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Encyclopedia > Anton Chekhov
Антон Павлович Чехов
Anton Pavlovich Chekhov

Anton Chekhov, by Osip Braz, 1898
Born: 29 January [O.S. 17 January] 1860
Flag of Russia Taganrog, Russia
Died: 15 July [O.S. 2 July] 1904
Flag of German Empire Badenweiler, Germany
Occupation: Physician, short story writer, playwright
Nationality: Russian

Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (Russian: Анто́н Па́влович Че́хов, IPA: [ʌnˈton ˈpavləvʲɪtɕ ˈtɕɛxəf]) was a Russian short story writer and playwright. He was born in Taganrog, southern Russia, on 29 January [O.S. 17 January] 1860, and died of tuberculosis at the health spa of Badenweiler, Germany, on 15 July [O.S. 2 July] 1904. His brief playwriting career produced four classics, while his best short stories are held in high esteem by writers and critics.[1][2] Chekhov practiced as a doctor throughout most of his literary career: "Medicine is my lawful wife," he once said, "and literature is my mistress".[3] Image File history File links Anton_Pavlovič_ÄŒehov_(Ант́о_П́авлович_Ч́ехов).jpg‎ ÄŒesky | Deutsch | English | Ελληνικά | Español | فارسی | Français | עברית | Indonesian | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | Magyar | Nederlands | Polski | Português | RomânÇŽ | Русский | Slovenščina | Српски | Sunda | 简体中文 | 正體中文 | Türkçe | Русский | Українська +/- Other versions Image:Chekhov 1898 by Osip Braz. ... January 29 is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... January 17 is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Taganrog (Russian: , IPA: ) is a seaport city located on Taganrog Bay in Rostov Oblast, Russia. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Badenweiler, a health resort and watering place of the grand-duchy of Baden, a portion of Markgräflerland, Germany, its 28 kilometers by road and rail from Basel and 10 kilometers from the French border and 20 kilometes away from Mulhouse and the nearest big city in German side is... For the album by the Kaiser Chiefs see Employment (album) Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. ... The Doctor by Luke Fildes This article is about the term physician, one type of doctor; for other uses of the word doctor see Doctor. ... This article is in need of attention. ... A playwright, also known as a dramatist, is a person who writes dramatic literature or drama. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... A playwright, also known as a dramatist, is a person who writes dramatic literature or drama. ... Taganrog (Russian: , IPA: ) is a seaport city located on Taganrog Bay in Rostov Oblast, Russia. ... January 29 is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... January 17 is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for Tubercle Bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease that is caused by mycobacteria, primarily Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Badenweiler, a health resort and watering place of the grand-duchy of Baden, a portion of Markgräflerland, Germany, its 28 kilometers by road and rail from Basel and 10 kilometers from the French border and 20 kilometes away from Mulhouse and the nearest big city in German side is... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Old Style or O.S. is a designation indicating that a date conforms to the Julian calendar, formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ...


Chekhov renounced the theatre after the disastrous reception of The Seagull in 1896; but the play was revived to acclaim by Konstantin Stanislavsky's Moscow Art Theatre, which subsequently also produced Uncle Vanya and premiered Chekhov’s last two plays, Three Sisters and The Cherry Orchard. These four works present a special challenge to the acting ensemble[4] as well as to audiences, because in place of conventional action Chekhov offers a "theatre of mood" and a "submerged life in the text".[5] Not everyone appreciated that challenge: Leo Tolstoy reportedly told Chekhov, "You know, I cannot abide Shakespeare, but your plays are even worse".[6][7] Chekhov in an 1898 portrait by Osip Braz. ... A portrait of Konstantin Stanislavsky by Valentin Serov. ... The Moscow Art Theatre is a theatre company in Moscow, Russia, founded in 1897 by Konstantin Stanislavsky and Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko. ... Anton Chekhov (left) and Maxim Gorky in Yalta. ... Chekhov in a 1905 illustration. ... Bust of Anton Chekhov at Badenweiler, Germany The Cherry Orchard (Вишнëвый сад or Vishniovy sad in Russian) is Russian playwright Anton Chekhovs last play. ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , IPA:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Tolstoy did, however, admire Chekhov's short stories.[8] Chekhov had at first written stories only for the money, but as his artistic ambition grew, he made formal innovations which have influenced the evolution of the modern short story.[9][10][11] His originality consists in an early use of the stream-of-consciousness technique, later exploited by Virginia Woolf and other modernists, combined with a disavowal of the moral finality of traditional story structure.[12][13] He made no apologies for the difficulties this posed to readers, insisting that the role of an artist was to ask questions, not to answer them.[14] In literary criticism, stream of consciousness is a literary technique which seeks to portray an individuals point of view by giving the written equivalent of the characters thought processes. ... For the American childrens writer, see Virginia Euwer Wolff Virginia Woolf (née Stephen) (January 25, 1882 – March 28, 1941) was an English novelist and essayist regarded as one of the foremost modernist literary figures of the twentieth century. ... Modernist literature is the literary form of Modernism and especially High modernism; it should not be confused with modern literature, which is the history of the modern novel and modern poetry as one. ...

Contents

Biography

Early life

The house in Taganrog, Russia, where Chekhov was born
The house in Taganrog, Russia, where Chekhov was born

Anton Chekhov was born on 29 January 1860, the third of six surviving children, in Taganrog, Russia, a port on the Sea of Azov in southern Russia where his father, Pavel Yegorovich Chekhov, the son of a former serf, ran a grocery store. A choirmaster, religious fanatic, and keen flogger of his children, Pavel Chekhov has been seen as the model for his son's many portraits of hypocrites.[15] Chekhov's mother, Yevgeniya, was an excellent storyteller who entertained the children with tales of her travels with her cloth-merchant father all over Russia.[16][17] "Our talents we got from our father," Chekhov remembered, "but our soul from our mother."[18] Image File history File links Chekhov_Birthhouse. ... Image File history File links Chekhov_Birthhouse. ... Taganrog (Russian: , IPA: ) is a seaport city located on Taganrog Bay in Rostov Oblast, Russia. ... January 29 is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Taganrog (Russian: , IPA: ) is a seaport city located on Taganrog Bay in Rostov Oblast, Russia. ... The shallow Sea of Azov is clearly distinguished from the deeper Black Sea. ... Costumes of slaves or serfs, from the sixth to the twelfth centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel from original documents in European libraries. ...


