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Encyclopedia > Antoninus Pius
Antoninus Pius
Emperor of the Roman Empire
Reign 11 July 1387 March 161
Full name (Caesar) Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus
Pontifex Maximus
Born 19 September 86(86-09-19)
near Lanuvium
Died 7 March 161 (aged 74) (75)
Lorium
Buried Hadrian's Mausoleum
Predecessor Hadrian
Successor Lucius Verus
& Marcus Aurelius, then
Marcus Aurelius alone
Wife/wives Faustina
Issue Faustina the Younger, one other daughter and two sons, all died before 138 (natural); Marcus Aurelius
and Lucius Verus (adoptive)
Dynasty Antonine
Father Titus Aurelius Fulvus (natural);
Hadrian (adoptive, from 25 February 138)
Mother Arria Fadilla
Roman imperial dynasties
Antonine Dynasty
Antoninus Pius
Children
   Natural - Faustina the Younger, also one other daughter and two sons, all died before 138
   Adoptive - Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus
Marcus Aurelius with Lucius Verus
Marcus Aurelius alone
Children
   Natural - 13, including Commodus and Lucilla
Commodus

Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus Pius (September 19, 86March 7, 161) was Roman emperor from 138 to 161. He was the fourth of the Five Good Emperors and a member of the Aurelii. He did not possess the sobriquet "Pius" until after his accession to the throne. Almost certainly, he earned the name "Pius" because he compelled the Senate to deify Hadrian. Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 465 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1931 × 2491 pixels, file size: 505 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 25 - Roman emperor Hadrian adopted Antoninus Pius on condition that Antonius would adopt Marcus Annius Aurelius Verus. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 7 - Roman emperor Antoninus Pius dies and is succeeded by co-Emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Roman Empire Domitian introduces the Capitoline Games. ... Lanuvium (more frequently Lanivium in Imperial Roman times, modern Civita Lavinia) is an ancient city of Latium, some 32 km southeast of Rome, a little Southwest of the Via Appia. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 7 - Roman emperor Antoninus Pius dies and is succeeded by co-Emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. ... Lorium was an ancient village of Etruria, Italy, on the Via Aurelia, 19 km west of Rome. ... For the town with the same name, see Castel SantAngelo (RI) Castel SantAngelo from the bridge. ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 –– July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was emperor of Rome from 117 A.D. to 138 A.D., as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. ... Lucius Ceionius Commodus Verus Armeniacus (December 15, 130 – 169), known simply as Lucius Verus, was Roman co-emperor with Marcus Aurelius (161–180), from 161 until his death. ... Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (Rome, April 26, 121[2] – Vindobona or Sirmium, March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death in 180. ... Annia Galeria Faustina, better known as Faustina the Elder, (died c. ... Faustina the Younger Annia Galeria Faustina, the Younger, (c. ... Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (Rome, April 26, 121[2] – Vindobona or Sirmium, March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death in 180. ... Lucius Ceionius Commodus Verus Armeniacus (December 15, 130 – 169), known simply as Lucius Verus, was Roman co-emperor with Marcus Aurelius (161–180), from 161 until his death. ... The Antonines most often referred to were two successive Roman Emperors who ruled between A.D. 138 and 180: Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius, famous for their skilled leadership. ... Titus Aurelius Fulvus was the grandfather of Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius. ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 –– July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was emperor of Rome from 117 A.D. to 138 A.D., as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 25 - Roman emperor Hadrian adopted Antoninus Pius on condition that Antonius would adopt Marcus Annius Aurelius Verus. ... The Antonines most often referred to were two successive Roman Emperors who ruled between A.D. 138 and 180: Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius, famous for their skilled leadership. ... Faustina the Younger Annia Galeria Faustina, the Younger, (c. ... Events February 25 - Roman emperor Hadrian adopted Antoninus Pius on condition that Antonius would adopt Marcus Annius Aurelius Verus. ... Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (Rome, April 26, 121[2] – Vindobona or Sirmium, March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death in 180. ... Lucius Ceionius Commodus Verus Armeniacus (December 15, 130 – 169), known simply as Lucius Verus, was Roman co-emperor with Marcus Aurelius (161–180), from 161 until his death. ... Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (Rome, April 26, 121[2] – Vindobona or Sirmium, March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death in 180. ... Lucius Ceionius Commodus Verus Armeniacus (December 15, 130 – 169), known simply as Lucius Verus, was Roman co-emperor with Marcus Aurelius (161–180), from 161 until his death. ... Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (Rome, April 26, 121[2] – Vindobona or Sirmium, March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death in 180. ... Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus (August 31, 161 – December 31, 192) was a Roman Emperor who ruled from 180 to 192. ... Denarius of Lucilla. ... Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus (August 31, 161 – December 31, 192) was a Roman Emperor who ruled from 180 to 192. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Roman Empire Domitian introduces the Capitoline Games. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 7 - Roman emperor Antoninus Pius dies and is succeeded by co-Emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. ... This is a list of Roman Emperors with the dates they controlled the Roman Empire. ... Events February 25 - Roman emperor Hadrian adopted Antoninus Pius on condition that Antonius would adopt Marcus Annius Aurelius Verus. ... Events March 7 - Roman emperor Antoninus Pius dies and is succeeded by co-Emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. ... All of this is untrue The Five Good Emperors is a term used by the 18th century historian, Edward Gibbon, in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. ... The Aurelii (meaning the golden) were a Roman gens. ... A sobriquet is a nickname or a fancy name, usually a familiar name given by others as distinct from a pseudonym assumed as a disguise, but a nickname which is familiar enough such that it can be used in place of a real name without the need of explanation. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 –– July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was emperor of Rome from 117 A.D. to 138 A.D., as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. ...

