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Encyclopedia > Anunit
Ancient Middle Eastern deities
Levantine Semitic deities

Amurru | Anat | Asherah | Astarte | BaĘżal | Dagon | El | Hadad | Mot | Yaw The Levant or Sham (Arabic root word related to the term Semite) is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in Southwest Asia south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea in the west, and the north Arabian Desert and Mesopotamia to the east. ... Semitic gods refers to the gods or deities of peoples generally classified as speaking a Semitic language. ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Amurrū (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the middle Euphrates area from the second half of the third millennium BC and also appear in the Tanakh. ... Anat, also ‘Anat (in ASCII spelling `Anat and often simplified to Anat), Hebrew or Phoenician ענת (‘Anāt), Ugaritic ‘nt, Greek Αναθ (Englished as Anath), in Egyptian rendered as Antit, Anit, Anti (not to be confused with Anti) , or Anant, is a major northwest Semitic goddess. ... For the small research submarine, see Asherah (submarine). ... ‘Ashtart, commonly known as Astarte (also Hebrew or Phoenician עשתרת, Ugaritic ‘ttrt (also ‘Attart or ‘Athtart), Akkadian dAs_tar_tú (also Astartu), Greek Αστάρτη (Astártê)), was a major northwest_Semitic goddess, cognate in name, origin, and functions with the east-Semitic goddess Ishtar. ... Baal (בַּעַל / בָּעַל, Standard Hebrew Báʿal, Tiberian Hebrew Bá, i. ... // The ancient god Dagon Dagon was a major northwest Semitic god, the god of grain and agriculture according to the few sources to speak of the matter, worshipped by the early Amorites, by the people of Ebla, by the people of Ugarit and a chief god (perhaps the chief god... Ä’l is a northwest Semitic word and name translated into English as either god or God or left untranslated as El, depending on the context. ... Haddad - בעל הדד (in Ugaritic Haddu) was a very important northwest Semitic storm god and rain god, cognate in name and origin with the Akkadian god Adad. ... In Ugaritic Mot Death (spelled mt) is personified as a god of death. ... Yahu, Yah or Yaw is the name of one of the ilhm (Elohim) or sons of El. ...

Names of God in Judaism

Adonai | Elohim | Elyon | Hashem | Sabaoth | Shaddai | Shekinah | YHWH At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHWH), the name of God. ... Elohim (אלהים) or Eloah is a Hebrew word related to deity, but whose exact significance is often disputed. ... Elyon: The name or epithet or word ‘Elyôn (Masoretic pronunciation of Hebrew עליון), is traditionally rendered in Samaritan Hebrew as illiyyon, and means something like higher, upper. It derives from the Hebrew root ‘lh, Semitic root ‘ly go up, ascend. ‘Elyôn when is means God or is applied to God... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHWH), the name of God. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHWH), the name of God. ... Shekinah (שכינה - alternative transliterations Shechinah, Shekhina, Shechina) is the English spelling of the Hebrew language word that means the glory or radiance of God, or God resting in his house or Tabernacle amongst his people. ... The Tetragrammaton in Phoenician (1100 BC to AD 300), Aramaic (10th century BC to 1 BC) and modern Hebrew scripts. ...