In adulthood, Chekhov was to criticise his brother Alexander's treatment of his wife and children by reminding him of Pavel’s tyranny:

Let me ask you to recall that it was despotism and lying that ruined your mother's youth. Despotism and lying so mutilated our childhood that it's sickening and frightening to think about it. Remember the horror and disgust we felt in those times when Father threw a tantrum at dinner over too much salt in the soup and called Mother a fool.[19][20]

The Assumption Cathedral in Taganrog, Russia, where Anton Chekhov was christened on 10 February 1860
The Assumption Cathedral in Taganrog, Russia, where Anton Chekhov was christened on 10 February 1860

Chekhov attended a school for Greek boys, followed by the Taganrog gymnasium, now renamed the Chekhov Gymnasium, where he was kept down for a year at fifteen for failing a Greek exam.[21] He sang at the Greek Orthodox monastery in Taganrog and in his father's choirs. In a letter of 1892, he used the word "suffering" to describe his childhood and recalled: Image File history File links Assumption_Cathedral. ... Image File history File links Assumption_Cathedral. ... Taganrog (Russian: , IPA: ) is a seaport city located on Taganrog Bay in Rostov Oblast, Russia. ... Baptism in early Christian art. ... February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... A gymnasium (pronounced with or, in Swedish, as opposed to ) is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English Grammar Schools and U.S. High Schools. ... The Chekhov Gymnasium in Taganrog on Ulitsa Oktyabrskaya 9 (formerly Gymnasicheskaya Street) is the oldest gymnasium in the South of Russia. ... Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Hellēnorthódoxē Ekklēsía) can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches. ...

When my brothers and I used to stand in the middle of the church and sing the trio "May my prayer be exalted," or "The Archangel's Voice," everyone looked at us with emotion and envied our parents, but we at that moment felt like little convicts.[22]

In 1876, disaster struck the family. Chekhov's father was declared bankrupt after over-extending his finances building a new house,[23] and to avoid the debtor's prison fled to Moscow, where his two eldest sons, Alexander and Nikolai, were attending the university. The family lived in poverty in Moscow, Chekhov's mother physically and emotionally broken.[24] Chekhov was left behind to sell the family possessions and finish his education. A debtors prison is a prison for people unable to pay a debt to another creditor. ... Position of Moscow in Europe Coordinates: , Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Government  - Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Area  - City 1,081 km²  (417. ...

Taganrog Gymnasium in the late 19th century
Taganrog Gymnasium in the late 19th century

Chekhov remained in Taganrog for three more years, boarding with a man called Selivanov who, like Lopakhin in The Cherry Orchard, had bailed out the family for the price of their house.[25] Chekhov had to pay for his own education, which he managed by — among other jobs — private tutoring, catching and selling goldfinches, and selling short sketches to the newspapers.[26] He sent every rouble he could spare to Moscow, along with humorous letters to cheer up the family.[26] During this time he read widely and analytically, including Cervantes, Turgenev, Goncharov, and Schopenhauer;[27][28] and he wrote a full-length comedy drama, Fatherless, which his brother Alexander dismissed as "an inexcusable though innocent fabrication".[29] Chekhov also enjoyed a series of love affairs, one with the wife of a teacher.[26] Image File history File links Taganrog_gymnasium_boys. ... Image File history File links Taganrog_gymnasium_boys. ... Binomial name Carduelis tristis (Linnaeus, 1758) The Eastern or American Goldfinch (Carduelis tristis) is a typical North American seed-eating member of the finch (Fringillidae) family, averaging 11 cm in length. ... The ruble or rouble is a unit of currency. ... Don Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (IPA: in modern Spanish; September 29, 1547 – April 23, 1616) was a Spanish novelist, poet, and playwright. ... Ivan Turgenev, photo by Félix Nadar (1820-1910) “Turgenev” redirects here. ... Ivan Alexandrovich Goncharov (June 18, 1812 – September 27, 1891; June 6, 1812 – September 15, 1891, O.S.) was a Russian novelist best known as the author of Oblomov (1859). ... Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher. ...


In 1879, Chekhov completed his schooling and joined his family in Moscow, having gained admission to the medical school at Moscow University.[30] Moscow State University M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian: Московский государственный университет имени М.В.Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ, MSU, MGU) is the largest and the oldest university in Russia, founded in 1755. ...


Early writings

Chekhov now assumed responsibility for the whole family.[31] To support them and to pay his tuition fees, he daily wrote short, humorous sketches and vignettes of contemporary Russian life, many under pseudonyms such as "Antosha Chekhonte" (Антоша Чехонте) and "Man without a Spleen" (Человек без селезенки). His prodigious output gradually earned him a reputation as a satirical chronicler of Russian street life, and by 1882 he was writing for Oskolki (Fragments), owned by Nikolai Leikin, one of the leading publishers of the time.[32] Chekhov's tone at this stage was harsher than that familiar from his mature fiction.[33] A pseudonym (Greek pseudo + -onym: false name) is an artificial, fictitious name, also known as an alias, used by an individual as an alternative to a persons true name. ... 1867 edition of the satirical magazine Punch, a British satirical magazine, ground-breaking on popular literature satire. ...


In 1884, Chekhov qualified as a physician, which he considered his principal profession though he made little money from it and treated the poor for free.[34] In 1884 and 1885, Chekhov found himself coughing blood, and in 1886 the attacks worsened; but he would not admit tuberculosis to his family and friends,[18] confessing to Leikin, "I am afraid to submit myself to be sounded by my colleagues."[35] He continued writing for weekly periodicals, earning enough money to move the family into progressively better accommodation. Early in 1886 he was invited to write for one of the most respected papers in Petersburg, Novoye Vremya (New Times), owned and edited by the millionaire magnate Alexey Suvorin, who paid per line a rate double Leikin's and allowed him three times the space.[36] Suvorin was to become a lifelong friend, perhaps Chekhov's closest.[37][38] The Doctor by Luke Fildes This article is about the term physician, one type of doctor; for other uses of the word doctor see Doctor. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for Tubercle Bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease that is caused by mycobacteria, primarily Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Aleksei Sergeevich Suvorin (born 1834-died 1912) was an important publisher during the peroid of the Russian empire. ...


Before long, Chekhov was attracting literary as well as popular attention. The sixty-four-year-old Dmitry Grigorovich, a celebrated Russian writer of the day, wrote to Chekhov after reading his short story The Huntsman,[39] "You have real talent — a talent which places you in the front rank among writers in the new generation". He went on to advise Chekhov to slow down, write less, and concentrate on literary quality. Dmitry Vasilyevich Grigorovich (Russian: ) (March 19 (N.S. March 31), 1822, Simbirsk - December 22, 1899 (N.S. January 3, 1900), Petersburg) was a Russian writer. ...


Chekhov replied that the letter had struck him "like a thunderbolt" and confessed, "I have written my stories the way reporters write up their notes about fires — mechanically, half-consciously, caring nothing about either the reader or myself".[40] The admission may have done Chekhov a disservice, since early manuscripts reveal that he often wrote with extreme care, continually revising.[41] Grigorovich's advice nevertheless inspired a more serious, artistic ambition in the twenty-six-year-old. In 1887, with a little string-pulling by Grigorevich, the short story collection At Dusk (V Sumerkakh) won Chekhov the coveted Pushkin Prize "for the best literary production distinguished by high artistic worth".[42] The Pushkin Prize was established in 1881 by Russian Academy of Sciences to honor one of the greatest Russian poets Aleksandr Pushkin (1799-1837). ...


