state of Bangladesh. ...


1907 – 1908 witnessed a surge in these revolutionary activities. On 6 December 1907 they attempted to blow up the train in which the Lieutenant-Governor of the new province of Eastern Bengal and Assam was travelling.


The Muzaffarpur killing

A few days later, on 23 December, they attempted to assassinate Mr Allen, formerly District Magistrate of Dhaka. On 30 April 1908, Khudiram Bose and Prafulla Chaki were sent to murder Douglas Kingsford, Magistrate of Calcutta and later District Judge of Muzaffarpur, Bihar.However, Mrs and Miss Kennedy, two innocent English ladies, were mistakenly bombed and killed. The British police started a big hunt for the terrorists.Prafulla Chaki took his own life by bullet while cornered by the police. Khudiram Bose was arrested, tried and hanged . Khudiram and Prafulla became revered martyrs among the mass of the Bengal and inspired more youth to join the revolutionaries. It was this hero who threw the first bomb on the British who were crushing India. ... Prafulla Chaki (1888-1908) was an Indian freedom fighter and revolutionary associated with the Jugantar group of revolutionaries. ... Muzaffarpur is an administrative district in the state of Bihar in India. ... For other uses, see Bihar (disambiguation). ... Prafulla Chaki (1888-1908) was an Indian freedom fighter and revolutionary associated with the Jugantar group of revolutionaries. ... It was this hero who threw the first bomb on the British who were crushing India. ... Bengal, known as Bôngo (Bengali: বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bôngodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in Bangla, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ...


Alipore Bomb Conspiracy case

Main article: Alipore bomb case

Further investigations led the police to a small scale bomb manufacturing unit in Maniktala of Kolkata. Barindra Ghosh and several other members of Anushilan Samiti and Jugantar were arrested and tried in the famous Alipore Bomb Conspiracy case. Many were deported for life to the Andaman. The result of the trial was divisions in the Anushilan Samiti.Two main groups that remained were the Jugantar itself and the Dhaka Anushilan Samiti, in the western and the eastern parts of the Bengal, respectively. The initial Anushilan disappeared. The Alipore bomb case (or Alipore bomb conspiracy or Alipore bomb trial) was an important court trial in the history of the Indian Independence Movement. ... Manikatala is a district of northern Kolkata. ... Kolkata (Bangla: কলকাতা, Hindi: कोलकाता), formerly known as Calcutta, is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal and was capital of British India until 1912. ... Barindra Kumar Ghosh ,or,Barindra Ghosh,or,popularly,Barin Ghosh (1880-1959) was an Indian freedom fighter,revolutionary and journalist. ... Jugantar or Yugantar (nearest English word epoch-making) was one of the secret revolutionary organisations operating in Bengal for Indian independence. ... Andaman could mean: Andaman Islands Andaman Sea The book The Andaman Islanders by Alfred Radcliffe-Brown. ... Jugantar or Yugantar (nearest English word epoch-making) was one of the secret revolutionary organisations operating in Bengal for Indian independence. ... Panorama of Dhakas skyline Dhaka (previously Dacca; Bangla: ঢাকা Đhaka), population 12,560,000[1] (2005 UN projection for statistical metropolitan area), is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh. ... Bengal, known as Bôngo (Bengali: বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bôngodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in Bangla, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ...


A few Notable Jugantar members

  • Jatindranath Mukherjee alias Bagha Jatin (1879-1915)
  • Rasbehari Bose (1885-1945)
  • Hemendrakishore Acharya Chaudhuri (1881-1938)
  • Narendra Bhattacharya alias M.N. Roy
  • Atulkrishna Ghosh
  • Amarendra Nath Chatterjee 1880-1957)
  • Jadugopal Mukherjee (1886-1976)
  • Bhavabhushan Mitra
  • Bipin Behari Ganguli (1887-1954)
  • Bhupendra Kumar Datta(1894-1979)
  • Bhupati Majumdar (1890-1970)
  • Surendra Mohan Ghosh alias Madhu Ghosh (1893-1976)
  • Satish Chandra Mukherjee alias Swami Prajnananda (1884-1921)
  • Manoranjan Gupta (1890-1976)
  • Arun Chandra Guha (1892 born
  • Narendra Ghosh Chaudhuri (1894-1956)
  • Kiran Chandra Mukherjee (1883-1954)
  • Harikumar Chakrabarti (1882-1963)

Jugantar or Yugantar (nearest English word epoch-making) was one of the secret revolutionary organisations operating in Bengal for Indian independence. ... Jatindranath Mukherjee, popularly known as Bagha Jatin Bagha Jatin, born Jatindranath Mukherjee (8 December 1879–10 September 1915) was a Bengali Indian revolutionary activist against British rule. ... Categories: Stub | Indian politicians | 1887 births | 1954 deaths ... Bipin Behari Ganguli was an Indian freedom fighter born in Hoogli, now in West Bengal, in 1887. ... Bhupendra Kumar Dutta was an Indian freedom fighter and revolutionary. ...

