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Encyclopedia > Anuradhapura
Sacred City of Anuradhapura*
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Sri Maha bodhiya, Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. The oldest living tree in the world with a reported planting date.
State Party Flag of Sri Lanka Sri Lanka
Type Cultural
Criteria ii, iii, vi
Reference 200
Region Asia-Pacific
Inscription History
Inscription 1982  (6th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
† Region as classified by UNESCO.

Anuradhapura, (අනුරාධපුර in Sinhala), is one of the ancient capitals of Sri Lanka, world famous for its well preserved ruins of the Great Sri Lankan Civilization. The Civilization which was built upon this city was one of the greatest civilizations of Asia and in the world. The city now a UNESCO heritage site, lies 205 km north of the current capital Colombo in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka, on the banks of the historic Malvathu Oya[1]. Founded in the 4th century BC it was the capital of the Anuradhapura Kingdom till the beginning of the 11th century AC. During this period it remained one of the most stable and durable centers of political power and urban life in South Asia. It was also a wealthy city which created a unique culture and a great civilization. Today this ancient city of Sri Lanka, considered sacred to the Buddhist world is surrounded by monasteries covering an area of over sixteen square miles (40 km²). It is widely considered one of the world's major archaeological sites. This city is significant in Hinduism too. Legend has it that it was the fabled capital of the Asura King Ravana in the Ramayana. A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File linksMetadata Sri_maha_bodiya. ... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sri_Lanka. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Asia, Australia and the Pacific (Australasia). ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Sinhalese or Sinhala (සිංහල, ISO 15919: , IPA: [], earlier referred to as Singhalese) is the mother tongue of the Sinhalese, the largest ethnic group of Sri Lanka. ... Map of Colombo with its administrative districts Coordinates: , District Colombo District Government  - Mayor Uvaiz Mohammad Imitiyaz (Sri Lanka Freedom Party) Area  - City 37. ... // In Hinduism In Hindu mythology, the Asura (Sanskrit: असुर) are a group of power-seeking deities, sometimes misleadingly referred to as demons. ... A depiction of Ravana, Hindu rakshasa King of Lanka In Hinduism, Ravana; sometimes transliterated as Raavana or Ravan or Revana) is the principal antagonist of Rama in the Hindu epic, the Ramayana. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ...

Contents

Anuradhapura The City

Protohistoric Iron Age


Although according to historical records the city was founded in the 5th century BC, the archaeological data put the date as far back as the 10th century BC. very little evidence was available about the period before the 5th century BC (i.e. the protohistoric period), though excavations have revealed information about the earlier inhabitants of the city. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 5th century BC started on January 1, 500 BC and ended on December 31, 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) // Overview Events Partition of ancient Israel into the Kingdoms of Judah and Israel (c. ...


Further excavations in Anuradhapura have uncovered information about the existence of a protohistoric habitation of humans in the citadel. The protohistoric Iron Age which spans from 900 - 600 BC, marked the appearance of iron technology, pottery, the horse, domestic cattle and paddy cultivation. In the time period 700 -600 BC the settlement in Anuradhapura had grown over an area of at least 50 ha. The city was strategically situated of major ports northwest and northeast, it was surrounded by irrigable and fertile land. The city was also buried deep in the jungle providing natural defence from invaders. HA, Ha, and ha can refer to various things, depending on case. ...


Lower Early Historic period


The Lower Early Historic period spanning from 500 - 250 BC, is studied on the lines of the chronicles. During this time King Pandukabhaya formally planned the city, with gates, quarters for traders etc. The city at the time would have covered an area of 1 square kilometre which makes it one of the largest in the continent at the time.


Beginnings

The layout of Anuradhapura as described in the Mahavamsa: The Mahavansha, also Mahawansha, (Pāli: great chronicle) is a historical record, often thought to be the oldest written record oh history, written in the Pāli language, of the Buddhist kings as well as Dravidian kings of Sri Lanka. ...