Turning points

That year, exhausted from overwork and ill health, Chekhov took a trip to Ukraine which reawakened him to the beauty of the steppe.[43] On his return, he began the novella-length short story The Steppe, "something rather odd and much too original", eventually published in Severny Vestnik (Northern Herald).[44] In a narrative which drifts with the thought processes of the characters, Chekhov evokes a chaise journey across the steppe through the eyes of a young boy sent to live away from home, his companions a priest and a merchant. The Steppe, which has been called a "dictionary of Chekhov's poetics", represented a significant advance for Chekhov, exhibiting much of the quality of his mature fiction and winning him publication in a literary journal rather than a newspaper.[45] The steppe extends roughly from the Dniepr to the Ural or 30 to 55 degrees eastern longitude, and from the Black Sea and the Caucasus in the south to the temperate forest and taiga in the north, or 45 to 55 degrees northern latitude. ... A chaise (the French for chair, through a transference from a sedan-chair to a wheeled vehicle) is a light two- or four-wheeled carriage with a movable hood or calash ; the post-chaise was the fast-travelling carriage of the 18th and early 19th centuries. ...


In Autumn 1887, a theatre manager named Korsh commissioned Chekhov to write a play, the result being Ivanov, written in a fortnight and produced that November.[18] Though Chekhov found the experience "sickening", and painted a comic portrait of the chaotic production in a letter to his brother Alexander, the play was a hit, praised, to Chekhov's bemusement, as a work of originality.[46] Mihail Chekhov considered Ivanov a key moment in his brother's intellectual development and literary career.[18] From this period comes an observation of Chekhov's which has become known as "Chekhov's Gun", noted by Ilia Gurliand from a conversation: "If in Act I you have a pistol hanging on the wall, then it must fire in the last act."[47][48] Ivanov is a four-act play by Anton Chekhov first performed in 1887 Ivanov was originally commisioned by a Moscow theatre owner as comedy. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The death of Chekhov's brother Nikolai from tuberculosis in 1889 influenced A Dreary Story, finished that September, about a man who confronts the end of a life which he realises has been without purpose.[49][50] Mihail Chekhov, who recorded his brother's depression and restlessness after Nikolai's death, was researching prisons at the time as part of his law studies, and Chekhov, in a search for purpose in his own life, soon became obsessed with the issue of prison reform himself.[18]


Sakhalin

Statue of Chekhov in Tomsk
Statue of Chekhov in Tomsk

In 1890, Chekhov undertook an arduous journey by train, horse-drawn carriage, and river steamer to the far east of Russia and the katorga, or penal colony, on Sakhalin Island, north of Japan, where he spent three months interviewing thousands of convicts and settlers for a census. The letters Chekhov wrote during the two-and-a-half month journey to Sakhalin are considered among his best.[51] His remarks to his sister about Tomsk were to become notorious.[52][53] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 285 KB) Краткое описание Памятник Антону Чехову в Томске на берегу Ñ€. Томи напротив ресторана Славянский базар. Антон Павлович в Томске глазами пьяного мужика лежащего в канаве и ни разу не читавшего Каштанки. Памятник установил на народные деньги томский сульптор Леонтий Усов. Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Anton Chekhov Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 285 KB) Краткое описание Памятник Антону Чехову в Томске на берегу Ñ€. Томи напротив ресторана Славянский базар. Антон Павлович в Томске глазами пьяного мужика лежащего в канаве и ни разу не читавшего Каштанки. Памятник установил на народные деньги томский сульптор Леонтий Усов. Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Anton Chekhov Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Flag Seal Location Tomsk and Oblast on the map of Russia Coordinates , Government Oblast Tomsk Mayor Aleksandr Makarov Geographical characteristics Area     City 294,6 km²     Land   294,6 km²     Water   0 km² Population     City (end of 2005) 509,568     Density   1,730/km² Elevation +100 m Website: Municipality website Main... -1... Sakhalin (Russian: Сахалин), also Saghalien, 库页岛 (Ku Ye Dao, Chinese), or Karafuto (Japanese: 樺太) is a large elongated island in the North Pacific, lying between 45° 50 and 54° 24 N, in East Siberia, Russia. ... Flag Seal Location Tomsk and Oblast on the map of Russia Coordinates , Government Oblast Tomsk Mayor Aleksandr Makarov Geographical characteristics Area     City 294,6 km²     Land   294,6 km²     Water   0 km² Population     City (end of 2005) 509,568     Density   1,730/km² Elevation +100 m Website: Municipality website Main...

"Tomsk is a very dull town. To judge from the drunkards whose acquaintance I have made, and from the intellectual people who have come to the hotel to pay their respects to me, the inhabitants are very dull too."[54]

The inhabitants of Tomsk later retaliated by erecting a mocking statue of Chekhov.


What Chekhov witnessed on Sakhalin shocked and angered him, including floggings, embezzlement of supplies, and forced prostitution of women: "There were times," he wrote, when "I felt that I saw before me the extreme limits of man's degradation."[55][56] He was particularly moved by the plight of the children living in the penal colony with their parents. For example: Sexual slavery is a special case of slavery which includes various different practices: forced prostitution single-owner sexual slavery ritual slavery, sometimes associated with traditional religious practices slavery for primarily non-sexual purposes where sex is common or permissible In general, the nature of slavery means that the slave is...

The monument to Chekhov in Alexandrovsk-Sakhalinsky, Sakhalin Island
The monument to Chekhov in Alexandrovsk-Sakhalinsky, Sakhalin Island

"On the Amur steamer going to Sahalin, there was a convict with fetters on his legs who had murdered his wife. His daughter, a little girl of six, was with him. I noticed wherever the convict moved the little girl scrambled after him, holding on to his fetters. At night the child slept with the convicts and soldiers all in a heap together."[57] Image File history File links Chekhov_monument_Sakhalin. ... Image File history File links Chekhov_monument_Sakhalin. ... Alexandrovsk-Sakhalinsky (Russian: ) is a town in Sakhalin Oblast, Russia, located near the Tatar Strait on the western shores of Northern Sakhalin at the foot of the Western Sakhalin Mountains. ... Sakhalin (Russian: Сахалин), also Saghalien, 库页岛 (Ku Ye Dao, Chinese), or Karafuto (Japanese: 樺太) is a large elongated island in the North Pacific, lying between 45° 50 and 54° 24 N, in East Siberia, Russia. ... The Amur River (Russian: Амур; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: , or Black Dragon River; Mayan; Mongolian: Хара-Мурэн, Khara-Muren or Black River; Manchu: Sahaliyan Ula, literal meaning Black River) is Earths eighth longest river, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Manchuria in China. ...

Chekhov later concluded that charity and subscription were not the answer, but that the government had a duty to finance humane treatment of the convicts. His findings were published in 1893 and 1894 as Ostrov Sakhalin (The Island of Sakhalin), a work of social science, not literature, and worthy and informative rather than brilliant.[58][59] Chekhov found literary expression for the hell of Sakhalin in his long short story The Murder,[60] the last section of which is set on Sakhalin, where the murderer Yakov loads coal in the night, longing for home.


Melikhovo

In 1892, Chekhov bought the small country estate of Melikhovo, about forty miles south of Moscow, where he lived until 1899 with his family. "It's nice to be a lord," he joked to Shcheglov;[61] but he took his responsibilities as a landlord seriously and soon made himself useful to the local peasants. As well as organising relief for victims of the famine and cholera outbreaks of 1892, he went on to build three schools, a fire station, and a clinic, and to donate his medical services to peasants for miles around, despite frequent recurrences of his tuberculosis.[34][15][62] A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... Cholera (frequently called Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is a severe diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ...


