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Encyclopedia > Anubis
Anubis
Anubis
Anubis
in hieroglyphs

Anubis is the Greek name for a jackal-headed god associated with mummification and the afterlife in Egyptian mythology. In the ancient Egyptian language, Anubis is known as Inpu, (variously spelled Anupu, Wip, Ienpw etc.). The oldest known mention of Anubis is in the Old Kingdom pyramid texts, where he is associated with the burial of the king.[1] Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Anubis is an ancient Egyptian god. ... A section of the Papyrus of Ani showing cursive hieroglyphs. ... Species Canis aureus Canis adustus Canis mesomelas A jackal (from Turkish çakal, via Persian shaghal ultimately from Sanskrit sṛgālaḥ [1][2]) is any of three (sometimes four) small to medium-sized members of the family Canidae, found in Africa, Asia and Southeastern Europe. ... This article is about the term Deity in the context of mysticism and theology. ... Look up mummification in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Egyptian mythology or Egyptian religion is the succession of tentative beliefs held by the people of Egypt for over three thousand years, prior to major exposure to Christianity and Islam. ... The Old Kingdom is the name commonly given to that period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization in complexity and achievement – this was the first of three so-called Kingdom periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the lower Nile... The Pyramid Texts are a collection of Ancient Egyptian religious texts from the time of the Old Kingdom, mostly inscriptions found in pyramids. ...


Anubis takes various titles in connection with his funerary role, such as He who is upon his mountain, which underscores his importance as a protector of the deceased and their tombs, and the title He who is in the place of embalming, associating him with the process of mummification.[1] Like many ancient Egyptian deities, Anubis assumes different roles in various contexts, and no public procession in Egypt would be conducted without an Anubis to march at the head. Ancient Egyptian religion encompasses the beliefs and rituals of Ancient Egypt. ...

Contents

Portrayal

Anubis in the form of a jackal perched atop and guarding a tomb
Anubis in the form of a jackal perched atop and guarding a tomb

Anubis was usually portrayed as a jackal-headed human, or in fully canine form wearing a ribbon and holding a flail in the crook of its arm. The canine is strongly associated with cemeteries in ancient Egypt, as dogs and jackals often haunted the edges of the desert where the dead were buried. Anubis is depicted in fully human form very rarely. His skin is usually depicted in black because the ancient Egyptians used that color for afterlife, death, and night.[1] Species Canis aureus Canis adustus Canis mesomelas A jackal (from Turkish çakal, via Persian shaghal ultimately from Sanskrit sṛgālaḥ [1][2]) is any of three (sometimes four) small to medium-sized members of the family Canidae, found in Africa, Asia and Southeastern Europe. ... For other uses, see Afterlife (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ... This article is about the time of day. ...


Anubis is depicted in funerary contexts where he is shown attending to the mummies of the deceased or sitting atop a tomb protecting it. In fact, during embalming, the "head embalmer" wore an Anubis costume. The critical weighing of the heart scene in Book of the Dead also show Anubis performing the measurement that determined the worthiness of the deceased to enter the realm of the dead (the underworld). New Kingdom tomb-seals also depict Anubis atop nine bows that symbolize his domination over the foes of Egypt![1] Mummified cat from Ancient Egypt. ... For other uses, see Book of the Dead (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Underworld (disambiguation). ... The maximum territorial extent of Egypt (XVth century BC) The New Kingdom, sometimes referred to as the Egyptian Empire, is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. ... The Nine Bows were the traditional enemies of Ancient Egypt. ...