"He laid out (...) four suburbs as well as the Abhaya-tank, the common cemetery, the place of execution, and the chapel of the Queens of the West, the banyan-tree of Vessavana and the Palmyra-palm of the Demon of Maladies, the ground set apart for the Yonas and the house of the Great Sacrifice; all these he laid out near the west gate." Mahavamsa X, trans. Wilhelm Geiger
"A hermitage was made for many ascetics; eastward of that same cemetery the ruler built a house for the nigantha Jotiya.(...) On the further side of Jotiya's house and on this side of the Gamani tank he likewise built a monastery for wandering mendicant monks, and a dwelling for the ajivakas and a residence for the brahmans, and in this place and that he built a lying-in shelter and a hall for those recovering from sickness." Mahavamsa X, trans. Wilhelm Geiger

It is said that King Pandukabhaya made it his capital in the 4th century BC, and that he also laid out the town and its suburbs according to a well organised plan. He constructed a reservoir named Abhayavapi. He established shrines for yakkhas such as Kalawela and Cittaraja. He housed the Yaksini-Cetiya in the form of a mare within the royal precincts and offerings were made to all these demi-gods every year. He chose the sites for the cemetery and for the place of execution, the Chapel of the Western Queen, the Pacchimarajini, the Vessavana Banyan Tree, the Palm of the Vyadhadeva, the Yona Quarter and the House of the Great Sacrifice. The slaves or Candalas were assigned their duties and a village was set apart for them. They build dwellings for Niganthas, for wandering ascetics and for Ajivakas and Brahmanas. He established, the village boundaries. The tradition that King Pandukabhaya made Anuradhapura the capital city of Sri Lanka as early as the fourth century BC had been very important.


The administrative and sanitary arrangements be made for the city and the shrines he provided indicate that over the years the city developed according to an original master plan. His son Mutasiva, succeeded to the throne. During his reign of sixty years, he maintained Anuradhapura as his capital and further laid out the Mahameghavana Garden which was to play an important role in the early history of Buddhism in Sri Lanka. It was in the period of his successor, his son Devanam piya Tissa, that Buddhism was first introduced this island 236 years after the passing away of the Buddha. Emperor Ashoka in India was a contemporary of Devanam piya Tissa. Historically this period is considered to extend from 250 to 210 BC. This is the point at which a kingship began and a civilization developed based on one of the greatest religions of South Asia, Buddhism. Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ...


Hinduism and Anuradhapura

The capital of the Asura King Ravana in the Hindu epic Ramayana (The Epic of Lord Rama) is said to be situated in Anuradhapura. The capital was burnt down by legendary Rama devotee Lord Hanuman before the epic war. A popular legend among the Hindus says that a layer of ash is still to be found anywhere that you dig in Anuradhapura. // In Hinduism In Hindu mythology, the Asura (Sanskrit: असुर) are a group of power-seeking deities, sometimes misleadingly referred to as demons. ... A depiction of Ravana, Hindu rakshasa King of Lanka In Hinduism, Ravana; sometimes transliterated as Raavana or Ravan or Revana) is the principal antagonist of Rama in the Hindu epic, the Ramayana. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... Rama ( in IAST, in Devanāgarī) or Ramachandra is a legendary or historical king of ancient India. ... Hanuman (Sanskrit: ; nominative singular ), known also as Anjaneya, is one of the most important personalities in the Indian epic, the Ramayana. ...


Buddhism and Anuradhapura

With the introduction of Buddhism, the city gained more prominence and the great building era began. The Mahavamsa states that King Kutakannatissa built the first city wall to a height of seven cubits with a moat in front of the wall. This fortification was further enlarged by raising the wall a further 11 cubits to 18 cubits by King Vasabha. The king also added fortified gatehouses at the entrances of which the ruins can be seen to date. The Mahavamsa also states that soothsayers and architects were consulted in the construction. The Mahavansha, also Mahawansha, (Pāli: great chronicle) is a historical record, often thought to be the oldest written record oh history, written in the Pāli language, of the Buddhist kings as well as Dravidian kings of Sri Lanka. ... Cubit is the name for any one of many units of measure used by various ancient peoples. ...


Fa-Hsien the Chinese pilgrim who visited the city was impressed by the city and its planning. Fa-Hsien mentioned that there were two major segments of people living in the city, one segment being merchants whose houses were richly adorned. Studying some other chronicles gives light to the merchants which who were living in the city. It is noted that some of these merchants were of foreign origins. ie south Indian, Mediterraneans and Persians. The other segment consisted of city dwellers whose income came through agricultural production. Faxian (pinyin, Chinese characters: 法顯, also romanized as Fa-Hien or Fa-hsien) (ca. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ...


The Mahavamsa states that King Devanam piya Tissa recognized the importance of establishing Sima or Concecrated boundaries for the Uposatha and other acts of the Sangha. The king expresses his view that he himself and the inhabitants could live within the vision of Lord Buddha. King Devanmpiya Tissa then marked the boundaries of a specified area, the work commenced to build edifices in the Mahamegha Gardens.