Mihail Chekhov, a member of the household at Melikhovo, described the extent of his brother's medical commitments:

From the first day that Chekhov moved to Melikhovo the sick began flocking to him from twenty miles around. They came on foot or were brought in carts, and often he was fetched to patients at a distance. Sometimes from early in the morning peasant women and children were standing before his door waiting.[18]

Chekhov at Melikhovo
Chekhov at Melikhovo

Chekhov’s expenditure on drugs was considerable; but the greatest cost was making journeys of several hours to visit the sick, which reduced his time for writing.[18] Chekhov’s work as a doctor, however, enriched his writing by bringing him into intimate contact with all sections of Russian society: for example, he witnessed at first hand the unhealthy and cramped living conditions of many peasants. In the short story Peasants, he describes a family's sleeping arrangements: Image File history File links Chekhov_at_Melikhovo. ... Image File history File links Chekhov_at_Melikhovo. ...

They began going to bed. Nikolay, as an invalid, was put on the stove with his old father; Sasha lay down on the floor, while Olga went with the other women into the barn.[63]

Chekhov visited the upper classes too, recording in his notebook: "Aristocrats? The same ugly bodies and physical uncleanliness, the same toothless old age and disgusting death, as with market-women."[64]


Chekhov began writing his play The Seagull in 1894, in a lodge he had built in the orchard at Melikhovo. In the two years since moving to the estate, he had refurbished the house, taken up agriculture and horticulture, tended orchard and pond, and planted many trees, which, according to Mihail, he "looked after… as though they were his children, and, like Colonel Vershinin in his Three Sisters, dreamed as he looked at them of what they would be like in three or four hundred years."[18] Concern has been expressed that this article or section is missing information about: horticulture as used in anthropology, a label for agriculture as used in small-scale societies. ... Chekhov in a 1905 illustration. ...


The first night of The Seagull on 17 October 1896 at the Alexandrinsky Theatre in Petersburg was a fiasco, booed by the audience, and stung Chekhov into renouncing the theatre.[65] But the play so impressed the playwright Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko that he convinced Konstantin Stanislavsky to direct it for the innovative Moscow Art Theatre in 1898.[66] Stanislavsky's attention to psychological realism and ensemble playing coaxed the buried subtleties from the text and restored Chekhov's interest in playwriting.[67] The Art Theatre commissioned more plays from Chekhov and the following year staged Uncle Vanya, which Chekhov had completed in 1896.[68] October 17 is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... Vladimir Ivanovich Nemirovich-Danchenko (Владимир Иванович Немирович-Данченко in Russian) (December 11(23), 1858 - April 25, 1943, Moscow) was a Russian theatre director, writer, pedagogue, and playwright, who co-founded the Moscow Art Theatre with his more famous colleague, Konstantin Stanislavsky, in 1898. ... A portrait of Konstantin Stanislavsky by Valentin Serov. ... The Moscow Art Theatre is a theatre company in Moscow, Russia, founded in 1897 by Konstantin Stanislavsky and Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko. ...


Yalta

Chekhov with Leo Tolstoy at Yalta, 1900
Chekhov with Leo Tolstoy at Yalta, 1900

In March 1897 Chekhov suffered a major haemorrhage of the lungs while on a visit to Moscow and, with great difficulty, was persuaded to enter a clinic, where the doctors diagnosed tuberculosis on the upper part of his lungs and ordered a change in his manner of life.[69] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , IPA:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ... Yalta (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a city in Crimea, southern Ukraine, on the north coast of the Black Sea. ...


After his father's death in 1898, Chekhov bought a plot of land at Alushta, near Yalta, and built a villa there, into which he moved with his mother and sister the following year. Though he planted trees and flowers at Alushta, kept dogs and tame cranes, and received guests such as Leo Tolstoy and Maxim Gorky, Chekhov was always relieved to leave his "hot Siberia" for Moscow or travels abroad and vowed to move to Taganrog as soon as a water supply was installed there.[70][71] At Alushta he completed two more plays for the Art Theatre, composing with greater difficulty than in the days when he "wrote serenely, the way I eat pancakes now"; he took a year each over Three Sisters and The Cherry Orchard.[72] Alushta, called Aluston in the Byzantine Empire, is a resort town in the Crimea, situated on the Black Sea on the road from Gurzuf to Sudak. ... Yalta (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Crimean Tatar: ) is a city in Crimea, southern Ukraine, on the north coast of the Black Sea. ... Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , IPA:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ... Aleksei Maksimovich Peshkov (In Russian Алексей Максимович Пешков) (March 28 [O.S. March 16] 1868–June 18, 1936), better known as Maxim Gorky (Максим Горький), was a Soviet/Russian author, a founder of the socialist realism literary method and a political activist. ... It has been suggested that Western Siberia be merged into this article or section. ... Chekhov in a 1905 illustration. ... Bust of Anton Chekhov at Badenweiler, Germany The Cherry Orchard (Вишнëвый сад or Vishniovy sad in Russian) is Russian playwright Anton Chekhovs last play. ...


On 25 May 1901 Chekhov married Olga Knipper — quietly, owing to his horror of weddings — a former protegée and sometime lover of Nemirovich-Danchenko whom he had first met at rehearsals for The Seagull.[73][74][75] Up to that point, Chekhov, who has been called "Russia's most elusive literary bachelor",[76] had preferred passing liaisons and visits to brothels over commitment;[77] he had once written to Suvorin: is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Olga Leonardovna Knipper (1869-1959) was among the 39 original members of the Moscow Art Theatre, when the latter was formed by Konstantin Stanislavsky in 1898. ...

By all means I will be married if you wish it. But on these conditions: everything must be as it has been hitherto — that is, she must live in Moscow while I live in the country, and I will come and see her… give me a wife who, like the moon, won't appear in my sky every day.[78]

Chekhov and Olga, 1901, on honeymoon
Chekhov and Olga, 1901, on honeymoon

The letter proved prophetic of Chekhov's marital arrangements with Olga: he lived largely at Yalta, she in Moscow, pursuing her acting career. In 1902, Olga suffered a miscarriage; and Donald Rayfield has offered evidence, based on the couple's letters, that conception may have occurred when Chekhov and Olga were apart.[79][80] The literary legacy of this long-distance marriage is a correspondence which preserves gems of theatre history, including shared complaints about Stanislavsky's directing methods and Chekhov's advice to Olga about performing in his plays.[81] Image File history File links Anton_Chekhov_and_Olga_Knipper,_1901. ... Image File history File links Anton_Chekhov_and_Olga_Knipper,_1901. ... Miscarriage or spontaneous abortion is the natural or accidental termination of a pregnancy at a stage where the embryo or the fetus is incapable of surviving, generally defined at a gestation of prior to 20 weeks. ...


At Yalta, Chekhov wrote one of his most famous stories, The Lady with the Dog (also called Lady with Lapdog),[82] which depicts what at first seems a casual liaison between a married man and a married woman in Yalta; neither expects anything lasting from the encounter, but they find themselves drawn back to each other, risking the security of their family lives.


