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Encyclopedia > Antonio Vivaldi
Portrait of Antonio Vivaldi
Portrait of Antonio Vivaldi

Antonio Lucio Vivaldi (March 4, 1678 – July 27 or 28, 1741), nicknamed Il Prete Rosso ("The Red Priest"), was a Venetian priest and baroque music composer, as well as a famous virtuoso violinist; he was born and raised in the Republic of Venice. The Four Seasons, a series of four violin concertos, is his best known work and a highly popular Baroque music piece. Vivaldi can refer to: Antonio Vivaldi, the Baroque music composer Vivaldi (film), a 2008 film about Antonio Vivaldi Vandino and Ugolino Vivaldi, brothers who were Genovese explorers in the 13th century Vivaldi Potatoes, a variety of potato that is scientifically engineered to be lower in calories and carbohydrates Vivaldi Atlantic... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 479 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (511 × 640 pixel, file size: 131 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) from portrait. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 479 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (511 × 640 pixel, file size: 131 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) from portrait. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events August 10 - Treaty of Nijmegen ends the Dutch War. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... This article is about religious workers. ... Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... The Four Seasons (Le quattro stagioni in original Italian) is a set of four violin concertos by Antonio Vivaldi. ... A violin concerto is a concerto for solo violin (occasionally, two or more violins) and instrumental ensemble, customarily orchestra. ... Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750. ...

Contents

Biography

Youth

Antonio Lucio Vivaldi was born in Venice, the capital of the Republic of Venice. He was baptized immediately at his home by the midwife. It is not known how the life of the infant was in danger, but the immediate baptism was most likely due to his poor health or to an earthquake that shook the city that day. Vivaldi's official church baptism (at least, the rites which remained other than the actual baptism itself) did not take place until two months later. His father, Giovanni Battista, a barber before becoming a professional violinist, taught him to play violin and then toured Venice playing the violin with his young son. Giovanni Battista was one of the founders of the Sovvegno dei musicisti di Santa Cecilia, a sort of trade union for musicians and composers. The president of the association was Giovanni Legrenzi, the maestro di cappella at St. Mark's Basilica and noted early Baroque composer. It is possible that the young Antonio's first lessons in composition were imparted by him. The Luxemburgese scholar Walter Kolneder sees in the early liturgical work Laetatus sum (RV Anh 31, written in 1691, at the age of 13) an influence of Legrenzi's style. His father may have been a composer himself: in 1688 an opera titled ''La Fedeltà sfortunata was composed by a Giovanni Battista Rossi, and this was the name under which Vivaldi's father had joined the Sovvegno di Santa Cecilia ("Rossi" for "Red", because of the colour of his hair, a family trait). For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... Baptism is a water purification ritual practiced in certain religions such as Christianity, Mandaeanism, Sikhism, and some historic sects of Judaism. ... A boy visiting a barber A barber (from the Latin barba, beard) is someone whose occupation is to cut any type of hair, give shaves, and trim beards. ... A violinist is an instrumentalist who plays the violin. ... Giovanni Legrenzi (baptized August 12, 1626 – May 27, 1690) was an Italian composer and organist of the Baroque era. ... San Marco di Venezia, as seen from the Piazza San Marco St Marks Basilica (Italian: Basilica di San Marco in Venezia) is the most famous of the churches of Venice and one of the best known examples of Byzantine architecture. ... A certain Peter Ryom took it upon himself to catalog Antionio Vivaldis musical works and called the catalog, Ryom Verzeichnis (RV for short. ...


Vivaldi had a medical problem which he called the tightening of the chest (probably some form of asthma). His medical problem, however, did not prevent him from learning to play the violin, composing or taking part in many musical activities. At the age of 15 (1693), he began studying to become a priest. In 1703, at the age of 25, Vivaldi was ordained as a priest, soon nicknamed Il Prete Rosso, "The Red Priest", probably because of his red hair. This article is about religious workers. ...


Not long after his ordination, in 1704, he was given a dispensation from celebrating the Holy Mass because of his ill health. In late 1706 he withdrew from active priesthood. Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger (now Pope Benedict XVI) presiding at the 2005 Easter Vigil Mass in place of the dying Pope John Paul II. Mass is the term used of the celebration of the Eucharist in the Latin rites of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


At the Ospedale della Pietà

On 1 December 1703, Vivaldi became maestro di violino (master of violin) at an orphanage called the Pio Ospedale della Pietà (Devout Hospital of Mercy) in Venice. There were four such institutions in Venice. Their purpose was to give shelter and education to children who were abandoned, orphaned, or whose families could not support them. They were financed by funds provided by the Republic. The boys learned a trade and had to leave at age 15. The girls received musical education and the most talented stayed and became members of the Ospedale's renowned orchestra and choir. is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 2 - Earthquake in Aquila, Italy February 4 - In Japan, the 47 samurai commit seppuku (ritual suicide) February 14 - Earthquake in Norcia, Italy April 21 - Company of Quenching of Fire (ie. ... The Ospedale della Pietà is a convent orphanage and music school in Venice. ...


Shortly after his appointment, the orphans began to gain appreciation and esteem abroad, too; Vivaldi wrote for them most of his concertos, cantatas, and sacred music. In 1704 the position of teacher of viola all'inglese was added to his duty as violin instructor.


His relation with the board of directors of the Ospedale was often strained. The board had to take a vote every year on whether to keep a teacher. The vote on Vivaldi was seldom unanimous and in 1709 he lost his job after a 7 against 6 vote. After a year as free-lance musician, he was recalled by the Ospedale with a unanimous vote in 1711; clearly the board had realized the importance of his role by then. In 1713 he became responsible for the musical activity of the institute. Vivaldi was promoted to maestro de' concerti in 1716.


It was during these years that Vivaldi wrote much of his music, including many operas and concerti. In 1705, the first collection (Raccolta) of his works was published: his Opus 1 is a collection of 12 sonatas for two violins and basso continuo, still in a conventional style. In 1709 a second collection of 12 sonatas for violin & basso continuo appeared (Opus 2). The real breakthrough came with his first collection of 12 concerti for one, two, and four violins with strings, L'estro Armonico (Opus 3), which was published in Amsterdam in 1711 by Estienne Roger. This was a resounding success all over Europe, and was followed in 1714 by La stravaganza (Opus 4), a collection of concerti for solo violin and strings. Lestro Armonico (approximately the harmonic fancy in Italian) is a Baroque example of classical music, consisting of twelve concerti written by Antonio Vivaldi in 1711. ... Antonio Vivaldi wrote a set of concertos, op. ...