The great building era

The Ruwanveli Saya Stupa in Anuradhapura
The Ruwanveli Saya Stupa in Anuradhapura

The great building era was when vast monastery complexes and some of the tallest buildings in the ancient world were built. The Jetavanaramaya dagoba of the city is still the highest brick structure in the world. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 1125 pixel, file size: 436 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 1125 pixel, file size: 436 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... // Jetavanaramaya Jetavanaramaya Jetavanaramaya The Stupa King Mahasen (273-301 AD) has the honour of being the creater of the largest stupa in Sri Lanka. ... The Great Stupa at Sanchi. ... For other uses, see Brick (disambiguation). ...


The Maha Vihara was centered around the orthodox Theravadins. This was founded by King Devanampiya Tissa in 249 BC. The heterdox Mahayanists founded the Abhayagiri Vihara. King Mahasena (275-310 BC) built the Jetavanaramaya located in between the Maha Vihara and the Abhayagiri Monasteries. Theravada (Pāli: theravāda; Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda; literally, the Way of the Elders) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand). ... The word Abhayagiri is Pali and means Fearless Mountain. The Abhayagiri Monastery is the first monastery in the United States to be established by followers of Ajahn Chah, a respected Buddhist Master of the ancient Thai forest tradition of Theravada Buddhism. ... // Jetavanaramaya Jetavanaramaya Jetavanaramaya The Stupa King Mahasen (273-301 AD) has the honour of being the creater of the largest stupa in Sri Lanka. ... The word Abhayagiri is Pali and means Fearless Mountain. The Abhayagiri Monastery is the first monastery in the United States to be established by followers of Ajahn Chah, a respected Buddhist Master of the ancient Thai forest tradition of Theravada Buddhism. ...


In the suburbs of the city major monasteries with their gigantic stupas were constructed, The Maha Thupa, the Bodhi Tree and Thuparama of the Maha Vihara stood to the south of the city. The Abhayagiri to the north, the Pubbarama to the east, the Tanovana to the north-west and the Jetavanaramaya to the south-east. The Great Stupa at Sanchi. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The word Abhayagiri is Pali and means Fearless Mountain. The Abhayagiri Monastery is the first monastery in the United States to be established by followers of Ajahn Chah, a respected Buddhist Master of the ancient Thai forest tradition of Theravada Buddhism. ... // Jetavanaramaya Jetavanaramaya Jetavanaramaya The Stupa King Mahasen (273-301 AD) has the honour of being the creater of the largest stupa in Sri Lanka. ...


The Sacred Tooth Relic was brought to the city in the reign of King Kirtisri Meghavana. The relic was deposited in a building named Dhammacakka. Since then annually it was carried in a procession to the Abhayagiri monastery after which an exposition was held. The word Abhayagiri is Pali and means Fearless Mountain. The Abhayagiri Monastery is the first monastery in the United States to be established by followers of Ajahn Chah, a respected Buddhist Master of the ancient Thai forest tradition of Theravada Buddhism. ...


The city grows

The city's popularity grew both as a ritual centre and as the administrative centre, a large population was attracted to the city for permanent settlement. Thus the living facilities were improved to accommodate the expanding population. King Vasabha constructed many ponds which were fed by a network of subterranean channels which were constructed to supply water to the city. Tissa and Abhayavapi tanks were built, the Nuwara weva was built and the Malwatu Oya was dammed to build the Maccaduwa wewa which was 4408 acres (17.84 km²) in size. The Tisza (in Hungarian, Ukrainian: Tysa/Тиса, Russian: Tisa/Тиса, Romanian, Slovak and Serbian: Tisa, German: Theiß, Latin: Tissus, Tisia or Pathissus) is a river, tributary of the Danube and one of the major rivers of Central Europe, passing through Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine...


Parks were also provided in the city. The Ranmasu Uyana below the bund of Tissavapi or Tisa weva was one such, but it was strictly reserved for the members of the royal family. Health care and education were two other aspects to which the authorities paid attention. There were several hospitals in the city. In the forth century King Upatissa II provided quarters and homes for the crippled and the blind. King Buddhadasa (337-365 AD), himself a physician of great repute, appointed a physician to be in charge of every ten villages. For the maintenance of these physicians, one tenth of the income from the fields was set apart. He also set up refuges for the sick in every village. Physicians were also appointed to look after the animals. Kassapa V (914-923 AD) founded a hospital close to the southern gate of Anuradhapura. General Sena in the tenth century is believed to have built a hospital close to the ceremonial street (Managala Veediya). The history of medical care began early, for in the fourth century BC King Pandukhabaya, in the course of sanitizing the town constructed a hospital. A large workforce was entrusted with the task of keeping the city clean. Buddhadasa Bhikkhu Buddhadasa Bhikkhu (Thai: พุทธทาสภิกขุ, May 27, 1906 - May 25, 1993) was one of the most influential Theravada Buddhist monks of the 20th century. ...