At the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War in Feb. 1904 Chekhov volunteered to be an Army doctor. The Tsar, aware of Chekhov's poor health, refused the offer. Combatants Russian Empire Montenegro Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov† Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo Greater Manchuria, Russian (outer) Manchuria is region to upper right in lighter Red; Liaodong Peninsula is the wedge extending into the Yellow Sea Georges Ferdinand Bigot, Japan fights against...


Death

By May 1904, Chekhov was terminally ill. "Everyone who saw him secretly thought the end was not far off," Mihail Chekhov recalled, "but the nearer Chekhov was to the end, the less he seemed to realize it."[18] On 3 June he set off with Olga for the German spa town of Badenweiler in the Black Forest, from where he wrote outwardly jovial letters to his sister Masha describing the food and surroundings and assuring her and his mother that he was getting better. In his last letter, he complained about the way the German women dressed.[83] June 3 is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Badenweiler, a health resort and watering place of the grand-duchy of Baden, a portion of Markgräflerland, Germany, its 28 kilometers by road and rail from Basel and 10 kilometers from the French border and 20 kilometes away from Mulhouse and the nearest big city in German side is... A map of Germany, showing the Black Forest in red. ...

Chekhov's grave, Novodevichy Cemetery, Moscow
Chekhov's grave, Novodevichy Cemetery, Moscow

Chekhov’s death has become one of "the great set pieces of literary history",[84] retold, embroidered, and fictionalised many times since, notably in the short story Errand by Raymond Carver. In 1908, Olga wrote this account of her husband’s last moments: Image File history File links ChekhovTomb. ... Image File history File links ChekhovTomb. ... Grave of Anton Chekhov Novodevichy Cemetery (Новодевичье кла́дбище, Novodevichye kladbishche) is the most famous cemetery in Moscow, Russia, situated next to the World Heritage Site, the 16th-century Novodevichy Convent, which is the citys third most popular tourist site. ... Raymond Clevie Carver, Jr. ...

Anton sat up unusually straight and said loudly and clearly (although he knew almost no German): Ich sterbe. The doctor calmed him, took a syringe, gave him an injection of camphor, and ordered champagne. Anton took a full glass, examined it, smiled at me and said: "It's a long time since I drank champagne." He drained it, lay quietly on his left side, and I just had time to run to him and lean across the bed and call to him, but he had stopped breathing and was sleeping peacefully as a child...[85] R-phrases 11-20/21/22-36/37/38 S-phrases 16-26-36 RTECS number EX1260000 (R) EX1250000 (S) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...

Chekhov’s body was transported to Moscow in a refrigerated railway car for fresh oysters, a detail which offended Gorky.[86] Some of the thousands of mourners followed the funeral procession of a General Keller by mistake, to the accompaniment of a military band. Chekhov was buried next to his father at the Novodevichy Cemetery.[87] Crassostrea gigas, Marennes-Oléron Crassostrea gigas, Marennes-Oléron Crassostrea gigas, Marennes-Oléron, opened The name oyster is used for a number of different groups of mollusks which grow for the most part in marine or brackish water. ... Grave of Anton Chekhov Novodevichy Cemetery (Новодевичье кла́дбище, Novodevichye kladbishche) is the most famous cemetery in Moscow, Russia, situated next to the World Heritage Site, the 16th-century Novodevichy Convent, which is the citys third most popular tourist site. ...


Legacy

A few months before he died, Chekhov told the writer Ivan Bunin he thought people might go on reading him for seven years. "Why seven?" asked Bunin. "Well, seven and a half," Chekhov replied. "That’s not bad. I’ve got six years to live."[88] The Russian writer Ivan Alekseyevich Bunin (October 10, 1870 - November 8, 1953), born in Voronezh, won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1933. ...

Chekhov with Gorky at Yalta
Chekhov with Gorky at Yalta

Always modest, Chekhov could hardly have imagined the extent of his posthumous reputation. The ovations for The Cherry Orchard in the year of his death showed him how high he had risen in the affection of the Russian public — by then he was second in literary celebrity only to Tolstoy, who outlived him by six years — but after his death, Chekhov's fame soon spread further afield. Constance Garnett's translations won him an English-language readership and the admiration of writers such as James Joyce, Virginia Woolf, and Katherine Mansfield, the last arguably to the point of plagiarism.[89] The Russian critic D.S. Mirsky, who lived in England, explained Chekhov's popularity in that country by his "unusually complete rejection of what we may call the heroic values".[90] In Russia itself, Chekhov's drama fell out of fashion after the revolution but was later adapted to the Soviet agenda, with Lophakin, for example, reinvented as a hero of the new order, taking an axe to the cherry orchard.[91][92] 1900, Yalta. ... 1900, Yalta. ... Aleksei Maksimovich Peshkov (In Russian Алексей Максимович Пешков) (March 28 [O.S. March 16] 1868–June 18, 1936), better known as Maxim Gorky (Максим Горький), was a Soviet/Russian author, a founder of the socialist realism literary method and a political activist. ... Constance Garnett (née Black) (December 19, 1861 - December 17, 1946) was an English translator whose translations of nineteenth-century Russian classics first introduced them on a wide basis to the English public. ... James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (Irish Séamus Seoighe; 2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish expatriate writer, widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the 20th century. ... For the American childrens writer, see Virginia Euwer Wolff Virginia Woolf (née Stephen) (January 25, 1882 – March 28, 1941) was an English novelist and essayist regarded as one of the foremost modernist literary figures of the twentieth century. ... Katherine Mansfield (14 October 1888 – 9 January 1923) was a prominent modernist writer of short fiction. ... Bookcover of the biography of Dmitry Mirsky D.S. Mirsky is the English pen-name of Dmitry Petrovich Mirsky (1890–1939), a Russian political and literary historian who promoted the knowledge and translations of Russian literature in Britain and of the English literature in Soviet Russia. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the  United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total 130... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Soviet redirects here. ...


One of the first non-Russians to praise Chekhov's plays was George Bernard Shaw, who subtitled his Heartbreak House "A Fantasia in the Russian Manner on English Themes" and noted similarities between the predicament of the British landed class and that of their Russian counterparts as depicted by Chekhov: "the same nice people, the same utter futility".[93] George Bernard Shaw (born 26 July 1856, Dublin, Ireland died November 2, 1950, Hertfordshire, England) was an Irish writer. ...