In February 1711, Vivaldi and his father went to Brescia where his setting of the Stabat Mater (RV 621) was played as part of a religious festival. The work seems to have been written in haste: the string parts are simple, the music of the first three movements is repeated in the next three, and not all the text is set. However, and in part as a consequence of the forced essentiality of the music, the work reveals musical and emotional depth and is one of his early masterpieces. The Capitoline Temple. ... Mater dolorosa became an iconic type, as in this sixteenth-century Spanish version by Luis de Morales (c. ...


In 1718, Vivaldi began to travel. Despite his frequent travels, the Pietà paid him to write two concertos a month for the orchestra and to rehearse with them at least five times when in Venice. The Pietà's records show that he was paid for 140 concertos between 1723 and 1729.


Opera Impresario

First edition of Juditha triumphans and is described as his first great oratorio.[1]

In the Venice of the early 18th century, opera was the most popular musical entertainment and the most profitable for the composer. There were several theaters competing for the public attention. Vivaldi started his career as opera writer in undertone: his first opera, Ottone in villa (RV 729) was performed not in Venice, but at the Garzerie theater in Vicenza in 1713. The following year, Vivaldi made the jump to Venice and became the impresario of the theater Sant'Angelo in Venice, where his opera Orlando finto pazzo (RV 727) was performed. However, the work did not meet the public taste and Vivaldi had to close it after a couple of weeks and replace it with a rerun of a different work already given the previous year. In 1715, he presented Nerone fatto Cesare (RV 724, lost), with music by seven different composers, of which he was the leader with eleven arias. This time it was a success and in the late season Vivaldi planned to give an opera completely of his own hand, Arsilda regina di Ponto (RV 700). However, the state censor blocked the performance; he objected to the plot: the main character, Arsilda, falls in love with another woman, Lisea, who is pretending to be a man. Vivaldi managed to get the opera through censorship the following year, and it was eventually performed to a resounding success. Image File history File links Vivaldis_first_edition_of_Juditha_triumphnas. ... Image File history File links Vivaldis_first_edition_of_Juditha_triumphnas. ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... Ottone in villa (literally translated to English as brass in house) was the first of Italian Antonio Vivaldis operas. ... Vicenza is a city in northern Italy, is the capital of the eponymous province in the Veneto region, at the northern base of the Monte Berico, straddling the Bacchiglione. ... An impresario is a manager or producer in one of the entertainment industries, usually Music or Theatre. ... Teatro SantAngelo (Saint Angelo Theatre) was an opera house in Venice, Italy. ... Orlando finto pazzo is the second Italian opera by Antonio Vivaldi created in 1714. ... An aria (Italian for air; plural: arie or arias in common usage) in music was originally any expressive melody, usually, but not always, performed by a singer. ...


In this same period of time, the Pietà commissioned several liturgical works. The most important were two oratorios. The first, Moyses Deus Pharaonis (RV 643) is lost. The second, Juditha triumphans (RV 644), composed in 1716, is one of his sacred masterpieces. It was commissioned to celebrate the victory of the Republic of Venice against the Turks and the recapture of the island of Corfù. All eleven singing parts were performed by girls of the Pietà, both for the female and male characters. Many of the arias included parts by solo instruments: recorders, oboes, clarinets, viola d'amore, mandolins, that showcased the range of talents of the girls. An oratorio is a large musical composition for orchestra, vocal soloists and chorus. ... First edition of Juditha triumphans Juditha triumphans devicta Holofernis barbarie, Vivaldi catalogue number RV 644, is an oratorio by Antonio Vivaldi, the only survivor of the four that he is known to have composed. ... Pontikonisi island in the background with the Vlaheraina Monastery in the foreground. ...


In the same year 1716, Vivaldi wrote and produced two more operas, L'incoronazione di Dario (RV 719) and La costanza trionfante degli amori e degli odi (RV 706). The latter was so popular that it was re-edited and represented two years later with the title Artabano re dei Parti (RV 701, lost); and was eventually performed in Prague in 1732. In the following years, Vivaldi wrote several operas that were performed all over Italy. For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ...


His modern operatic style caused him some trouble with other more conservative musicians, like Benedetto Marcello, a magistrate and amateur musician, who wrote a pamphlet against him and the modern style of opera. The pamphlet is called Il teatro alla moda, and its cover has a caricature of Vivaldi playing the violin. The Marcello family was the rightful owner of the Sant'Angelo theater and a long legal battle had been fought with the management for its restitution, without success. The booklet attacks Vivaldi without mentioning him directly. The cover drawing shows a boat (the Sant'Angelo), on the left end of which stands a little angel wearing a priest hat and playing the violin. It is a caricature of Vivaldi. The obscure writing under the picture mentions nonexistent places and names. In particular, ALDIVIVA is an anagram of A. Vivaldi. Benedetto Marcello (July 31 or August 1, 1686–July 24, 1739), was an Italian composer. ... Polish soldiers reading a German leaflet during the Warsaw Uprising A pamphlet is an unbound booklet (that is, without a hard cover or binding). ... Benedetto Marcello Il teatro alla moda (The Fashionable Theater) is a satirical pamphlet where its author, the Venetian composer Benedetto Marcello (1686-1739), vents his critical opinions on the milieu of the Italian opera seria in the first decades of the eighteenth century. ...