Contents

Early life

Childhood and family

He was the son and only child of Titus Aurelius Fulvus, consul in 89 whose family came from Nemausus (modern Nîmes) and was born near Lanuvium and his mother was Arria Fadilla. Antoninus’ father and paternal grandfather died when he was young and he was raised by Arrius Antoninus, his maternal grandfather, a man of integrity and culture and a friend of Pliny the Younger. His mother married to Julius Lupus (a man of consular rank) and bore him a daughter called Julia Fadilla. Titus Aurelius Fulvus was the grandfather of Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius. ... This article is about the Roman rank. ... This article is about the year 89. ... Nemausus is often said to have been the Celtic patron god of Nemausus (Nîmes). ... Nîmes (Provençal Occitan: Nimes in both classical and Mistralian norms) is a city and commune of southern France. ... Lanuvium (more frequently Lanivium in Imperial Roman times, modern Civita Lavinia) is an ancient city of Latium, some 32 km southeast of Rome, a little Southwest of the Via Appia. ... Arrius Antoninus (born 31 AD) was a member of the Arrius family (female members were known as Arria). ... Gayus Plinius Colonoscopy Caecilius Secundus (63 - ca. ...


Marriage and Children

As a private citizen between 110115, he married Annia Galeria Faustina the Elder. They had a very happy marriage. She was the daughter of consul Marcus Annius Verus and Rupilia Faustina (a half-sister to Roman Empress Vibia Sabina). Faustina was a beautiful woman, renowned for her wisdom. She spent her whole life caring for the poor and assisting the most disadvantaged Romans. For other uses, see number 110. ... Events Roman Empire Trajan was cut off in southern Mesopotamia after his invasion of that region and captures of the Parthian capital Ctesiphon. ... Annia Galeria Faustina, better known as Faustina the Elder, (died c. ... Marcus Annius Verus was a Roman man who lived in the first and second century. ... Rupilia was the name of two Roman woman. ... Vibia Sabina was an Empress and wife to Emperor Hadrian. ...


Faustina bore Antoninus four children, two sons and two daughters. They were:

  • Marcus Aurelius Fulvius Antoninus (died before 138), his sepulchral inscription has been found at the Mausoleum of Hadrian in Rome.
  • Marcus Galerius Aurelius Antoninus (died before 138), his sepulchral inscription has been found at the Mausoleum of Hadrian in Rome. His name appears on a Greek Imperial coin.
  • Aurelia Fadilla (died in 135), she married Lucius Lamia Silvanus, consul 145. She appeared to have no children with her husband and her sepulchral inscription has been found in Italy.
  • Annia Galeria Faustina Minor or Faustina the Younger (between 125-130-175), a future Roman Empress and married her maternal cousin, future Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius. She was the only child that survived to adulthood.