In America, Chekhov's reputation began its rise slightly later, partly through the influence of the Stanislavsky System, with its notion of subtext. "Chekhov often expressed his thought not in speeches," wrote Stanislavsky, "but in pauses or between the lines or in replies consisting of a single word… the characters often feel and think things not expressed in the lines they speak".[94][95] The Group Theatre, in particular, developed the subtextual approach to drama, influencing generations of American playwrights, screenwriters, and actors, including Clifford Odets, Elia Kazan and, in particular, Lee Strasberg, whose Actors Studio and its "Method" acting approach in turn influenced many actors, including Marlon Brando and Robert De Niro, though by then the Chekhov tradition may have been distorted by a preoccupation with realism.[96] In 1981, the playwright Tennessee Williams adapted The Seagull as The Notebook of Trigorin. This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Subtext is content of a book, play, film or television series which is not announced explicitly by the characters (or author) but is implicit or becomes something understood by the reader / viewer as the production unfolds. ... The Group Theatre was a theater collective, formed in New York in 1931 by Harold Clurman, Cheryl Crawford and Lee Strasberg. ... Theater of the United States is based in the Western tradition, mostly borrowed from the performance styles prevalent in Europe. ... Clifford Odets photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1937 Clifford Odets (July 18, 1906 - August 18, 1963) was an American socialist playwright, screenwriter, and social protester. ... Elia Kazan, (Greek: Ηλίας Καζάν, IPA: ), (September 7, 1909 – September 28, 2003) was a Greek-American film and theatre director, film and theatrical producer, screenwriter, novelist and founder of the influential Actors Studio in New York in 1947. ... Lee Strasberg (November 17, 1901 – February 17, 1982) was an American director, actor, producer, and acting teacher. ... The Actors Studio is a theatrical school and workshop located in the Old Labor Stage on 44th Street in New York City. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Marlon Brando, Jr. ... Robert Mario De Niro Jr. ... Thomas Lanier Williams III (March 26, 1911 – February 25, 1983), better known by the pseudonym Tennessee Williams, was a major American playwright and one of the prominent playwrights of the twentieth century. ... The Notebook of Trigorin is Tennessee Williams free adaptation of Anton Chekhov’s The Seagull. ...


Chekhov is now the most popular playwright in the English-speaking world after Shakespeare;[97] but some writers believe his short stories represent the greater achievement.[98] Raymond Carver, who wrote the short story Errand about Chekhov's death, believed Chekhov the greatest of all short-story writers: Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Raymond Clevie Carver, Jr. ...

Chekhov's stories are as wonderful (and necessary) now as when they first appeared. It is not only the immense number of stories he wrote — for few, if any, writers have ever done more — it is the awesome frequency with which he produced masterpieces, stories that shrive us as well as delight and move us, that lay bare our emotions in ways only true art can accomplish.[99]

Ernest Hemingway, another of Carver's influences, was more grudging, saying: "Chekhov wrote about 6 good stories. But he was an amateur writer".[100] And Vladimir Nabokov once complained of Chekhov's "medley of dreadful prosaisms, ready-made epithets, repetitions".[101] But he also declared The Lady with the Dog "one of the greatest stories ever written" and described Chekhov as writing "the way one person relates to another the most important things in his life, slowly and yet without a break, in a slightly subdued voice."[102] Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov (Russian: Влади́мир Влади́мирович Набо́ков, pronounced ) (April 22 [O.S. April 10] 1899, Saint Petersburg – July 2, 1977, Montreux) was a Russian-American author. ...


For the writer William Boyd, Chekhov's breakthrough was to abandon what William Gerhardie called the "event plot" for something more "blurred, interrupted, mauled or otherwise tampered with by life".[103] William Boyd, CBE (born 7 March 1952 in Accra, Ghana) is a contemporary Scottish novelist and screenwriter. ... William Alexander Gerhardie (1895-1977) was a British (Anglo-Russian) novelist and playwright. ...


Virginia Woolf mused on the unique quality of a Chekhov story in The Common Reader:

But is it the end, we ask? We have rather the feeling that we have overrun our signals; or it is as if a tune had stopped short without the expected chords to close it. These stories are inconclusive, we say, and proceed to frame a criticism based upon the assumption that stories ought to conclude in a way that we recognise. In so doing we raise the question of our own fitness as readers. Where the tune is familiar and the end emphatic—lovers united, villains discomfited, intrigues exposed — as it is in most Victorian fiction, we can scarcely go wrong, but where the tune is unfamiliar and the end a note of interrogation or merely the information that they went on talking, as it is in Tchekov, we need a very daring and alert sense of literature to make us hear the tune, and in particular those last notes which complete the harmony.[104] Charles Dickens is still one of the best known English writers of any era. ...

See also

This is a list of Anton Chekhovs works: // Plays That Worthless Fellow Platonov (most commonly known as Untitled play or simply, Platonov) (c. ...