Maturity

Caricature by P.L.Ghezzi, Rome (1723)
Caricature by P.L.Ghezzi, Rome (1723)

In 1717 or 1718, Vivaldi was offered a new prestigious position as Maestro di Cappella of the court of the prince Phillip of Hesse-Darmstadt, governor of Mantua. He moved there for three years and produced several operas, among which was Tito Manlio (RV 738). In 1721, he was in Milan, presenting the pastoral drama La Silvia (RV 734, lost) and again the next year with the oratorio L'adorazione delli tre re magi al bambino Gesù (RV 645, also lost). The next big step was a move to Rome in 1722, where his operas introduced the new style and where the new pope Benedict XIII invited Vivaldi to play for him. In 1725, he returned to Venice, where he produced four operas in the same year. Image File history File links Vivaldi_caricature. ... Image File history File links Vivaldi_caricature. ... Capital Darmstadt Government Monarchy Landgrave  - 1567 - 1596 George I  - 1790 - 1806 Louis X History  - Established 1567  - Disestablished 1806 The Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt (German: ) was a member state of the Holy Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see Mantua (disambiguation). ... Tito Manlio (RV 738) is an opera in three acts by Antonio Vivaldi, written in celebration of the marriage of the governer of Mantua . ... Type Anti-tank Nationality Joint France/Germany Era Cold War, modern Launch platform Individual, Vehicle Target Vehicle, Fortification History Builder MBDA, Bharat Dynamics (under license) Date of design 70s Production period since 1972 Service duration since 1972 Operators 41 countries Variants MILAN 1, MILAN 2, MILAN 2T, MILAN 3, MILAN... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... For Pedro de Luna, see Antipope Benedict XIII. Benedict XIII, born Pietro Francesco Orsini, and later in religion Vincenzo Maria Orsini (Gravina di Puglia, February 2, 1649 - February 23, 1730) was pope from 1724 to 1730. ...


It is also in this period that he wrote the Four Seasons, four violin concertos depicting natural scenes in music. While three of the concerti are of original conception, the first, "Spring", borrows motifs from a Sinfonia in the first act of his opera "Il Giustino," composed the same time of the Four Seasons. The inspiration for them was probably the countryside around Mantua. They were a revolution in musical conception: in them Vivaldi represented flowing creeks, singing birds (of different species, each specifically characterised), barking dogs, buzzing mosquitoes, crying shepherds, storms, drunken dancers, silent nights, hunting parties (both from the hunter's and the prey's point of view), frozen landscapes, children ice-skating, and burning fires. Each concerto was associated with a sonnet of Vivaldi's hand, describing the scenes depicted in the music. They were published as the first four of a collection of twelve, Il cimento dell'Armonia e dell'Inventione, his Opus 8, published in Amsterdam by Le Cène in 1725. The Four Seasons (Le quattro stagioni in the original Italian) is a set of four violin concertos by Antonio Vivaldi. ... Francesco Petrarca, or Petrarch, one of the best-known early Italian sonnet writers. ...


During his time in Mantua, Vivaldi became acquainted with an aspiring young singer, Anna Giro, who was to become his student, protegee, and favorite prima donna until the end of his life. Despite rumors to the contrary, there is no evidence that Vivaldi's and Giro's relationship ever went beyond friendship and professional collaboration.


Late life and death

At the height of his career, Vivaldi received commissions from European nobles and royalty. The wedding cantata Gloria e Imeneo (RV 687) was written for the marriage of Louis XV. Opus 9, La Cetra, was dedicated to Emperor Charles VI. Vivaldi had the chance to meet the Emperor in person in 1728, when he came to Trieste to oversee the construction of a new port. Charles admired the music of the Red Priest so much that he is said to have spoken more with the composer in that occasion than with his ministers in two years. He gave him the title of knight, a gold medal, and an invitation to come to Vienna. On his part, Vivaldi gave Charles a manuscript copy of La Cetra; this is a set of concertos almost completely different from the one published with the same title as Opus 9. Probably the printing had been delayed and Vivaldi was forced to gather an improvised collection. Louis XV, called the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé) (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1715 until his death. ... La Cetra means the lyre in Italian. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI Charles VI, (German Karl VI; in full Karl Josef Franz)Holy Roman Emperor (October 1, 1685 – October 20, 1740) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1711 to 1740 and the second son of Leopold I with his third wife, Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg. ... For other uses, see Trieste (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Knight (disambiguation) or Knights (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ...

Frontispiece of Il teatro alla moda
Frontispiece of Il teatro alla moda

In 1730, accompanied by his father, he traveled to Vienna and Prague, where his opera Farnace (RV 711) was presented. Some late operas marked the collaboration with two of Italy's major writers of the time. L'Olimpiade and Catone in Utica were written by Pietro Metastasio, the major representative of the Arcadian movement and court poet in Vienna. La Griselda was rewritten by the young Carlo Goldoni from an earlier libretto by Apostolo Zeno. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (554x760, 70 KB)Frontispiece of Il teatro alla moda by Benedetto Marcello. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (554x760, 70 KB)Frontispiece of Il teatro alla moda by Benedetto Marcello. ... Farnace is a Baroque opera, or rather two Baroque operas to the same libretto by Antonio Maria Lucchini. ... LOlimpiade is an opera libretto by Metastasio, set to music by over 60 baroque and classical composers, among which (by chronological order of first performance): Antonio Caldara: LOlimpiade, first performance 28 August 1733, in honor of Elisabeth, wife of Emperor Charles VI Antonio Vivaldi LOlimpiade, Venice, Teatro... Pietro Trapassi (January 13, 1698 – April 12, 1782), Italian poet, is better known by his pseudonym of Metastasio. ... The Academy of Arcadia or Academy of Arcadians (Italian official name: Pontificia Accademia degli Arcadi) was an Italian literary academy founded in Rome during 1690. ... Carlo Goldoni Carlo Osvaldo Goldoni (25 February 1707 - 6 February 1793) was a celebrated Italian playwright, whom critics today rank among the European theatres greatest authors. ... Apostolo Zeno (born in Venice, December 11, 1668; died in Venice, November 11, 1750) was an Italian poet, librettist, journalist, and man of letters. ...


Vivaldi's life, like those of many composers of the time, ended in financial difficulties. His compositions no longer held the high esteem they once did in Venice; changing musical tastes quickly made them outmoded, and Vivaldi, in response, chose to sell off sizeable numbers of his manuscripts at paltry prices to finance a migration to Vienna. Reasons for Vivaldi's departure from Venice are unclear, but it seems likely that he wished to meet Charles VI, who appreciated his compositions (Vivaldi dedicated La Cetra to Charles in 1727), and take up the position of a composer in the Imperial Court. It is ever more likely that Vivaldi went to Vienna to stage operas, especially as his place of residence was near the Karntner Tor Theater. However, shortly after Vivaldi's arrival at Vienna, Charles died. This tragic stroke of bad luck left the composer without royal protection and a source of income. Vivaldi had to sell off more manuscripts to make ends meet and eventually died not long after, on either 27 July or 28 July 1741, of internal fire (which was probably from the asthma that he had been suffering from) in a house owned by the widow of a Viennese saddle-maker. On 28 July he was buried in a simple grave at the Hospital Burial Ground in Vienna (the assumption that the young Joseph Haydn sang in the choir at Vivaldi's burial was based on the mistranscription of a primary source and has been proven wrong). For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events April 10 - Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz August 10 - Raja of Travancore defeats Dutch East India Company naval expedition at Battle of Colachel December 19 - Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 - Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “Haydn” redirects here. ...