When Faustina died in 141, he was in complete mourning and did the following in memory of his loving wife: Events February 25 - Roman emperor Hadrian adopted Antoninus Pius on condition that Antonius would adopt Marcus Annius Aurelius Verus. ... Events February 25 - Roman emperor Hadrian adopted Antoninus Pius on condition that Antonius would adopt Marcus Annius Aurelius Verus. ... For other uses, see number 135. ... For other uses, see number 145. ... Faustina the Younger Annia Galeria Faustina, the Younger, (c. ... Events Construction of the Pantheon (Rome) as it stands today by Hadrian. ... For other uses, see number 130. ... Events Pope Eleuterus succeeds Pope Soter (approximate date) Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius defeats the Marcomanni. ... Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (Rome, April 26, 121[2] – Vindobona or Sirmium, March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death in 180. ... Events Construction of the Temple of Antoninus and Faustina in Rome. ...

  • Deified her as a goddess.
  • Had a temple built in the Roman Forum in her name, with priestesses in the temple.
  • Had various coins with her portrait struck in her honor. These coins were scripted ‘DIVA FAUSTINA’ and were elaborately decorated.
  • He created a charity which he founded and called it Puellae Faustinianae or Girls of Faustina, which assisted orphaned girls.
  • Created a new alimenta (see Grain supply to the city of Rome).

The megalopolis of ancient Rome could never be fed entirely from its own surrounding countryside. ...

Favour with Hadrian

Having filled with more than usual success the offices of quaestor and praetor, he obtained the consulship in 120; he was next appointed by the Emperor Hadrian as one of the four proconsuls to administer Italia, then greatly increased his reputation by his conduct as proconsul of Asia. He acquired much favor with the Emperor Hadrian, who adopted him as his son and successor on February 25, 138, after the death of his first adopted son Lucius Aelius, on the condition that he himself would adopt Marcus Annius Verus, the son of his wife's brother, and Lucius, son of Aelius Verus, who afterwards became the emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus (colleague of Marcus Aurelius). Quaestores were elected officials of the Roman Republic who supervised the treasury and financial affairs of the state, its armies and its officers. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army, either before it was mustered or more typically in the field, or an elected... For other uses, see number 120. ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 –– July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was emperor of Rome from 117 A.D. to 138 A.D., as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. ... For the Miocene ape, see Proconsul (genus) Under the Roman Empire a proconsul was a promagistrate filling the office of a consul. ... For the Miocene ape, see Proconsul (genus) Under the Roman Empire a proconsul was a promagistrate filling the office of a consul. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Lucius Aelius as Caesar. ... Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (Rome, April 26, 121[2] – Vindobona or Sirmium, March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death in 180. ... Lucius Ceionius Commodus Verus Armeniacus (December 15, 130 – 169), known simply as Lucius Verus, was Roman co-emperor with Marcus Aurelius (161–180), from 161 until his death. ...


Emperor

Sestertius of Antoninus Pius, with the personification of Italia on reverse. Antoninus had been entrusted with the government of this province as proconsul.

On his accession, Antoninus' name became "Imperator Caesar Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pontifex Maximus". One of his first acts as Emperor was to persuade the Senate to grant divine honours to Hadrian, which they had at first refused; his efforts to persuade the Senate to grant these honours is the most likely reason given for his title of Pius (dutiful in affection; compare pietas). Two other reasons for this title are that he would support his aged father-in-law with his hand at Senate meetings, and that he had saved those men that Hadrian, during his period of ill-health, had condemned to death. He built temples, theaters, and mausoleums, promoted the arts and sciences, and bestowed honours and salaries upon the teachers of rhetoric and philosophy. Image File history File links Sesterius-Antoninus_Pius-Italia-RIC_0746a. ... Image File history File links Sesterius-Antoninus_Pius-Italia-RIC_0746a. ... The sestertius was an ancient Roman coin. ... For the Miocene ape, see Proconsul (genus) Under the Roman Empire a proconsul was a promagistrate filling the office of a consul. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... Pietas, as virtue of the Roman Emperor Herennius Etruscus, celebrated with the instruments of cult, such as patera and lituus. ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ...