Early connection to other gods

Originally, in the Ogdoad system, he was god of the underworld. He was said to have a wife, Anput (who was really just his female aspect, her name being his with an additional feminine suffix: the t), who was depicted exactly the same, though feminine. He is also listed to have taken to wife the feminine form of Neheb Kau, Nehebka, and Kebechet, the goddess of cold water and the purification of body organs due to be placed in canopic jars during mummification. Kebechet is also listed as his daughter in some places. His father was originally Ra in many papyrus records which were found in pyramids, (Anubis was the fourth son of Ra.) But in after ages, his father was said to be Osiris, as he was the god of the dead, and his mother was said to be Nephthys. In Egyptian mythology, the Ogdoad are the eight deities worshipped in Hermopolis. ... In Egyptian mythology, Duat (also called Akert or Amenthes) is the underworld, where the sun traveled from west to east during the night and where dead souls were judged by Osiris, using a feather, representing Truth. ... Look up affix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Kebechet was the goddess of freshness and purification in Egyptian mythology. ... 19th Dynasty canopic jars of alabaster (Berlin) Among the ancient Egyptians, canopic jars were covered funerary vases, intended to keep the viscera of mummified corpses. ... For other uses, see Mummy (disambiguation). ... Kebechet was the goddess of freshness and purification in Egyptian mythology. ... For other uses, see Ra (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Osiris (disambiguation). ... Nephthys In Egyptian mythology, Nephthys (spelled Nebet-het, and Nebt-het, in transliteration from Egyptian hieroglyphs) is one of the Ennead of Heliopolis, a daughter of Nut and Geb, and the sister/wife of Set. ...


Embalmer

Anubis attending the mummy of the deceased
Anubis attending the mummy of the deceased

As one of the most important funerary rites in Egypt involved the process of embalming, so it was that Anubis became the god of embalming, in the process gaining titles such as "He who belongs to the mummy wrappings", and "He who is before the divine embalming booth". High priests often wore Anubis masks to perform the ceremonial deeds of embalming (mummification). It also became said frequently in the Book of the Dead, that it had been Anubis who embalmed the dead body of Osiris (which would make him the older sibling of Horus), with the assistance of the other main funerary deities involved - Nephthys and Isis. Having become god of embalming, Anubis became strongly associated with the (currently) mysterious and ancient imiut fetish, present during funerary rites, and Bast, who by this time was goddess of ointment, initially became thought of as his wife. He watched over the mummification process. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Embalming, in most modern cultures, is the art and science of temporarily preserving human remains to forestall decomposition and to make them suitable for display at a funeral. ... Look up mummification in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Book of the Dead (disambiguation). ... Ihy redirects here. ... Nephthys In Egyptian mythology, Nephthys (spelled Nebet-het, and Nebt-het, in transliteration from Egyptian hieroglyphs) is one of the Ennead of Heliopolis, a daughter of Nut and Geb, and the sister/wife of Set. ... ISIS (Image and Scanner Interface Specification) is an industry standard interface for image scanning technologies, developed by Pixel Translations in 1990 (today: EMC captiva). ... The imiut fetish has been documented throughout the history of Ancient Egypt. ... In Egyptian mythology, Bast (also spelt Ubasti, and Pasht) is an ancient goddess, worshipped at least since the Second Dynasty, for whom the centre of her cult was in Per-Bast (Bubastis in greek), which was named after her. ...


Later perception

Following the merging of the Ennead and Ogdoad belief systems, as a result of the identification of Atum with Ra, and their compatibility, Anubis became considered a lesser god in the underworld, giving way to the more popular Osiris. Indeed, when the Legend of Osiris and Isis emerged, it was said that when Osiris had died, Osiris' organs were given to Anubis as a gift. The Ennead (a word derived from Greek, meaning the nine) is a grouping of nine deities, most often used in the context of Egyptian mythology. ... History Atum (alternatively spelt Tem, Temu, Tum, and Atem) is an early deity in Egyptian mythology, whose cult centred on the Ennead of Heliopolis. ... For other uses, see Osiris (disambiguation). ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ...