Large lakes were also constructed by the city's rulers to irrigate paddy lands and also to supply water to the city. Nuwara wewa and Tissa wewa are among the best known lakes in the city.


The great city

Anuradhapura attained its highest magnificence about the commencement of the Christian era. In its prime it ranked beside Nineveh and Babylon in its colossal proportions—its four walls, each 16 miles (26 km) long, enclosing an area of 256 square miles (663 km²) —in the number of its inhabitants, and the splendour of its shrines and public edifices. The city also had some of the most complex irrigation systems of the ancient world, situated in the dry zone of the country the administration built many tanks to irrigate the land. Most of these tanks still survive. To date, it is believed that some of these tanks are the oldest surviving reservoirs in the world today.


The city falls

Ancient Capitals of Sri Lanka
Tambapanni
Vijitapura
Anuradhapura
Polonnaruwa
Sigiriya
Ruhuna
Dambadeniya
Yapahuwa
Kurunegala
Dedigama
Gampola
Rayigama
Kotte
Kelaniya
Sitawaka
Kandy
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The city suffered much during the earlier South Indian invasions, and was finally abandoned by AD 1017. Tambapanni Vijitapura Anuradhapura Polonnaruwa Sigiriya Ruhuna Dambadeniya Yapahuwa Kurunagala Dedigama Gampola Rayigama Kotte Kelaniya Sitawaka Kandy ... Tambapanni is a name derived from Tamira Varni (in Sanskrit). ... Vijitapura is a town situated near Ratnapura in Sri Lanka and 20 km from Colombo. ... The second most ancient of Sri Lankas kingdoms, Polonnaruwa was first declared the capital city by King Vijayabahu I, who defeated the Chola invaders in 1070 CE to reunite the country once more under a local leader. ... Sigiriya is an archeological site in Central Sri Lanka. ... Yala National Park, also known as Ruhuna, is an important national park on the south east coast of Sri Lanka. ... Situated in the Wayamba province of Sri Lanka, Dambadeniya served as the capital of Sri Lanka in the mid 13th century. ... The rock fortress complex of Yapahuwa is situated in the Wayamba province of Sri Lanka. ... The 88 feet giant Buddha Statue on top of the Ethagala. ... Gampola is a large town located near Kandy in the Central Province of Sri Lanka. ... District Kotte Division, Colombo District Government  - Mayor Swarnalatha Silva (Sri Lanka Freedom Party) Area  - City 17 km²  (6. ... Kelaniya is a small town very close to Colombo, the capital of Sri Lanka. ... The Temple of the Tooth Relic in Kandy Kandy (මහනුවර/ සෙංකඩගල in Sinhala, கண்டி in Tamil) is the name used by British invaders for the city of Senkadagala (Mahanuwara) in the centre of Sri Lanka. ... Events Canute the Great is acclaimed king of England. ...


The city was the capital of the country continuously from the 5th century BC to AD 1017. Its decline began with continuous wars with the invading South Indians which made the kingdom economically poor. The city was sacked by a Chola invasion forces in 1017 and the governing capital was shifted to the relative safety of Polonnaruwa. The destruction caused to the city and its complex irrigation system was so great that the city was totally abandoned, and fell into decay for nearly a thousand years.[citation needed] (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 5th century BC started on January 1, 500 BC and ended on December 31, 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... Events Canute the Great is acclaimed king of England. ...


It was not until the 19th century that the jungle was cleared away, the ruins laid bare, and some measure of prosperity brought back to the surrounding country by the restoration of hundreds of village tanks by the British.