Notes

  1. ^ "Greatest short story writer who ever lived." Raymond Carver (in Rosamund Bartlett’s introduction to About Love and Other Stories, XX); "Quite probably the best short-story writer ever." A Chekhov Lexicon, by William Boyd, The Guardian, 3 July 2004. Retrieved 16 February 2007.
  2. ^ "Stories… which are among the supreme achievements in prose narrative." Vodka miniatures, belching and angry cats, George Steiner's review of The Undiscovered Chekhov, in The Observer, 13 May 2001. Retrieved 16 February 2007.
  3. ^ Letter to Alexei Suvorin, 11 September 1888. Letters of Anton Chekhov.
  4. ^ "Actors climb up Chekhov like a mountain, roped together, sharing the glory if they ever make it to the summit". Actor Ian McKellen, quoted in Miles, 9.
  5. ^ "Chekhov's art demands a theatre of mood." Vsevolod Meyerhold, quoted in Allen, 13; "A richer submerged life in the text is characteristic of a more profound drama of realism, one which depends less on the externals of presentation." Styan, 84.
  6. ^ Malcolm, 121.
  7. ^ Simmons, 495.
  8. ^ Tolstoy dubbed Chekhov "the Pushkin of prose". Simmons, 322.
  9. ^ "Chekhov is said to be the father of the modern short story". Malcolm, 87.
  10. ^ "He brought something new into literature." James Joyce, in Arthur Power, Conversations with James Joyce, Usborne Publishing Ltd, 1974, ISBN 978-0-86000-006-8, 57.
  11. ^ "Tchehov's breach with the classical tradition is the most significant event in modern literature", John Middleton Murry, in Athenaeum, 8 April 1922, cited in Bartlett's introduction to About Love, XX.
  12. ^ "This use of stream-of-consciousness would, in later years, become the basis of Chekhov's innovation in stagecraft; it is also his innovation in fiction." Wood, 81.
  13. ^ "The artist must not be the judge of his characters and of their conversations, but merely an impartial witness." Letter to Suvorin, 30 May 1888; in reply to an objection that he wrote about horse-thieves (The Horse-Stealers, retrieved 16 February 2007) without condemning them, Chekhov said readers should add for themselves the subjective elements lacking in the story. Letter to Suvorin, 1 April 1890. Letters of Anton Chekhov.
  14. ^ "You are right in demanding that an artist should take an intelligent attitude to his work, but you confuse two things: solving a problem and stating a problem correctly. It is only the second that is obligatory for the artist." Letter to Suvorin, 27 October, 1888. Letters of Anton Chekhov.
  15. ^ a b Wood, 78.
  16. ^ Payne, XVII.
  17. ^ Simmons, 18.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i From the biographical sketch, adapted from a memoir by Chekhov's brother Mihail, which prefaces Constance Garnett's translation of Chekhov's letters, 1920.
  19. ^ Letter to brother Alexander, 2 January 1889, in Malcolm, p. 102.
  20. ^ Another insight into Chekhov's childhood came in a letter to his publisher and friend Alexei Suvorin: "From my childhood I have believed in progress, and I could not help believing in it since the difference between the time when I used to be thrashed and when they gave up thrashing me was tremendous." Letter to Suvorin, 27 March 1894. Letters of Anton Chekhov.
  21. ^ Bartlett, 4–5.
  22. ^ Letter to I.L. Shcheglov, 9 March 1892. Letters of Anton Chekhov.
  23. ^ He had been cheated by a contractor called Mironov. Rayfield, 31.
  24. ^ Letter to cousin Mihail, 10 May 1877. Letters of Anton Chekhov.
  25. ^ Malcolm, 25.
  26. ^ a b c Payne, XX.
  27. ^ Letter to brother Mihail, 1 July 1876. Letters of Anton Chekhov.
  28. ^ Simmons, 26.
  29. ^ Simmons, 33.
  30. ^ Rayfield, 69.
  31. ^ Wood, 79.
  32. ^ Rayfield, 91.
  33. ^ "There is in these miniatures an arresting potion of cruelty… The wonderfully compassionate Chekhov was yet to mature." Vodka miniatures, belching and angry cats, George Steiner's review of The Undiscovered Chekhov in The Observer, 13 May 2001. Retrieved 16 February 2007.
  34. ^ a b Malcolm, 26.
  35. ^ Letter to N.A .Leikin, 6 April 1886. Letters of Anton Chekhov.
  36. ^ Rayfield, 128.
  37. ^ They only ever fell out once, when Chekhov objected to the anti-Semitic attacks in New Times against Dreyfus and Zola in 1898. Rayfield, 448–50.
  38. ^ In many ways, the right-wing Suvorin, whom Lenin later called "The running dog of the Tzar" (Payne, XXXV), was Chekhov's opposite; "Chekhov had to function like Suvorin's kidney, extracting the businessman's poisons." Wood, 79.
  39. ^ The Huntsman. Retrieved 16 February 2007.
  40. ^ Malcolm, 32–3.
  41. ^ Payne, XXIV.
  42. ^ Simmons, 160.
  43. ^ "There is a scent of the steppe and one hears the birds sing. I see my old friends the ravens flying over the steppe." Letter to sister Masha, 2 April 1887. Letters of Anton Chekhov.
  44. ^ Letter to Grigorovich, 12 January 1888. Quoted by Malcolm, 137.
  45. ^ "The Steppe, as Michael Finke suggests, is 'a sort of dictionary of Chekhov's poetics,' a kind of sample case of the concealed literary weapons Chekhov would deploy in his work to come." Malcolm, 147.
  46. ^ Letter to brother Alexander, 20 November 1887. Letters of Anton Chekhov.
  47. ^ Rayfield, 203.
  48. ^ Simmons, 190.
  49. ^ A Dreary Story. Retrieved 16 February 2007.
  50. ^ Simmons, 186–91.
  51. ^ Malcolm, 129.
  52. ^ Simmons, 223.
  53. ^ Rayfield, 224.
  54. ^ Letter to sister, Masha, 20 May 1890. Letters of Anton Chekhov.
  55. ^ Wood, 85.
  56. ^ Rayfield 230.
  57. ^ Letter to A.F.Koni, 16 January 1891. Letters of Anton Chekhov.
  58. ^ Malcolm, 125.
  59. ^ Such is the general critical view of the work, but Simmons calls it a "valuable and intensely human document". Simmons, 229.
  60. ^ The Murder. Retrieved 16 February 2007.
  61. ^ Letter to I.L. Shcheglov, 9 March 1892. Letters of Anton Chekhov.
  62. ^ Payne, XXXI.
  63. ^ Peasants. Retrieved 16 February 2007.
  64. ^ Note-Book. Retrieved 16 February 2007.
  65. ^ Rayfield, 394–8.
  66. ^ Benedetti, Stanislavski: An Introduction, 25.
  67. ^ Chekhov and the Art Theatre, in Stanislavsky's words, were united in a common desire "to achieve artistic simplicity and truth on the stage". Allen, 11.
  68. ^ Rayfield, 390–1. Rayfield draws from his critical study Chekhov's "Uncle Vanya" and the "Wood Demon" (1995), which anatomised the evolution of the Wood Demon into Uncle Vanya — "one of Chekhov's most furtive achievements".
  69. ^ Letter to Suvorin, 1 April 1897. Letters of Anton Chekhov.
  70. ^ Olga Knipper, Memoir, in Benedetti, Dear Writer, Dear Actress, 37, 270.
  71. ^ Bartlett, 2.
  72. ^ Malcolm, 170–1.
  73. ^ "I have a horror of weddings, the congratulations and the champagne, standing around, glass in hand with an endless grin on your face." Letter to Olga Knipper, 19 April 1901.
  74. ^ Benedetti, Dear Writer, Dear Actress, 125.
  75. ^ "Olga's relations with Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko were more than professional." Rayfield, 500.
  76. ^ Harvey Pitcher in Chekhov's Leading Lady, quoted in Malcolm, 59.
  77. ^ "Chekhov had the temperament of a philanderer. Sexually, he preferred brothels or swift liaisons." Wood, 78.
  78. ^ Letter to Suvorin, 23 March 1895. Letters of Anton Chekhov.
  79. ^ Rayfield also tentatively suggests, drawing on obstetric clues, that Olga suffered an ectopic pregnancy rather than a miscarriage. Rayfield, 556–7.
  80. ^ There was certainly tension between the couple after the miscarriage, though Simmons, 569, and Benedetti, Dear Writer, Dear Actress, 241, put this down to Chekhov's mother and sister blaming the miscarriage on Olga's late-night lifestyle of socialising with her actor friends.
  81. ^ Benedetti, Dear Writer, Dear Actress: The Love Letters of Olga Knipper and Anton Chekhov.
  82. ^ The Lady with the Dog. Retrieved 16 February 2007.
  83. ^ Letter to sister Masha, 28 June 1904. Letters of Anton Chekhov.
  84. ^ Malcolm, 62.
  85. ^ Olga Knipper, Memoir, in Benedetti, Dear Writer, Dear Actress, 284.
  86. ^ "Banality revenged itself upon him by a nasty prank, for it saw that his corpse, the corpse of a poet, was put into a railway truck 'For the Conveyance of Oysters'." Maxim Gorky in Reminiscences of Anton Chekhov. Retrieved 16 February 2007.
  87. ^ Malcolm, 91; Alexander Kuprin in Reminiscences of Anton Chekhov. Retrieved 16 February 2007.
  88. ^ Payne, XXXVI.
  89. ^ The issues surrounding the close similarities between Mansfield's 1910 story The Child Who Was Tired and Chekhov's Sleepy are summarised in William H. New's Reading Mansfield and Metaphors of Reform, McGill-Queen’s Press, 1999, ISBN 978-0-7735-1791-2, 15–17.
  90. ^ Wood, 77.
  91. ^ Allen, 88.
  92. ^ "They won't allow a play which is seen to lament the lost estates of the gentry." Letter of Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko, quoted by Anatoly Smeliansky in Chekhov at the Moscow Art Theatre, from The Cambridge Companion to Chekhov, 31–2.
  93. ^ Anna Obraztsova, Bernard Shaw's Dialogue with Chekhov, in Miles, 43–4.
  94. ^ Reynolds, Elizabeth (ed), Stanislavski's Legacy, Theatre Arts Books, 1987, ISBN 978-0-87830-127-0, 81, 83.
  95. ^ "It was Chekhov who first deliberately wrote dialogue in which the mainstream of emotional action ran underneath the surface. It was he who articulated the notion that human beings hardly ever speak in explicit terms among each other about their deepest emotions, that the great, tragic, climactic moments are often happening beneath outwardly trivial conversation." Martin Esslin, from Text and Subtext in Shavian Drama, in 1922: Shaw and the last Hundred Years, ed. Bernard. F. Dukore, Penn State Press, 1994, ISBN 978-0-271-01324-4, 200.
  96. ^ "Lee Strasberg became in my opinion a victim of the traditional idea of Chekhovian theatre… [he left] no room for Chekhov's imagery." Georgii Tostonogov on Strasberg's production of Three Sisters in The Drama Review (winter 1968), quoted by Styan, 121.
  97. ^ From Russia, with Love, by Rosamund Bartlett, The Guardian, 15 July 2004. Retrieved 21 November 2006.
  98. ^ "The plays lack the seamless authority of the fiction: there are great characters, wonderful scenes, tremendous passages, moments of acute melancholy and sagacity, but the parts appear greater than the whole." A Chekhov Lexicon, by William Boyd, The Guardian, 3 July 2004. Retrieved 16 February 2007.
  99. ^ Bartlett, From Russia, with Love, The Guardian, 15 July 2004. Retrieved 17 February 2007.
  100. ^ Letter from Ernest Hemingway to Archibald MacLeish, 1925 (from Selected Letters, p. 179), in Ernest Hemingway on Writing, Ed Larry W. Phillips, Touchstone, (1984) 1999, ISBN 978-0-684-18119-6, 101.
  101. ^ Wood, 82.
  102. ^ From Vladimir Nabokov's Lectures on Russian Literature, quoted by Francine Prose in Learning from Chekhov, 231.
  103. ^ "For the first time in literature the fluidity and randomness of life was made the form of the fiction. Before Chekhov, the event-plot drove all fictions." William Boyd, referring to the novelist William Gerhardie's analysis in Anton Chekhov: A Critical Study, 1923. A Chekhov Lexicon, by William Boyd, The Guardian, 3 July 2004. Retrieved 16 February 2007.
  104. ^ Woolf, Virginia, The Common Reader: First Series, Annotated Edition, Harvest/HBJ Book, 2002, ISBN 015602778X, 172.