His burial spot is next to the Karlskirche in Vienna, at the site of the Technical Institute. The house he lived in while in Vienna was torn down. In its place there is now the Hotel Sacher. Memorial plaques have been placed at both locations, as well as a Vivaldi star in the Viennese Musikmeile and a monument at the Rooseveltsplatz. Façade of the Karlskirche The Karlskirche, or Charles Church, was commissioned by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI in 1715 after Vienna was delivered from a plague epidemic in 1713. ...


Style and influence

Many of Vivaldi's compositions reflect a buoyant, almost playful, exuberance which are in direct contrast with the dignified seriousness of much Baroque music in his time. Most of Vivaldi's repertoire was rediscovered only in the first half of the 20th century in Turin and Genoa and was published in the second half. Vivaldi's music is innovative, breaking a consolidated tradition in schemes; he gave brightness to the formal and the rhythmic structure of the concerto, repeatedly looking for harmonic contrasts and invented innovative melodies and themes. Moreover, Vivaldi was able to compose non-academic music, particularly meant to be appreciated by the wide public and not only by an intellectual minority. The joyful appearance of his music reveals in this regard a transmissible joy of composing. These are among the causes of the vast popularity of his music. This popularity soon made him famous in other countries such as France which was, at the time, very independent concerning its musical taste. For other uses, see Turin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... This article is about the components of sound. ...


Vivaldi is considered one of the composers who brought Baroque music (with its typical contrast among heavy sonorities) to evolve into a classical style. Johann Sebastian Bach was deeply influenced by Vivaldi's concertos and arias (recalled in his Johannes Passion, Matthäuspassion, and cantatas). Bach transcribed a number of Vivaldi's concertos for solo keyboard, along with a number for orchestra, including the famous Concerto for Four Violins and Violoncello, Strings and Continuo (RV 580). “Bach” redirects here. ... Several composers have written St. ... This aritcle does not cite any references or sources. ... A cantata (Italian, sung) is a vocal composition with an instrumental accompaniment and generally containing more than one movement. ... A certain Peter Ryom took it upon himself to catalog Antionio Vivaldis musical works and called the catalog, Ryom Verzeichnis (RV for short. ...


Posthumous reputation

Vivaldi remained unknown for his published concerti, and largely ignored, even after the resurgence of interest in Bach, pioneered by Mendelssohn. Even his most famous work, The Four Seasons, was unknown in its original edition. In the early 20th century Fritz Kreisler's concerto in the style of Vivaldi, which he passed off as an original Vivaldi work but which was actually by Kreisler, helped revive Vivaldi's fortunes. This impelled the French scholar Marc Pincherle to begin academic work on Vivaldi's oeuvre. The discovery of many Vivaldi manuscripts and their acquisition by the National University of Turin Library, with the generous sponsorship of Roberto Foa and Filippo Giordano (in memory of their sons, respectively, Mauro and Renzo), led to renewed interest in Vivaldi. People such as Marc Pincherle, Mario Rinaldi, Alfredo Casella, Ezra Pound, Olga Rudge, Arturo Toscanini, and Louis Kaufman were instrumental in the Vivaldi revival of the 20th century. The resurrection of Vivaldi's unpublished works in the 20th century is mostly thanks to the efforts of Alfredo Casella, who in 1939 organised the now historic Vivaldi Week, in which the rediscovered Gloria (RV 589) and l'Olimpiade were first heard again. Since WW II, Vivaldi's compositions have enjoyed almost universal success, and the advent of historically informed performances has only increased his fame. In 1947, the Venetian businessman Antonio Fanna founded the Istituto Italiano Antonio Vivaldi, with the composer Gian Francesco Malipiero as its artistic director, with the purpose of promoting Vivaldi's music and publishing new editions of his works. Portrait of Mendelssohn by the English miniaturist James Warren Childe (1778-1862), 1839 Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and generally known as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3, 1809 – November 4, 1847) is a German composer, pianist and conductor of the early Romantic period. ... Fritz Kreisler (February 2, 1875 – January 29, 1962) was an Austria-born American violinist and composer; one of the most famous violinists of his day. ... Alfredo Casella (Turin, July 25, 1883, Rome, March 5, 1947) was an Italian composer. ... Ezra Pound in 1913. ... Olga Rudge, circa 1915. ... Arturo Toscanini (March 25, 1867 – January 16, 1957) was an Italian musician. ... Louis Kaufman (May 10, 1905, Portland, Oregon – February 9, 1994, Los Angeles, California) was an American violinist and possibly the most recorded musical artist of the 20th century. ... Alfredo Casella (Turin, July 25, 1883, Rome, March 5, 1947) was an Italian composer. ... Vivaldis Gloria in D major is a popular arrangement of the doxology, Gloria in Excelsis Deo by Antonio Vivaldi, for choir and orchestra. ... The historically informed performance, period performance, or authentic performance movement is an approach by musicians and scholars to research and perform works of classical music in ways similar to how they may have been performed when they were originally written. ... Gian Francesco Malipiero (March 18, 1882 - August 1, 1973) Italian composer, musicologist and music editor. ...


A movie titled Vivaldi, a Prince in Venice was completed in 2005 as an Italian-French coproduction, under the direction of Jean-Louis Guillermou, featuring Stefano Dionisi in the title role and Michel Serrault as the bishop of Venice. Another film inspired by the life of the composer is in a preproduction state: it has the working title Vivaldi, is produced and directed by Boris Damast, and is slated to have Joseph Fiennes in the title role. Also starring are Malcolm McDowell, Jacqueline Bisset, and Gérard Depardieu. Claude Jade and Michel Serrault in Jean-Pierre Mockys Bonsoir (1994) Michel Serrault (January 24, 1928 in Brunoy, Essonne, France) is a celebrated French actor who has appeared in over 100 films. ... Joseph Alberic Fiennes (IPA: ) (born May 27, 1970) is an English film and stage actor. ... Malcolm McDowell (born 13 June 1943) is a British actor. ... Jacqueline Bisset (born Winifred Jacqueline Fraser-Bisset on 13 September 1944) is an English actress. ... Gérard Xavier Marcel Depardieu, CQ (born 27 December 1948,  ) is an Academy Award-nominated French actor. ...