In ruins

The ruins consist of three classes of buildings, dagobas, monastic buildings, and pokunas. The dagobas are bell-shaped masses of masonry, varying from a few feet to over 1100 ft (340 m) in circumference. Some of them contain enough masonry to build a town for twenty-five thousand inhabitants. Remains of the monastic buildings are to be found in every direction in the shape of raised stone platforms, foundations and stone pillars. The most famous is the Brazen Palace erected by King Dutugamunu about 164 BC. The pokunas are bathing-tanks or tanks for the supply of drinking water, which are scattered everywhere through the jungle. The city also contains a sacred bo-tree, which is said to date back to the year 245 BC. The railway was extended from Kurunegala to Anuradhapura in 1905. Dutugemunu, also known as Dutthagamani and Gamini Abhaya, reigned 161 BC to 137 BC, was a Sinhalese king of the ancient kingdom of Rajarata in modern day northern Sri Lanka. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC - 160s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 169 BC 168 BC 167 BC 166 BC 165 BC - 164 BC - 163 BC 162 BC 161... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC - 240s BC - 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC Years: 250 BC 249 BC 248 BC 247 BC 246 BC - 245 BC - 244 BC 243 BC... The 88 feet giant Buddha Statue on top of the Ethagala. ...


Ancient Ruins

The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... An ancient Hindu temple in the capital Colombo, it shows the importance of Hindu architecture in Sri Lankan society The architecture of ancient Sri Lanka displays a rich variety of architectural forms. ...

Ruins of Anuradhapura

Eight Places of Veneration in Anuradhapura - Atamasthana Sri Maha bodhiya, Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. ...


Sri Maha bodhiya Sri Maha Bodhi is a Sacred Fig tree in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. ...

The bodhi tree at the Sri Maha bodhiya is protected by several other satellite trees.
The bodhi tree at the Sri Maha bodhiya is protected by several other satellite trees.
Abhayagiri Dagaba.
Abhayagiri Dagaba.

Ruwanwelisaya Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (802x602, 313 KB) Beschreibung Der Sri Maha Bodhi ist der älteste Baum auf diesem Planeten, dessen Geschichte dokumentiert ist. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (802x602, 313 KB) Beschreibung Der Sri Maha Bodhi ist der älteste Baum auf diesem Planeten, dessen Geschichte dokumentiert ist. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (480 × 640 pixel, file size: 67 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) AtulaSiriwardane 16:16, 11 April 2007 (UTC) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (480 × 640 pixel, file size: 67 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) AtulaSiriwardane 16:16, 11 April 2007 (UTC) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Ruwanwelisaya, in the sacred city of Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. ...


Thuparamaya Thera Mahinda himself introduced Theravada Buddhism and also chetiya worship to Sri Lanka. ...


Lovamahapaya Lovamahapaya is situated between Ruvanveliseya and Sri Mahabodiya in the Ancient city of Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. ...


Abhayagiri Dagaba Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Jetavanarama The Jetavanaramaya is a stupa, located in the ancient sacred city of Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. ...


Mirisaveti Stupa The Mirisaveti stupa is situated in the ancient city of Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. ...


Lankarama Lankarama is a stupa built by King Valagamba, in an ancient place at Galhebakada in the ancient kingdom of Anuradhapura, Sri lanka. ...


Other structures


Isurumuniya Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Magul Uyana The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


Vessagiri Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Rathna Prasadaya Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Queen's Palace


Dakkhina Stupa According to an inscription Dakkhina Stupa was constructed by Uttiya, a Minister of King Valagamba, in the Ancient Sacred city of Anuradhapura. ...


Sela Cetiya Sela Cetiya Is one of the 16 main places of worship or Solosmasthana and is situated to the west of Jetavanaramaya in the ancient sacred city of Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. ...


Naka Vihara The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


Kiribath Vehera Kiribath Vehera is situated in the ancient sacred city of Anuradhapura, Sri lanka. ...


Kuttam Pokuna Kuttam Pokuna // History One of the best specimen of Bathing Tanks or Pools in ancient Sri Lanka is the pair of pools known as Kuttam Pokuna (Twin Ponds/Pools). ...


Samadhi Statue Samadhi statue is a statue situated at Mahamevuna Park in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. ...


Toluwila Statue The Toluwila Statue has a close resemblance to the Samadhi statue at Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka was found among the ruins in a temple at Toluwila in Anuradhapura. ...

Kuttam Pokuna.
Kuttam Pokuna.


Other ruins Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


In the sacred city of Anuradhapura and in the vicinity are a large number of ruins. These have not been identified properly and many have been destroyed either by Tamil invaders or by vandals. Neither the tourists nor the pilgrims had paid much attention to these ruins and information regarding this is meager. Although Avukana is not situated in the sacred city of Anuradhapura, the pilgrims never fail to pay homage to this statue.