Mesopotamian deities

Adad | An/Anu | Anshar | Asshur | Abzu/Apsu | Enki/Ea | Enlil | Ereshkigal | Inanna/Ishtar | Kingu | Kishar | Lahmu & Lahamu | Marduk | Mummu | Nabu | Nammu | Nanna/Sin | Nergal | Ninhursag/Damkina | Ninlil | Tiamat | Utu/Shamash Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian and Assyrian and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in modern Iraq. ... Adad in Akkadian and Ishkur in Sumerian are the names of the storm-god in the Babylonian-Assyrian pantheon, both usually written by the logogram dIM. The Akkadian god Adad is cognate in name and functions with northwest Semitic god Hadad. ... In Sumerian mythology, An was the god whose name was synonymous with the suns zenith, or heaven. ... In Sumerian mythology and later for Assyrians and Babylonians, Anu (see also An) was a sky-god, the god of heaven, lord of constellations, king of gods, spirits and demons, and dwelt in the highest heavenly regions. ... In Akkadian mythology and Sumerian mythology, Anshar (also Anshur, Ashur, Asshur) is the sky god. ... Asshur, son of Shem, the son of Noah. ... In Sumerian mythology Abzu or Apsu was the god of fresh water, also representing the primeval water and sometimes the cosmic abyss. ... Enki was a deity in Sumerian mythology, later known as Ea in Babylonian mythology. ... Enlil was the name of a chief deity in Babylonian religion, perhaps pronounced and sometimes rendered in translations as Ellil in later Akkadian. ... In Sumerian and Akkadian (Babylonian and Assyrian) mythology Ereshkigal, wife of Nergal, was the goddess of Hell. ... Innana was one of the most revered of Goddess names among the later Sumerian peoples. ... Kingu, also spelled Qingu, was a demon in Babylonian mythology, and the consort of the goddess Tiamat before she was slain by Marduk. ... Kishar is the begotten of Lahmu and Lahamu, two serpents. ... Lahmu is a little known god in Mesopotamia. ... Marduk and his dragon, from a Babylonian cylinder seal Marduk [märdook] (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian AMAR.UTU solar calf; Biblical Merodach) was the name of a late generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon, who, when Babylon permanently became the political center... Mummu vizer of primeval gods Apsu, the fresh water, and Tiamat, the salt water. ... It has been suggested that Nebo (god) be merged into this article or section. ... In Sumerian mythology, Nammu is probably the first of the ancient deities of Sumer — at least in the process of creation, if not in actual chronology. ... Nanna is a god in Sumerian mythology, god of the moon, son of Enlil and Ninlil. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The name Nergal (or Nirgal or Nirgali) refers to a deity in Babylonia with the main seat of his cult at Cuthah (or Kutha) represented by the mound of Tell-Ibrahim. ... In Sumerian mythology, Ninhursag (or Ki) was the earth and mother-goddess. ... In sumerian mythology : First called Sud then Ninlil, she is the daughter of Nammu and An. ... Tiamat is a primeval monster/goddess in Babylonian and Sumerian mythology, and a central figure in the Enûma Elish creation epic. ... In Sumerian mythology, Utu is the offspring of Nanna and Ningal and is the god of the sun and of justice. ... Shamash in his trone from the tablette of Sippar ca. ...

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Ishtar is the Akkadian counterpart to the Sumerian Inanna and to the cognate northwest Semitic goddess Astarte. Anunit, Astarte and Atarsamain are alternative names for Ishtar. Inanna, twin of Utu/Shamash, children of Nannar/Sin, first born on Earth of Enlil. The first names given are Sumerian, the second names derive from the Akkadians, who are a Semitic people who immigrated into Sumeria. Adding an [sh] to a name is typical Akkadian, as Anu to Anush. Akkad (or Agade) was a city and its region of northern Mesopotamia, situated on the left bank of the Euphrates, between Sippar and Kish (located in present-day Iraq, ca. ... Chaldean mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Assyrian and Babylonian mythologies, although Chaldea did not comprehend the whole territory inhabited by those peoples. ... Innana was one of the most revered of Goddess names among the later Sumerian peoples. ... ‘Ashtart, commonly known as Astarte (also Hebrew or Phoenician עשתרת, Ugaritic ‘ttrt (also ‘Attart or ‘Athtart), Akkadian dAs_tar_tú (also Astartu), Greek Αστάρτη (Astártê)), was a major northwest_Semitic goddess, cognate in name, origin, and functions with the east-Semitic goddess Ishtar. ... In Sumerian mythology, Utu is the offspring of Nanna and Ningal and is the god of the sun and of justice. ... Shamash in his trone from the tablette of Sippar ca. ... SiN is a computer game developed by Ritual Entertainment and published by Activision in late 1998. ... Enlil was the name of a chief deity in Babylonian religion, perhaps pronounced and sometimes rendered in translations as Ellil in later Akkadian. ... Sumer (or Shumer, Sumeria, Shinar, native ki-en-gir) formed the southern part of Mesopotamia from the time of settlement by the Sumerians until the time of Babylonia. ... Akkadian language city of Akkad or Agad Akkadian Empire Sargon of Akkad the Amarna letters and Amarna Letters EA 296(Yahtiru) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Semitic is a linguistic term referring to a subdivision of largely Middle Eastern Afro-Asiatic languages, cultures, and ethnicities. ...