Vivaldi's music, together with that of Mozart, Tchaikovsky and Corelli, has been included in the theories of Alfred Tomatis on the effects of music on human behaviour, and used in music therapy. “Mozart” redirects here. ... “Tchaikovsky” redirects here. ... Arcangelo Corelli (February 17, 1653 – January 8, 1713) was an influential Italian violinist and composer of Baroque music. ... Dr. Alfred A. Tomatis (1920 – 2001) laid the groundwork for a new multi-disciplinary science called Audio-Psycho-Phonology (APP). ... Music therapy is the clinical and evidence-based use of music interventions to accomplish individualized goals within a therapeutic relationship by a qualified professional who has completed an approved music therapy program. ...


His compositions include:

  • Over 500 concertos; approximately 350 of these are for solo instrument and strings, and of these about 230 are for violin; the others are for bassoon, cello, oboe, flute, viola d'amore, recorder, lute, and mandolin. Approximately 40 concertos are for two instruments and strings, and approximately 30 are for three or more instruments and strings.
  • 46 operas
  • sinfonias
  • 73 sonatas
  • chamber music (even if some sonatas for flute, as Il Pastor Fido, have been erroneously attributed to him, but were composed by Chédeville).
  • sacred music
  • His most famous work is perhaps 1723's Le Quattro Stagioni (The Four Seasons). In essence, it resembled an early example of a tone poem, where he attempted to capture all the moods of the four seasons without the use of percussion to dramatize the effects he sought to portray. (See section above for more detailed description.)

The term Concerto (plural concertos or concerti) usually refers to a musical work in which one solo instrument is accompanied by an orchestra. ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... In music, a sinfonia can be one of three things: 1) In the very late Renaissance and early Baroque, a sinfonia was an alternate name for a canzona, fantasia or ricercar. ... Chamber music is a form of classical music, written for a small group of instruments which traditionally could be accommodated in a palace chamber. ... ♠ This article is about the family of musical instruments. ... Nicolas Chédeville (1705 - 1782), was a French Baroque composer. ... Religious music (also sacred music) is music performed or composed for religious use or through religious influence. ... The Four Seasons (Le quattro stagioni in original Italian) is a set of four violin concertos by Antonio Vivaldi. ... A symphonic poem or tone poem is a piece of orchestral music in one movement in which some extra-musical programme provides a narrative or illustrative element. ... Percussion redirects here. ...

1926 and 1930 discoveries

As one biography describes it:[2]

The fate of the Italian composer's legacy is unique. After the Napoleonic wars, it was thought that a large part of Vivaldi's work had been irrevocably lost. However, in the autumn of 1926, after a detective-like search by researchers, 14 folios of Vivaldi's previously unknown religious and secular works were found in the library of a monastery in Piedmont. Some even and odd-numbered volumes were missing and so, the search continued. Finally, in October 1930, the missing volumes were found to be with the descendants of the Grand Duke Durazzo, who had acquired the property as early as the eighteenth century.

To its amazement, the world of music was presented with 300 concerts for various instruments, 18 operas, not counting a number of arias and more than 100 vocal-instrumental pieces. Such an impressive list of newly unearthed opuses warranted a re-evaluation of Vivaldi's creativity.

Recent discoveries

Recently, four sacred vocal works by Vivaldi have been discovered in the Saxon State Library in Dresden. These compositions were improperly attributed to Baldassarre Galuppi, a Venetian composer of the early classical period, mostly famous for his choral works. The Saxon State Library ( Sächsische Landesbibliothek), Dresden is one of the main archival centers of Germany. ... Dresden (etymologically from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the riverside forest) is the capital city of the German Federal Free State of Saxony. ... Baldassarre Galuppi (October 18, 1706 - January 3, 1785) was a Venetian composer noted for his operas, and particularly opera buffa. ...


In the years 1750s or 1760s, the Saxon court asked for some sacred works by Galuppi from the Venetian copyist Don Giuseppe Baldan. Baldan included, among authentic works by Galuppi, the four compositions by Vivaldi, passing them off as Galuppi's. He probably obtained the originals from two of Vivaldi's nephews, (Carlo Vivaldi and Daniele Mauro), who worked under him as copyists.


The recognition of Vivaldi's authorship could be made by analyzing style and instrumentation and by recognizing arias from Vivaldi's operas.


The two most recent among these discoveries are two psalm settings of Nisi Dominus (RV 803, in eight movements) and Dixit Dominus (RV 807, in eleven movements), identified in 2003 and 2005, respectively, by the Australian scholar Janice Stockigt. Psalms (Tehilim תהילים, in Hebrew) is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, and of the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ...


RV 803 was recorded for the first time in 2005 by the King's Consort under the direction of Robert King. The Kings Consort is a British early music orchestra, conducted by Robert King. ...


The world premiere of any part of RV 807 took place on 9 August 2005, at Melba Hall, University of Melbourne [3]. It was recorded in full for the first time in 2006 by the Dresdner Instrumental-Concert under the direction of Peter Kopp. Vivaldi scholar Michael Talbot called it "arguably the best non-operatic work from Vivaldi's pen to come to light since ...the 1920s".[4] is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of Melbourne, is a public university located in Melbourne, Victoria. ...


Works

See also: Category:Compositions by Antonio Vivaldi Portrait of Antonio Vivaldi The following is list of compositions by the classical composer, Antonio Vivaldi. ...


Below is a list of Vivaldi works, from his many concerti to his sacred vocal works. While the list is not a complete listing of all Vivaldi works, these lists contain many known compositions, including publications during his lifetime.


Works published during his lifetime

  • Opus 1, twelve sonatas for two violins and basso continuo (1705)
  • Opus 2, twelve sonatas for violin and basso continuo (1709)
  • Opus 3, L'estro Armonico (Harmonic inspiration), twelve concertos for various combinations. Best known concerti are No. 6 in A minor for violin, No. 8 in A minor for two violins and No. 10 in B minor for four violins (1711).
  • Opus 4, La stravaganza (The extraordinary), twelve violin concertos (c. 1714)
  • Opus 5, (second part of Opus 2), four sonatas for violin and two sonatas for two violins and basso continuo (1716).
  • Opus 6, six violin concertos (1716–21)
  • Opus 7, two oboe concertos and 10 violin concertos (1716–1717)
  • Opus 8, Il cimento dell'armonia e dell'inventione (The Contest between Harmony and Invention), twelve violin concertos including the celebrated work, Le quattro stagioni (The Four Seasons), consisting of the first four concertos in opus 8 (1723).
  • Opus 9, La cetra (The lyre), twelve violin concertos and one for two violins (1727)
  • Opus 10, six flute concertos (c. 1728)
  • Opus 11, five violin concertos, one oboe concerto, the second in E minor, RV 277, being known as "Il favorito" (1729)
  • Opus 12, five violin concertos and one without solo (1729)
  • Opus 13, Il pastor fido (The Faithful Shepherd), six sonatas for musette, viela, recorder, flute, oboe or violin, and basso continuo (1737, spurious works by Nicolas Chédeville).