His reign was comparatively peaceful; while there were several military disturbances throughout the Empire in his time, in Mauretania, Iudaea, and amongst the Brigantes in Britannia, none of them are considered serious. The unrest in Britannia is believed to have led to the construction of the Antonine Wall from the Firth of Forth to the Firth of Clyde, although it was soon abandoned. He was virtually unique among emperors in that he dealt with these crises without leaving Italy once during his reign, but instead dealt with provincial matters of war and peace through their governors or through imperial letters to the cities such as Ephesus (of which some were publicly displayed). This style of government was highly praised by his contemporaries and by later generations. In Antiquity, Mauretania was originally an independent Berber kingdom on the Mediterranean coast of north Africa (named after the Maure tribe, after whom the Moors were named), corresponding to western Algeria, and northern Morocco. ... Iudaea Province in the 1st century Iudaea (Hebrew: יהודה, Standard Yehuda Tiberian , praise God; Greek: Ιουδαία; Latin: Iudaea) was a Roman province that extended over the region of Judea proper, later Palestine. ... The Brigantes were a British Celtic tribe which lived between Tyne and Humber. ... Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... The Antonine Wall, looking east, from Barr Hill between Twechar and Croy The Antonine Wall, remains of Roman fortlet, Barr Hill, near Twechar Location of Hadrians Wall and the Antonine Wall in Scotland and Northern England. ... The Firth of Forth from Calton Hill The Forth Bridges cross the Firth Satellite photo of the Firth and the surrounding area Map of the Firth Firth of Forth (Scottish Gaelic: Linne Foirthe) is the estuary or firth of Scotlands River Forth, where it flows into the North Sea... Map of the Firth of Clyde and area The Firth of Clyde forms a large area of coastal water, sheltered from the Atlantic ocean by the Kintyre peninsula which encloses the outer firth in Argyll and Ayrshire, Scotland. ...

Another version of the standardised imperial portrait; from the house of Jason Magnus at Cyrene, North Africa (British Museum)
Another version of the standardised imperial portrait; from the house of Jason Magnus at Cyrene, North Africa (British Museum)

Of the public transactions of this period we have scant information, but, to judge by what we possess, those twenty-two years were not remarkably eventful in comparison to those before and after his; the surviving evidence is not complete enough to determine whether we should interpret, with older scholars, that he wisely curtailed the activities of the Roman Empire to a careful minimum, or perhaps that he was uninterested in events away from Rome and Italy and his inaction contributed to the pressing troubles that faced not only Marcus Aurelius but also the emperors of the third century. German historian Ernst Kornemann has had it in his Römische Geschichte [2 vols., ed. by H. Bengtson, Stuttgart 1954] that the reign of Antoninus comprised "a succession of grossly wasted opportunities," given the upheavals that were to come. There is more to this argument, given that the Parthians in the East were themselves soon to make no small amount of mischief after Antoninus' passing. Kornemann's brief is that Antoninus might have waged preventive wars to head off these outsiders. Conversely, Ivar Lissner [Power and Folly; The Story of the Caesars, Jonathan Cape Ltd., London 1958] has written, "...[Antoninus Pius] lived 'with his head in the clouds where external affairs were concerned'... however, I think it is unfair to criticize him for that. Every monarch or statesman who genuinely believes in the possibility of lasting peace and wishes to spare his people bloodshed does, fundamentally, live with his head in the clouds... for all that, his name makes less impact on the memory than that of such members of the imperial rogues' gallery as Nero or Domitian." The debate will no doubt continue. He maintained good relations with the Senate (in contrast to Hadrian). Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2300 × 3066 pixels, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2300 × 3066 pixels, file size: 2. ... Cyrene can refer to: The USS Cyrene (AGP-13), a motor torpedo boat tender Cyrene, a figure from Greek mythology Cyrene, a Greek colony in Libya (north Africa) 133 Cyrene, an asteroid Cyrene, fictional character who is the mother of Xena in the series Xena: Warrior Princess See also: Cyrenaica... The British Museum in London, England is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ... (2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century - other centuries) Events The Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east. ...


Death

Temple of Antoninus and Faustina in the Roman forum (now the church of San Lorenzo in Miranda). The emperor and his Augusta were deified after their death by Marcus Aurelius.
Temple of Antoninus and Faustina in the Roman forum (now the church of San Lorenzo in Miranda). The emperor and his Augusta were deified after their death by Marcus Aurelius.