Since he had been more associated with beliefs about the weighing of the heart than had Osiris, Anubis retained this aspect, and became considered more the gatekeeper and ruler of the underworld, the "Guardian of the veil" (of "death"). As such, he was said to protect souls as they journeyed there, and thus be the patron of lost souls (and consequently orphans). Anubis was frequently depicted in editions of the Book of Dead as performing the "Opening of the Mouth" ceremony on the mummy and statues of the deceased, as well as escorting the spirit of the deceased into the presence of Osiris in the underworld. Subsequently, the god is often shown weighing the heart of the deceased against the feather of truth (Ma'at) in the presence of Thoth (as scribe, writing down the recordings) and Osiris (as judge). Rather than god of death, he had become god of dying, and consequently funeral arrangements. It was as the god of dying that his identity merged with that of Wepwawet, a similar jackal-headed god, associated with funerary practice, who had been worshiped in Lower Egypt, whereas Anubis' cult had centered in Upper Egypt. For other uses, see Orphan (disambiguation). ... This article concerns the military rank of Maat. ... Thoth (Ramesseum, Luxor) Thoth (his Greek name derived from the Egyptian *, written by Egyptians as ) was considered one of the most important deities of the Egyptian pantheon, often depicted with the head of an ibis. ... In Egyptian mythology, Wepwawet (also spelt Upuaut, Wep-wawet, and Ophois) was originally a war god, whose cult centre was Atef-Khent (Lycopolis), in Upper Egypt. ... Map of Lower and Upper Egypt Lower Egypt is the northern-most section of Egypt. ... Map of Upper and Lower Egypt Ancient Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, known as Upper and Lower Egypt. ...


However, as lesser of the two gods of the underworld, he gradually became considered the son of Osiris, but Osiris' wife, Isis, was not considered his mother, since she too inappropriately was associated with life. Instead, his mother became considered to be Nephthys, who had become strongly associated with funerary practice, indeed had in some ways become the personification of mourning, and was said to supply bandages to the deceased. Subsequently, this apparent infidelity of Osiris was explained in myth, in which it was said that a sexually frustrated Nephthys had disguised herself as Isis in order to appeal to her husband, Set, but he did not notice her as he was infertile. However, Isis' husband Osiris mistook Nephthys for his wife, which resulted in Anubis' birth. Other versions of the myth depict Set as the father, and it remains unclear as to whether Set was truly infertile or not. ISIS (Image and Scanner Interface Specification) is an industry standard interface for image scanning technologies, developed by Pixel Translations in 1990 (today: EMC captiva). ... Nephthys In Egyptian mythology, Nephthys (spelled Nebet-het, and Nebt-het, in transliteration from Egyptian hieroglyphs) is one of the Ennead of Heliopolis, a daughter of Nut and Geb, and the sister/wife of Set. ... Margaret of Spain, Empress of Austria, in Mourning, 1666; note the children and servants in mourning dress behind her. ... Set In Ancient Egyptian mythology, Set (also spelled Seth, Sutekh or Seteh) is an ancient god, who was originally the god of the desert, storms, and chaos. ... Infertility primarily refers to the biological inability of a man or a woman to contribute to conception. ... Set, in KV34 Set (also Setekh, Seth, etc) was originally a god of strength, war, storms, foreign lands (and foreigners) and deserts in Egyptian mythology. ... For other uses, see Father (disambiguation). ...


Perception outside Egypt

Statue of Hermanubis (Vatican Museums)
Statue of Hermanubis (Vatican Museums)