Lestro Armonico (approximately the harmonic fancy in Italian) is a Baroque example of classical music, consisting of twelve concerti written by Antonio Vivaldi in 1711. ... Antonio Vivaldi wrote a set of concertos, op. ... Antonio Vivaldi wrote a set of concertos, op. ... Antonio Vivaldi wrote a set of concertos, op. ... The Four Seasons (Le quattro stagioni in original Italian) is a set of four violin concertos by Antonio Vivaldi. ... Antonio Vivaldi wrote a set of concertos, op. ... Nicolas Chédeville (1705 - 1782), was a French Baroque composer. ...

Operas

  • Ottone in villa (1713)
  • Orlando finto pazzo (1714)
  • Arsilda regina di Ponto (1715)
  • L'incoronazione di Dario (1716)
  • Scanderbeg (1718)
  • Il Teuzzone (1719)
  • Tito Manlio (1719)
  • La verità in cimento (1720)
  • Ercole sul Termodonte (1723)
  • Il Giustino (1724)
  • Dorilla in Tempe (1726)
  • Farnace (1727)
  • Orlando furioso (1727)
  • Rosilena ed Oronta (1728)
  • La fida ninfa (1732)
  • Motezuma (1733)
  • L'Olimpiade (1734)
  • Bajazet (Tamerlano) (1735)
  • Griselda (1735)
  • Catone in Utica (1737)
  • Rosmira (1738)

Ottone in villa (literally translated to English as brass in house) was the first of Italian Antonio Vivaldis operas. ... Orlando finto pazzo is the second Italian opera by Antonio Vivaldi created in 1714. ... Il Teuzzone is the fourth Italian opera produced by Antonio Vivaldi created in 1719. ... Tito Manlio (RV 738) is an opera in three acts by Antonio Vivaldi, written in celebration of the marriage of the governer of Mantua . ... Farnace is a Baroque opera, or rather two Baroque operas to the same libretto by Antonio Maria Lucchini. ... Orlando Furioso is an opera in three acts by Antonio Vivaldi to an Italian libretto by Grazio Braccioli, based on the poem of the same name by Ariosto. ... Motezuma is an opera in three acts by Antonio Vivaldi with an Italian libretto by Girolamo Giusti. ... Bajazet (also Tamerlano[1]) is an Italian opera by Antonio Vivaldi in 1735. ...

Concerti

Vivaldi wrote hundreds of concerti for various instruments. Below is a list of notable concerti:


Cello:

  • Cello concerto in Cm, RV 401
  • Cello concerto in Em, RV 409
  • Cello concerto in F, RV 411
  • Cello concerto in F, RV 412
  • Cello concerto in G, RV 413
  • Cello Concerto in G, RV 415
  • Cello concerto in Gm, RV 417
  • Cello concerto in Am, RV 418
  • Cello concerto in Am, RV 420
  • Cello concerto in Bm, RV 424

Mandolin:

Mandolin (Lute) and Orchestra: The Mandolin is the pivotal instrument in this work The Mandolin Concerto in C major, RV 425, which may also be written Mandoline Concerto, etc. ...

  • Concerto in D major, RV 93

Recorder and Flute:

  • Concerto in D major, RV 95, "La pastorella"
  • Concerto in C minor for Treble Recorder, RV 441
  • Concerto in F major for Treble Recorder, RV 442
  • Concerto in C major for Sopranino Recorder, RV 443
  • Concerto in C major for Sopranino Recorder, RV 444
  • Concerto in A minor for Sopranino Recorder, RV 445
  • Concerto in F major for Flute ("La Tempesta di Mare"), RV 433 (Op. 10, No. 1), RV 98 and RV 570
  • Concerto in G minor for Flute ("La Notte"), RV 439 (Op. 10, No. 2)
  • Concerto in D major for Flute ("Il Gardellino"), RV 428 (Op. 10 No. 3)
  • Concerto in G major for Flute, RV 435 (Op. 10, No. 4)
  • Concerto in F major for Flute, RV 434 (Op. 10, No. 5)
  • Concerto in G major for Flute, RV 437 (Op. 10, No. 6)
  • Concerto in C major for 2 Flutes, RV 533

Brass and Woodwind:

  • Concerto in C major for Two Trumpets, RV 537
  • Concerto in D major for two Oboe, Bassoon, two French Horns, and Solo Violin, RV 562
  • Concerto in D minor for two Recorders, two Oboe, and Bassoon, RV 566
  • Concerto in F major for Oboe, Bassoon, two French Horns, and Solo Violin, RV 571
  • Concerto in B-flat major for Oboe, Chalumeau, and Solo Violin, RV 579

The chalumeau ( chalumeaux) is a wind instrument, the immediate ancestor of the clarinet. ...