Detail of the reconstructed Ishtar Gate
Detail of the reconstructed Ishtar Gate

The goddess represents the planet Venus. (A continent on Venus is named Ishtar Terra by astronomers today.) The double aspect of the goddess may correspond to the difference between Venus as a morning star and as an evening star. In Sumerian the planet is called "MUL.DILI.PAT" meaning "unique star". The name Inanna (sometimes spelled Inana) means "Great Lady of An", where An is the god of heaven. The meaning of Ishtar is not known, though it is possible that the underlying stem is the same as that of Assur, which would thus make her the "leading one" or "chief". In any event, it is now generally recognized that the name is Semitic in origin. Detail of the Ishtar Gate (Pergamon Museum, Berlin. ... Detail of the Ishtar Gate (Pergamon Museum, Berlin. ... The reconstructed Ishtar Gate in the Pergamon Museum in Berlin A detail from the reconstructed gate. ... (*min temperature refers to cloud tops only) Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 9. ... The largest continent on the planet Venus. ... Morning Star may mean: Morning Star (chief), a Cheyenne leader, also known as Dull Knife. ... Evening Star may be: Venus as a brilliant Evening Star as seen near the cresent moon The planet Venus BR 92220 Evening Star, a BR standard class 9F locomotive and the last steam locomotive to be built by British Railways. ... In Sumerian mythology, An was the god whose name was synonymous with the suns zenith, or heaven. ... The city of Asshur (or Assur or Ashur) on the Tigris was originally a colony of Babylonia, and later became the first capital city of Assyria, to which it gave its name. ... Semitic is an adjective which in common parlance mistakenly refers specifically to Jewish things, while the term actually refers to things originating among speakers of Semitic languages or people descended from them, and in a linguistic context to the northeastern subfamily of Afro-Asiatic. ...


The Sumerian Inanna was first worshiped at Uruk (Erech in the Bible, Unug in Sumerian) in the earliest period of Mesopotamian history. In incantations, hymns, myths, epics, votive inscriptions, and historical annals, Inanna/Ishtar was celebrated and invoked as the force of life. But there were two aspects to this goddess of life. She was the goddess of fertility and sexuality, and could also destroy the fields and make the earth's creatures infertile. She was invoked as a goddess of war, battles, and the chase, particularly among the warlike Assyrians. Before the battle Ishtar would appear to the Assyrian army, clad in battle array and armed with bow and arrow. (compare Greek Athena.) Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles SSE from Baghdad. ... For uses in the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkiens, see Uruk-hai, Erech (Middle-earth). ... The Bible (sometimes The Book, Good Book, Word of God, The Word, or Scripture), from Greek (τα) βιβλια, (ta) biblia, (the) books, plural of βιβλιον, biblion, book, originally a diminutive of βιβλος, biblos, which in turn is derived from βυβλος—byblos, meaning papyrus, from the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos which exported this writing material... Sumerian list of gods in cuneiform script, ca. ... This article concerns the Assyrian people. ... Athena from the east pediment of the Afea temple in Aegina After a sculpture of Athena at the Louvre. ...


One of the most striking Sumerian myths describes Inanna passing through seven gates of hell into the underworld. At each gate some of her clothing and her ornaments are removed until at the last gate she is entirely naked. Ereshkigal, the queen of the underworld kills her and hangs her corpse on a hook on the wall. When Inanna returns from the underworld by intercession of the clever god, her uncle, Enki, according to the rules she must find someone to take her place. On her way home she encounters her friends prostrated with grief at her loss, but in Kulaba, her cult city, she finds her lover Dumuzi, a son of Enki, Tammuz seated in splendour on a throne, so she has him seized and dragged below. Later, missing him, she arranges for his sister to substitute for him during six months of the year. (Compare Greek story of Persephone) In Sumerian and Akkadian (Babylonian and Assyrian) mythology Ereshkigal, wife of Nergal, was the goddess of Hell. ... Tammuz or Tamuz (Arabic تمّوز Tammūz; Hebrew תַּמּוּז, Standard Hebrew Tammuz, Tiberian Hebrew Tammûz; Akkadian Duʾzu, Dūzu; See also Tammuz (month). ... In Greek mythology, Persephone (Greek Περσεφόνη, Classical Greek Persephónē, Modern Greek Persefóni) was the queen of the Underworld, the Kore or young maiden, and the daughter of Demeter. ...


In all the great centres Inanna and then Ishtar had her temples: E-anna, "house of An", in Uruk; E-makh, "great house", in Babylon; E-mash-mash, "house of offerings", in Nineveh. Inanna was the guardian of prostitutes, and probably had priestess-prostitutes to serve her. She was served by priests as well as by priestesses. The (later) votaries of Ishtar were virgins who, as long as they remained in her service, were not permitted to marry. Inanna was also associated with beer, and was the patroness of tavern keepers, who were usually female in early Mesopotamia. Babylon is the Greek variant of Akkadian Babilu, an ancient city in Mesopotamia (Location: 32° 32′ 11″ N, 44° 25′ 15″ E, modern Al Hillah, Iraq). ... This article is about the ancient Middle Eastern city of Nineveh. ... Generally, patronage is the act of supporting or favoring some person, group, or institution. ... A tavern is, loosely, a place of business where people gather to drink alcoholic beverages and, more than likely, also be served food, though not licenced to put up guests. ...