In later times, during the Ptolemaic period, as their functions were similar, Anubis came to be identified as the Greek god Hermes, becoming Hermanubis. The centre of this cult was in uten-ha/Sa-ka/ Cynopolis, a place whose Greek name simply means "city of dogs". In Book XI of "The Golden Ass" by Apuleius, we find evidence that the worship of this god was maintained in Rome at least up to the 2nd century. Indeed, Hermanubis also appears in the alchemical and hermetical literature of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 431 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1125 × 1566 pixel, file size: 240 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Statue of the Egyptian god Anubis (showing the attributes of the Greek god Hermes, with whom he was identified). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 431 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1125 × 1566 pixel, file size: 240 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Statue of the Egyptian god Anubis (showing the attributes of the Greek god Hermes, with whom he was identified). ... In classical mythology, Hermanubis was a god who combined Hermes (Greek mythology) with Anubis (Egyptian mythology). ... Entrance to the museum Staircase of the Vatican Museum The Vatican Museums (Musei Vaticani) are the public art and sculpture museums in the Vatican City, which display works from the extensive collection of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt began following Alexander the Greats conquest in 332 BC and ended with the death of Cleopatra VII and the Roman conquest in 30 BC. It was founded when Ptolemy I Soter declared himself Pharaoh of Egypt, creating a powerful Hellenistic state from southern Syria... For other uses, see Hermes (disambiguation). ... In classical mythology, Hermanubis was a god who combined Hermes (Greek mythology) with Anubis (Egyptian mythology). ... In traditional usage, the cult of a religion, quite apart from its sacred writings (scriptures), its theology or myths, or the personal faith of its believers, is the totality of external religious practice and observance, the neglect of which is the definition of impiety. ... Cynopolis, the Greek name for the ancient Egyptian town Hardai [1] in the seventeenth nome of Upper Egypt, was home to the cult of Anupet, the feminine form of Anubis [2], and of Anubis [3]. It was destroyed by the vice-roy of Nubia Pinehesy during the reign of Ramses... The Metamorphoses of Lucius Apuleius, which according to St. ... Lucius Apuleius (c. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... This article is about the magical and religious movement stemming from the teachings of Hermes Trismegistus. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ...


Although the Greeks and Romans typically scorned Egypt's animal-headed gods as bizarre and primitive (they mockingly called Anubis the "Barker"), Anubis was sometimes associated with Sirius in heaven, and Cerberus in hell. History - Ancient history - Ancient Rome This is a List of Ancient Rome-related topics, that aims to include aspects of both the Ancient Roman Republic and Roman Empire. ... This article is about the brightest star in the night sky of Earth. ... This article is about the mythical three-headed dog. ...


Early Christians were also repulsed by Anubis; the writer Tertullian claimed that the Egyptians practiced a "despicable religion" in which the worshiper is "led like a slave by the greedy throat and filthy habits of a dog." Although it is true that his two emblematic creatures, the jackal and the dog, were in the ancient world notorious scavengers, one of the main functions of Anubis was to release the human body at death from the uncleanness that possessed it. He washed the body, embalmed it, perfumed it with myrrh, wrapped it with clean linen and received it at the door of the tomb – to the Egyptians he was "Lord of the Cleansing Room." Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicised as Tertullian, (ca. ...


References

  1. ^ a b c d Wilkinson, Richard H. (2003). The complete gods and goddesses of ancient Egypt. London: Thames & Hudson, 188-190. ISBN 0-500-05120-8. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Anubis
  • Anubis - Archaeowiki.org

  Results from FactBites:
 
Anubis (743 words)
Just what type of animal Anubis is represented by is unknown as well; definitely canid and most likely a jackal or a wild dog -- or a hybrid of both -- but, as in the case of Seth, with alterations that deliberately smudge the lines of reality.
In the earliest period of Egyptian religion Anubis was clearly the lord of the dead and Osiris the embalmed god while Anubis performed the act of embalming.
Anubis is depicted most often as a man with the head of a fl canid with alert, pointed ears.
Anubis - LoveToKnow 1911 (352 words)
Anubis was the principal god in the capitals of the XVIIth and XVIIIth nomes of Upper Egypt, and secondary god in the XIIIth and probably in the XIIth nome; but his cult was universal.
Anubis was believed to have been the embalmer of Osiris: the mummy of Osiris, or of the deceased, on a bier, tended by this god, is a very common subject on funerary tablets of the late periods.
Anubis came to be considered especially the attendant of the gods and conductor of the dead, and hence was commonly identified with Hermes (cf.
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