Dhaka Anushilan Samiti

A few Notable Members

Pulin Bihari Das was in charge of the Dhaka Anushilan Samiti that maintained regular contact with the Kolkata group . Due to the police activities, the Kolkata group curbed its terrorist activities and the Dhaka Anushilan Samiti soon overshadowed the parent Kolkata organization. The Anushilan Samiti opened several branches all across the eastern Bengal and by 1932 it had 500 branches The members of these samitis were mostly school and college students coming from Hindu middle-class educated families. The members were trained in traditional arms like Lathi and sword as well as the firearms.However, firearms were not easily available.The revolutionaries looted wealthy families that were loyal to the British Raj and maintained fund. Jogesh Chandra Chattopadhyay (1895-1969) was an Indian freedom fighter, revolutionary and member of Rajya Sabha. ... Narendra Mohan Sen (1887-1963) was an Indian freedom fighter and revolutionary. ... Niranjan Sen Gupta was an Bengali Indian freedom fighter and revolutionary. ... Pratul Chandra Ganguli (1884-1957) was an Bengali Indian freedom fighter and revolutionary. ... Kolkata (Bangla: কলকাতা, Hindi: कोलकाता), formerly known as Calcutta, is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal and was capital of British India until 1912. ... Kolkata (Bangla: কলকাতা, Hindi: कोलकाता), formerly known as Calcutta, is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal and was capital of British India until 1912. ... Kolkata (Bangla: কলকাতা, Hindi: कोलकाता), formerly known as Calcutta, is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal and was capital of British India until 1912. ... Bengal, known as Bôngo (Bengali: বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bôngodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in Bangla, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ... Lathi is an ancient armed martial art of India. ... Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Sword (from Old English sweord, cognate to Old High German swert, literally wounding tool from a Proto-Indo-European root *swer- to wound, to hurt) is a term for a long-edged, bladed weapon, consisting in its most fundamental design of a blade, usually...


Arrest of Pulin Das

The arrest and deportation of the leader Pulin Das created chaos among the Dhaka Anushilan Samiti which had to go underground temporarily.Soon,Trailokyanath Chakraborty and Pratul Chandra Ganguly took charge and the rebels were united again. The famous Barisal Conspiracy Case of 1913 established the fact that there were hundreds of revolutionary followers of the Samiti in the Barisal district alone. Barisal is a district in southern Bangladesh. ...


After the first World War

After the first World War, the communication between the Dhaka Anushilan Samiti and the Jugantar party increased.However, during the Non-Cooperation Movement the Jugantar party supported Gandhi while the Dhaka faction continued the violent activities. The police increased vigilance and arrested many leaders. Jugantar or Yugantar (nearest English word epoch-making) was one of the secret revolutionary organisations operating in Bengal for Indian independence. ... The Non-Cooperation Movement is a collection of techniques used by a subjugated population to achieve freedom from their oppressors. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी, Gujarati મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી), called Mahatma Gandhi, was the charismatic leader who brought the cause of Indias independence from British colonial rule to world attention. ...


Unification and failure

Following these major setbacks,there was an attempt to unify the revolutionary activities in Bengal.anushilan Samiti and Jugantar were brought close by the joint leadership of Narendra Mohan Sen of Anushilan and Jadugopal Mukherjee of Jugantar. However, this merger failed to revive the revolutionary activities upto the expected level.[2] Jugantar or Yugantar (nearest English word epoch-making) was one of the secret revolutionary organisations operating in Bengal for Indian independence. ... Narendra Mohan Sen (1887-1963) was an Indian freedom fighter and revolutionary. ... Jugantar or Yugantar (nearest English word epoch-making) was one of the secret revolutionary organisations operating in Bengal for Indian independence. ...


Neo-violence

The younger generation of the revolutionaries were frustrated by the failure of the attempted merger.This led to the formation of a new confedearation in 1929, called the neo-violence party.On the forefront were Niranjan Sen Gupta of the Barisal Anushilan, Satish Chandra Pakrashi of Dhaka Anushilan, Jatin Das of the South Calcutta Anushilan and Surya Sen and Ganesh Ghosh of the Chittagong Jugantar party. 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Niranjan Sen Gupta was an Bengali Indian freedom fighter and revolutionary. ... Barisal is a district in southern Bangladesh. ... Panorama of Dhakas skyline Dhaka (previously Dacca; Bangla: ঢাকা Đhaka), population 12,560,000[1] (2005 UN projection for statistical metropolitan area), is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh. ... Jatindra Nath Das (also known as Jatin Das) (27 October 1904 - 13 September 1929) was an Indian freedom fighter and revolutionary. ... Indian Postage stamp on Surya Sen Surya Sen, a teacher by profession, was the chief architect of anti-British movement in Chittagong. ... Ganesh Ghosh (Bangla: গনেশ ঘোষ) was a Bengali Indian freedom fighter and revolutionary. ... Chittagong (Bengali: চট্টগ্রাম, Chaṭṭagrām) is the major sea-port and second largest city of Bangladesh. ...


Later years

The scenario changed with years.The British were thinking to quit India and the religious politics came into play.The basic political background on which revolutionary ideas were based seemed to evolve towards a new direction.The Revolutionary Terrorism can thus be said to come to an end by 1936.


The Anushilan Samiti evolved into the Revolutionary Socialist Party. The wing in East Pakistan evolved into the Shramik Krishak Samajbadi Dal in current day Bangladesh. RSP flag RYF pamphlet RSP poster in Kerala, honouring historical RSP leader D.K. RYF letter-head . Revolutionary Socialist Party is a marxist-leninist political party in India. ... East Pakistan was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1955 and 1971. ... Shramik Krishak Samajbadi Dal (Workers Peasants Socialist Party), a small Marxist-Leninist political party in Bangladesh. ...


Notes

  1. a b (Mukherjee 1982)
  2. Revolutionary Terrorism, in (Asiatic Society of Bangladesh 2003)

References

  • Mukherjee, Jadugopal (1982), Biplabi jibaner smriti (2nd ed.).
  • Asiatic Society of Bangladesh (2003), Banglapedia, the national encyclopedia of Bangladesh, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka.


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