Demographics

Ethnicity Population % Of Total
Sinhalese 51,775 91.42
Sri Lankan Moors 3,825 6.75
Sri Lankan Tamils 850 1.50
Indian Tamils 45 0.08
Other (including Burgher, Malay) 137 0.24
Total 56,632 100

Source: www.statistics.gov.lk - Census 2001 Languages Sinhala Religions Theravada Buddhism, Christianity, small groups of atheists, agnostics, Muslims, others Related ethnic groups Indo-Aryans, Dravidians, Veddahs, Bengalis The Sinhalese are the main ethnic group of Sri Lanka. ... Islam in Sri Lanka is practiced entirely by Sri Lankan Muslims, who make up approximately 8% of the population, comprise a group of minorities practicing the religion of Islam in Sri Lanka. ... Sri Lankan Tamils also, Ceylonese or Ilankai Tamils are today a trans-national minority, and are Tamil people from Sri Lanka. ... For other usage of this term see the disambiguation page Sri Lanka Tamils The Sri Lanka Tamils of Indian origin or Hill Country Tamils, Up-country Tamils or Indian Tamils are descended from indentured workers sent from South India to Sri Lanka in the 19th and 20th centuries to work... The Burghers are a Eurasian ethnic group, historically from Sri Lanka, consisting for the most part of male-line descendants of European colonists from the 16th to 20th centuries (mostly Portuguese, Dutch and British) with local Sinhalese ancestry. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


See also


The Buddha statue of Avukana in Sri Lanka The Avukana Buddha Statue is one of the tallest statues of Sri Lanka. ... Sigiriya is an archeological site in Central Sri Lanka. ... The second most ancient of Sri Lankas kingdoms, Polonnaruwa was first declared the capital city by King Vijayabahu I, who defeated the Chola invaders in 1070 CE to reunite the country once more under a local leader. ... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ... Category: ... ...

Notes

  1. ^ The northern part of the river, near Manthota(Mannar), has gradually become Aruvi Aru since the 14th century; this name was incorrectly used by British map makers for the whole river. This is the second longest in Sri Lanka. The river served as the main water way connecting Anuradhapura to Manthota, and transported goods, travellers, monks and royal visitors to the capital.

References

  • Harischandra, B. W.: The Sacred City of Anuradhapura, Reprint. New Delhi, Asian Educational Services, 1998.
  • Nissanka, H.S.S.: Maha Bodhi Tree in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka : The Oldest Historical Tree in the World, New Delhi 1996, (Reprint. Vikas)
  • R. A. E. Coningham.: The Origins of the Brahmi Script Reconsidered: The New Evidence from Anuradhapura, Minerva 8(2): 27-31, 1995.
  • R. A. E. Coningham.: Anuradhapura Citadel Archaeological Project: Preliminary Results of a Season of Geophysical Survey. South Asian Studies 10: 179-188, 1994.
  • A. Seneviratne.: Ancient Anuradhapura The Monastic City, Archaeological Department of Sri Lanka. p. 310, 1994.
  • S. M. Burrows, The Buried Cities of Ceylon - A Guide Book to Anuradhapura and Polonaruwa Reprint, p. 120, 1999.

External links

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Sri Lankan Cities
Sri Lankan cities
Colombo(Commercial Capital) | Sri Jayewardenapura(National Capital) | Anuradhapura | Trincomalee | Jaffna | Kandy | Polonnaruwa | Galle | Batticaloa | Boralesgamuwa | Nuwara Eliya | Negombo | Kurunegala | Badulla | Dehiwala-Mount Lavinia | Moratuwa | Matara | Maharagama | Ratnapura

Coordinates: 8°21′N, 80°23′E Image File history File links Flag_of_Sri_Lanka. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
WWW Virtual Library: ANURADHAPURA (7163 words)
The Mahathupa, the Bodhi Tree and Thuparama of the Mahavihara stood to the south of the city, the Abhayagiri to the north, the Pubbarama to the east, the Tanovana to the north-west and the Jetavana to the south-east.
By the middle of the third century BC the fame of the capital city of Anuradhapura was known as far the Mediterranean and by the first century AD, during the reign of Bhatikabhaya, an embassy was sent to Rome to present its credentials to Claudius Caesar.
The grandeur of the ancient Anuradhapura that we see today is the result of the untiring efforts of patriotic religious people of Sri Lanka who contributed their share to preserve even a little of what their ancestores had left.
Anuradhapura (1575 words)
Anuradhapura was to continue for over a thousand years as the national capital.
Anuradhapura remained the capital of Sri Lanka until the 10th century A.D. The city of Anuradhapura, in its heyday, was the greatest city of all.
It is considered the greatest of the dagobas at Anuradhapura.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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