After the longest reign since Augustus, Antoninus died of fever at Lorium in Etruria, about twelve miles from Rome, on March 7 161, giving the keynote to his life in the last word that he uttered when the tribune of the night-watch came to ask the password — "aequanimitas" (equanimity). His body was placed in Hadrian's mausoleum, a column was dedicated to him on the Campus Martius, and the temple he had built in the Forum in 141 to his deified wife Faustina was rededicated to the deified Faustina and the deified Antoninus. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1459x1395, 1697 KB) it:: Roma, Foro Romano, il tempio del Divo Antonino Pio e della Diva Faustina, veduta dal Palatino. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1459x1395, 1697 KB) it:: Roma, Foro Romano, il tempio del Divo Antonino Pio e della Diva Faustina, veduta dal Palatino. ... Annia Galeria Faustina, better known as Faustina the Elder, (died c. ... Part of the Roman Forum. ... The facade of San Lorenzo in Miranda sports the pillared portico of the Temple of Antoninus and Faustina. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic or venerable. The feminin form is Augusta. ... Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (Rome, April 26, 121[2] – Vindobona or Sirmium, March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death in 180. ... Lorium was an ancient village of Etruria, Italy, on the Via Aurelia, 19 km west of Rome. ... The area covered by the Etruscan civilzation. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... For the town with the same name, see Castel SantAngelo (RI) Castel SantAngelo from the bridge. ... Coin showing the column with surmounting statue of Antoninus. ... The Campus Martius, or Field of Mars, was a publicly owned area of ancient Rome about 2 km² (600 acres) in extent. ... The church of San Lorenzo in Miranda, built in the 17th century on the remains of the temple, still keeps the columned portico of the temple of Antoninus and Faustina. ...


Historiography

The only account of his life handed down to us is that of the Augustan History, an unreliable and mostly fabricated work. Antoninus is unique among Roman emperors in that he has no other biographies. Historians have therefore turned to public records for what details we know. The Augustan History (Lat. ...


In later scholarship

Antoninus in many ways was the ideal of the landed gentleman praised not only by ancient Romans, but also by later scholars of classical history, such as Edward Gibbon or the author of the article on Antoninus Pius in the ninth edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica: Edward Gibbon (1737–1794). ... Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1910-1911) represents the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century; indeed, it was advertised as such. ...

A few months afterwards, on Hadrian's death, he was enthusiastically welcomed to the throne by the Roman people, who, for once, were not disappointed in their anticipation of a happy reign. For Antoninus came to his new office with simple tastes, kindly disposition, extensive experience, a well-trained intelligence and the sincerest desire for the welfare of his subjects. Instead of plundering to support his prodigality, he emptied his private treasury to assist distressed provinces and cities, and everywhere exercised rigid economy (hence the nickname κυμινοπριστης "cummin-splitter"). Instead of exaggerating into treason whatever was susceptible of unfavorable interpretation, he spurned the very conspiracies that were formed against him into opportunities for demonstrating his clemency. Instead of stirring up persecution against the Christians, he extended to them the strong hand of his protection throughout the empire. Rather than give occasion to that oppression which he regarded as inseparable from an emperor's progress through his dominions, he was content to spend all the years of his reign in Rome, or its neighbourhood.

References

  • Bossart-Mueller, Zur Geschichte des Kaisers A. (1868)
  • Lacour-Gayet, A. le Pieux et son Temps (1888)
  • Bryant, The Reign of Antonine (Cambridge Historical Essays, 1895)
  • P. B. Watson, Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (London, 1884), chap. ii.
  • W. Hüttl, Antoninus Pius vol. I & II, Prag 1933 & 1936.
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • Historia Augusta, The Life of Antoninus Pius, Latin text with English translation
  • Cassius Dio, Roman History Book LXX, English translation
Antoninus Pius
Cadet branch of the Nervan-Antonian Dynasty
Born: 19 September 86 Died: 7 March 161
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Hadrian
Roman Emperor
138 – 161
Succeeded by
Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus
Political offices
Preceded by
Hadrian and
Publius Dasumius Rusticus
Consul of the Roman Empire
120
Succeeded by
Marcus Annius Verus and
Cnaeus Arrius Augur
Preceded by
Kanus Iunius Niger and
Gaius Pomponius Camerinus
Consul of the Roman Empire
139 – 140
Succeeded by
Titus Hoenius Severus and
Marcus Peducaeus Stloga Priscinus
Preceded by
Lollianus and
Titus Statilius Maximus
Consul of the Roman Empire
145
Succeeded by
Sextus Erucius Clarus and
Cnaeus Claudius Severus Arabianus

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Antoninus Pius (1369 words)
Antoninus was afterwards proconsul in Asia, where his remarkable administrative qualities attracted the attention of the Emperor, who admitted him to the "Consilium Principis" on his return to Rome.
The only extension of the Roman territory in the reign of Antoninus was in Britain, where a new wall was built at the foot of the Caledonian mountains between the Forth and the Clyde, considerably farther north than the wall of Hadrian.
In his "Apology" to Marcus Aurelius he speaks of "letters" addressed by Antoninus Pius to the Larissæans, the Thessalonians, the Athenians, and to all the Greeks, forbidding all tumultuous outbreaks against the Christians.
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