Ishtar is also an omnipresent figure in the epic of Gilgamesh. She appears also on the Uruk vase, one of the most famous ancient Mesopotamian artifacts. The relief on this vase seems to show Inanna conferring kingship on a supplicant. Various inscriptions and artifacts indicate that kingship was one of the gifts bestowed by Inanna on the ruler of Uruk. Gilgamesh and Enkidu, cylinder seal from Ur III According to the Sumerian king list, Gilgamesh was the fifth king of Uruk (Early Dynastic II, first dynasty of Uruk), the son of Lugalbanda. ... Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles SSE from Baghdad. ...


On monuments and seal-cylinders Inanna/Ishtar appears frequently with bow and arrow, though also simply clad in long robes with a crown on her head and an eight-rayed star as her symbol. Statuettes have been found in large numbers representing her as naked with her arms folded across her breast or holding a child.


Together with the moon god Nanna or Suen (Sin in Akkadian), and the sun god Utu (Shamash in Akkadian), Inanna/Ishtar is the third figure in a triad deifying and personalizing the moon, the sun, and the earth: Moon (wisdom), Sun (justice) and Earth (life force). This triad overlies another: An, heaven; Enlil, earth; and Enki (Ea in Akkadian), the watery deep. In the study of mythology, a lunar deity is a god or goddess associated with or symbolizing the Moon: see Moon (mythology). ... Nanna is the name of two deities: God of the moon in Sumerian mythology and Nanna, the wife of Balder in Norse mythology There are also a kind of Corsican music called nanna. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A solar deity is a deity who represents the Sun. ... In Sumerian mythology, Utu is the offspring of Nanna and Ningal and is the god of the sun and of justice. ... Shamash in his trone from the tablette of Sippar ca. ... Enlil was the name of a chief deity in Babylonian religion, perhaps pronounced and sometimes rendered in translations as Ellil in later Akkadian. ... EA, Ea, or ea can signify several things. ...


Ishtar in popular culture

  • Another Ishtar is a character in Namco's Tower of Druaga series. She is rumored to be the same Ishtar as the Akkadian goddess (usually by fans and critics alike), but there is not enough information to clarify whether she is the same goddess (or even a goddess). She is portrayed as kindly in the original tetrology (The Quest of Ki, The Tower of Druaga, The Return of Ishtar, and The Blue Crystal Rod), but is portrayed as bad-humored in Nightmare of Druaga.
  • Ishtar is also the elemental Goddess of Virtue in the Ogre Battle Series, and sister of Lodisian chief God, Filahr. When her prowess is invoked, she sends her flying squirrel avatar, ignis fatuus to decimate undead and demonic enemies. In the most recent installation of the series (Tactics Ogre Gaiden: The Knight of Lodis), her name was altered to "Ishtalle."
  • In the comic book series Sandman by Neil Gaiman, Ishtar appears as the goddess trying to live in modern times as an exotic dancer.
  • The name Ishtar also appears in Konami's Yu-Gi-Oh games. Ishtar is the name of a family including Marik and Ishizu.
  • In Virgin Publishing's "Doctor Who:The New Adventures", the book "Timewyrm:Genesis" portrays Ishtar/Innana as a criminal space traveller, stranded on Earth, who usurps local beliefs to effect her escape. The main characters from the Epic of Gilgamesh feature prominently.
  • In the game Sailor Moon: Another Story, Ishtar is a member of the Opposit Senshi and the direct counterpart of Sailor Venus who is referenced to Aphrodite.
  • In the depths of the internet, there exists a lowly cartoon message board. It is on this site, in a folder known only as Babbling, that the mysterious and erotic tradition of Ishtar poetry has been revived.
  • In the Japanese manga Red River (aka Sora wa Akai Kawa no Hotori, and Anatolia Story) by Chie Shinohara, the main character Yuuri gets sucked into Ancient Anatolia where the Hittites believe she is Ishtar.
  • In Stargate SG-1 season 7 episode "Birth Right" and season 8 episode "Sacrifices", Ishta(r) (played by former Star Trek Enterprise actress, Jolene Blalock) is a priestess of the Goa'uld System Lord Moloc. She secretely protects and helps women Jaffa warriors to escape from Moloc's maiden sacrifice rituals. Ishtar lived together with her group of Amazon-like warriors in a planet called Ha'ktyl but they fled to Earth when Moloc became awared of their sanctuary's location.
  • Ishtar also appears in the Fire Emblem Series; more specifically, Fire Emblem: Seisen no Keifu. She is a thunder mage who fights against Celice in the second story, but she is defeated near the game's end.

 
 

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