Sacred Works

  • Missa Sacrum, RV 586 (disputed)
  • Kyrie, RV 587
  • Gloria, RV 588
  • Gloria, RV 589
  • Gloria, RV 590 (lost)
  • Credo, RV 591
  • Credo, RV 592 (disputed)
  • Domine ad adiuvandum me, RV 593
  • Dixit Dominus, RV 594
  • Dixit Dominus, RV 595 ("di Praga")
  • Confetibor, tibi Domine, RV 596
  • Beatus vir, RV 597
  • Beatus vir, RV 598
  • Beatus vir, RV 599 (lost)
  • Laudate pueri Dominum, RV 600
  • Laudate pueri Dominum, RV 601
  • Laudate pueri Dominum, RV 602
  • Laudate pueri Dominum, RV 603
  • In exitu Israel, RV 604
  • Credidi propter quod, RV 605 (now RV Anh. 35b)
  • Laudate Dominum, RV 606
  • Laetatus sum, RV 607
  • Nisi Dominus, RV 608
  • Lauda Jerusalem, RV 609
  • Magnificat, RV 610/610a/610b/611
  • Deus Tuorum Militum, RV 612
  • Gaude Mater Ecclesia, RV 613
  • Laudate Dominum, RV 614 (disputed)
  • Regina coeli, RV 615 (incomplete)
  • Salve Regina, RV 616
  • Salve Regina, RV 617
  • Salve Regina, RV 618
  • Salve Regina, RV 619 (lost)
  • Sanctorum Meritis, RV 620
  • Stabat Mater, RV 621
  • Te Deum, RV 622 (lost)
  • Canta in Prato, Ride in Monte, RV 623 — not to be confused with RV 636, which is "Canta in Prato, Ride in Fonte"
  • Carae Rosae Respirate, RV 624 — incomplete without reconstruction of lost second violin and viola parts
  • Clarae, Stellae, RV 625
  • In Furore Iustissimae Irae, RV 626
  • In Turbate Mare, RV 627
  • Invicti Bellate, RV 628 (incomplete, yet reconstructed and recorded by Academia Montis Regalis)
  • Longe Mala, Umbrae, Terrores, RV 629 — not to be confused with RV 640, which is a similar motet on the same text but intended for different purposes
  • Nulla in Mundo Pax Sincera, RV 630
  • O Qui Coeli Terraque Serenitas, RV 631
  • Sum in Medio Tempestatum, RV 632
  • Vestro Principi Divino, RV 633
  • Vos Aurae per Montes, RV 634
  • Introduzione al Dixit (RV 595) "Ascende Laeta," RV 635
  • Introduzione al Dixit (RV 594?) "Canta in Prato, Ride in Fonte," RV 636 — not to be confused with RV 623, which is "Canta in Prato, Ride in Monte"
  • Introduzione al Gloria "Cur sagittas," RV 637 — the preceding work that was to follow this introductory motet, most likely a lost setting of a Gloria in B♭, is now presumably lost
  • Introduzione al Miserere "Filiae Maestae Jerusalem," RV 638
  • Introduzione al Gloria (RV 588) "Jubilate o amoeni chori," RV 639 — Introductory motet has third movement interwoven with Gloria (RV 588).
  • Introduzione al Gloria (RV 589) "Longe Mala, Umbrae, Terrores," RV 640 — not to be confused with RV 629, which is a similar motet on the same text but intended for different purposes
  • Introduzione al Miserere "Non in pratis," RV 641
  • Introduzione al Gloria (RV 589) "Ostro Picta," RV 642
  • Oratorio Moyses Deus Pharaonis, RV 643 (lost)
  • Oratorio Juditha triumphans, RV 644
  • Oratorio L'adorazione delli tre re magi al bambino Gesu, RV 645 (lost)
  • Oratorio La vittoria navale predetta dal S Pontefice Pio V Ghisilieri, RV 782 (lost)
  • Confetibor, tibi domine, RV 789 — manuscript found in damaged condition
  • Beatus Vir, RV 795
  • Magnificat, RV 797 (lost) — possibly related to the extant settings of RV 610/610a/610b/611
  • Nisi Dominus, RV 803
  • Salve Regina, RV 804 (lost)
  • Dixit Dominus, RV 807

A possible setting, or even settings (considering the many settings of other liturgical text Vivaldi composed) of the Miserere may have existed, as hinted by the two introductory sets of movements intended for the piece(s), but such composition(s) have been lost. The Kyrie in G minor (RV 587) by Antonio Vivaldi is a setting of the Kyrie for two cori (two orchestras, each with respective four-part chorus). ... Vivaldis Gloria in D major is a popular arrangement of the doxology, Gloria in Excelsis Deo by Antonio Vivaldi, for choir and orchestra. ... Vivaldis Gloria in D major is a popular arrangement of the doxology, Gloria in Excelsis Deo by Antonio Vivaldi, for choir and orchestra. ... Vivaldis Gloria in D major is a popular arrangement of the doxology, Gloria in Excelsis Deo by Antonio Vivaldi, for choir and orchestra. ... The Credo in E minor (RV 591) by Antonio Vivaldi is the only extant setting the composer wrote of the Nicene Creed. ... The Credo in E minor (RV 591) by Antonio Vivaldi is the only extant setting the composer wrote of the Nicene Creed. ... Nulla in mundo pax sincera (RV 630) is a motet composed by Antonio Vivaldi, the title of which may be translated as In this world there is no honest peace. Written in the key of E major and in the typical lyrical Italian Baroque style, it is scored for solo... Antonio Vivaldi had written many an introduzione to come before certain choral settings of liturgal texts. ... First edition of Juditha triumphans Juditha triumphans devicta Holofernis barbarie, Vivaldi catalogue number RV 644, is an oratorio by Antonio Vivaldi, the only survivor of the four that he is known to have composed. ... Miserere (the imperative of Latin misereri, to have mercy or pity), the name of one of the Penitential Psalms (Psalm 51), from its opening words, Miserere mei, Deus. ...


Media

  • Vivaldi Spring mvt 1: Allegro
    From Vivaldi's Four Seasons. John Harrison, Violin
    Vivaldi Spring mvt 2: Largo
    From Vivaldi's Four Seasons. John Harrison, Violin
    Vivaldi Spring mvt 3: Allegro
    From Vivaldi's Four Seasons. John Harrison, Violin
    Vivaldi Summer mvt 1: Allegro non molto
    From Vivaldi's Four Seasons. John Harrison, Violin
    Vivaldi Summer mvt 2: Adagio
    From Vivaldi's Four Seasons. John Harrison, Violin
    Vivaldi Summer mvt 3: Presto
    From Vivaldi's Four Seasons. John Harrison, Violin
    Vivaldi Autumn mvt 1: Allegro
    From Vivaldi's Four Seasons. John Harrison, Violin
    Vivaldi Autumn mvt 2: Adagio molto
    From Vivaldi's Four Seasons. John Harrison, Violin
    Vivaldi Autumn mvt 3: Allegro
    From Vivaldi's Four Seasons. John Harrison, Violin
    Vivaldi Winter mvt 1: Allegro non molto
    From Vivaldi's Four Seasons. John Harrison, Violin
    Vivaldi Winter mvt 2: Largo
    From Vivaldi's Four Seasons. John Harrison, Violin
    Vivaldi Winter mvt 3: Allegro
    From Vivaldi's Four Seasons. John Harrison, Violin
  • Problems playing the files? See media help.

01 - Vivaldi Spring mvt 1 Allegro - John Harrison violin. ... 02 - Vivaldi Spring mvt 2 Largo - John Harrison violin. ... 03 - Vivaldi Spring mvt 3 Allegro - John Harrison violin. ... 04 - Vivaldi Summer mvt 1 Allegro non molto - John Harrison violin. ... 05 - Vivaldi Summer mvt 2 Adagio - John Harrison violin. ... 06 - Vivaldi Summer mvt 3 Presto - John Harrison violin. ... 07 - Vivaldi Autumn mvt 1 Allegro - John Harrison violin. ... 08 - Vivaldi Autumn mvt 2 Adagio molto - John Harrison violin. ... 09 - Vivaldi Autumn mvt 3 Allegro - John Harrison violin. ... 10 - Vivaldi Winter mvt 1 Allegro non molto - John Harrison violin. ... 11 - Vivaldi Winter mvt 2 Largo - John Harrison violin. ... 12 - Vivaldi Winter mvt 3 Allegro - John Harrison violin. ...

Selected Performance ensembles specialising in Vivaldi

This list is a brief listing of ensembles with a speciality in Vivaldi's repertoire, including historically informed ensembles. The historically informed performance, period performance, or authentic performance movement is an approach by musicians and scholars to research and perform works of classical music in ways similar to how they may have been performed when they were originally written. ...

The English Concert is a Baroque orchestra playing on authentic instruments based in London. ... I Solisti Veneti is one of the first rank of small Italian orchestras. ... Europa Galante is an Italian period-instrument baroque chamber orchestra founded by violinist Fabio Biondi in 1990 and directed by him since that time. ... Concerto Italiano is an Italian early music ensemble well-known for their interpretations of Monteverdi and Vivaldi, among others. ... Il Giardino Armonico is a pioneering Italian early music ensemble founded in Milan in 1985 by Luca Pianca and Giovanni Antonini, primarily to play 17th and 18th century music on period instruments. ... Johann Christoph Pepusch Giovanni Battista Bononcini Francesco Geminiani Bernard Gates Maurice Greene The Academy of Ancient Music (AAM) is a period-instrument orchestra based in London, re-founded by harpsichordist Christopher Hogwood in 1973 and named after an original organisation of the 18th century. ...

References and further reading

  1. ^ Baroque Music As far as his theatrical activities were concerned, the end of 1716 was a high point for Vivaldi. In November, he managed to have the Ospedale della Pietà perform his first great oratorio, Juditha Triumphans devicta Holofernis barbaric. (sic) This work was an allegorical description of the victory of the Venetians (the Christians) over the Turks (the barbarians) in August 1716.
  2. ^ Antonio Vivaldi biography by Alexander Kuznetsov and Louise Thomas, a booklet attached to the CD "The best of Vivaldi", published and recorded by Madacy Entertainment Group Inc, St. Laurent Quebec Canada
  3. ^ Clive O'Connell, "A great discovery, on any score", review of the performance, The Age, 10 August 2005
  4. ^ Michael Talbot, liner notes to the CD Vivaldi: Dixit Dominus, Körnerscher Sing-Verein Dresden (Dresdner Instrumental-Concert), Peter Kopp, Deutsche Grammophone 2006.
  • André Romijn. Hidden Harmonies: The Secret Life of Antonio Vivaldi, 2007 ISBN 978-0-9554100-1-7
  • Manfred Bukofzer (1947). Music in the Baroque Era. New York, W. W. Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-09745-5.
  • Gianfranco Formichetti, Venezia e il prete col violino. Vita di Antonio Vivaldi, Bompiani (2006), ISBN 88-452-5640-5.
  • Karl Heller, Antonio Vivaldi: The Red Priest of Venice, Amadeus Press (1997), ISBN 1-57467-015-8
  • Walter Kolneder, Antonio Vivaldi: Documents of His Life and Works, C F Peters Corp (1983), ISBN 3-7959-0338-6
  • Barbara Quick, Vivaldi's Virgins (novel), HarperCollins (2007), ISBN 978-0-06-089052-0.
  • Eleanor Selfridge-Field (1994). Venetian Instrumental Music, from Gabrieli to Vivaldi. New York, Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-28151-5.
  • Michael Talbot, Antonio Vivaldi, Insel Verlag (1998), ISBN 3-458-33917-5
  • Michael Talbot: "Antonio Vivaldi", Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (Accessed August 26, 2006), (subscription access)

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Manfred Bukofzer (March 27, 1910–December 7, 1955) was a German-American musicologist and humanist. ...

See also

Portrait of Antonio Vivaldi The following is list of compositions by the classical composer, Antonio Vivaldi. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Persondata
NAME Vivaldi, Antonio Lucio
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Il Prete Rosso ("The Red Priest")
SHORT DESCRIPTION Violinist, Composer
DATE OF BIRTH March 4, 1678(1678-03-04)
PLACE OF BIRTH Venice, Republic of Venice
DATE OF DEATH July 28, 1741
PLACE OF DEATH Vienna, Austria

  Results from FactBites:
 
Vivaldi - MSN Encarta (992 words)
Vivaldi was born in Venice and trained by his father, a violinist at Saint Mark’s Cathedral.
From 1713 on, Vivaldi was active as an opera composer and producer in Venice and traveled to Rome, Mantua, and elsewhere to oversee performances of his operas.
Vivaldi’s sense of instruments produced sound color and musical effects of great beauty, as in the slow movement of the Concerto for Four Violins in B minor from Opus 3.
Antonio Lucio Vivaldi - definition of Antonio Lucio Vivaldi - Labor Law Talk Dictionary (1136 words)
Antonio Vivaldi (March 4, 1678, Venice – July 28, 1741, Vienna), nicknamed Il Prete Rosso, meaning "The Red Priest," was an Italian priest and baroque music composer.
Vivaldi's music is particularly innovative, breaking a consolidated tradition in schemes; he gave brightness to the formal and the rhythmic structure of the concerto, repeatedly looking for harmonic contrasts, and invented innovative melodies and themes.
Vivaldi's music, together with Mozart's, Tchaikovsky's and Corelli's, has been included in the theories of Alfred Tomatis on the effects of music on human behaviour, and used in music therapy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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