Raymond Clevie Carver, Jr. ... William Boyd, CBE (born 7 March 1952 in Accra, Ghana) is a contemporary Scottish novelist and screenwriter. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... (Francis) George Steiner, a prominent literary critic, was born in Paris, France, on April 23, 1929. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Sir Ian Murray McKellen, CBE (born May 25, 1939) is a veteran English stage and screen actor, the recipient of a Tony Award and two Oscar nominations. ... Vsevolod Emilevich Meyerhold (born Karl Kazimir Theodor Meyerhold) (1874 - 1940) was a Russian theatrical director, actor and theorist. ... Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (Russian: Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Пу́шкин, IPA: ,  ) (June 6 [O.S. May 26] 1799 – February 10 [O.S. January 29] 1837) was a Russian Romantic author who is considered to be the greatest Russian poet[1][2][3][4] and the founder of modern Russian literature. ... James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (Irish Séamus Seoighe; 2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish expatriate writer, widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the 20th century. ... January 2 is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... March 27 is the 86th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (87th in leap years). ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... March 9 is the 68th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (69th in leap years). ... 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... (Francis) George Steiner, a prominent literary critic, was born in Paris, France, on April 23, 1929. ... Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism) is discrimination, hostility or prejudice directed at Jews[1] as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... mile Zola (April 2, 1840 - September 29, 1902) was an influential French novelist, the most important example of the literary school of naturalism, and a major figure in the political liberalization of France. ... “Lenin” redirects here. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Vladimir Ivanovich Nemirovich-Danchenko (Владимир Иванович Немирович-Данченко in Russian) (December 11(23), 1858 - April 25, 1943, Moscow) was a Russian theatre director, writer, pedagogue, and playwright, who co-founded the Moscow Art Theatre with his more famous colleague, Konstantin Stanislavsky, in 1898. ... Martin Julius Esslin (born Julius Pereszlenyi on June 6, 1918–died February 24, 2002) was a Hungarian born English playwright and critic best known for coining the term the theatre of the absurd in his work of that name (1962). ... William Boyd, CBE (born 7 March 1952 in Accra, Ghana) is a contemporary Scottish novelist and screenwriter. ... Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. ... Archibald MacLeish Archibald MacLeish (May 7, 1892 – April 20, 1982) was an American poet, writer and the Librarian of Congress. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov (Russian: Влади́мир Влади́мирович Набо́ков, pronounced ) (April 22 [O.S. April 10] 1899, Saint Petersburg – July 2, 1977, Montreux) was a Russian-American author. ... Francine Prose (born in 1947 in Brooklyn, New York) is an American novelist. ... William Boyd, CBE (born 7 March 1952 in Accra, Ghana) is a contemporary Scottish novelist and screenwriter. ... William Alexander Gerhardie (1895-1977) was a British (Anglo-Russian) novelist and playwright. ...

References

  • Allen, David, Performing Chekhov, Routledge (UK), 2001, ISBN 978-0-415-18934-7
  • Bartlett, Rosamund, and Anthony Phillips (translators), Chekhov: A Life in Letters, Penguin Books, 2004, ISBN 978-0-14-044922-8
  • Bartlett, Rosamund, Chekhov: Scenes from a Life, Free Press, 2004, ISBN 978-0-7432-3074-2
  • Benedetti, Jean (editor and translator), Dear Writer, Dear Actress: The Love Letters of Olga Knipper and Anton Chekhov, Methuen Publishing Ltd, 1998 edition, ISBN 978-0-413-72390-1
  • Benedetti, Jean, Stanislavski: An Introduction, Methuen Drama, 1989 edition, ISBN 978-0-413-50030-4
  • Chekhov, Anton, About Love and Other Stories, translated by Rosamund Bartlett, Oxford University Press, 2004, ISBN 978-0-19-280260-6
  • Chekhov, Anton, The Undiscovered Chekhov: Fifty New Stories, translated by Peter Constantine, Duck Editions, 2001, ISBN 978-0-7156-3106-5
  • Chekhov, Anton, Forty Stories, translated and with an introduction by Robert Payne, New York, Vintage, 1991 edition, ISBN 978-0-679-73375-1
  • Chekhov, Anton, Letters of Anton Chekhov to His Family and Friends with Biographical Sketch, translated by Constance Garnett, Macmillan, 1920. Full text at Gutenberg. Retrieved 16 February 2007.
  • Chekhov, Anton, Note-Book of Anton Chekhov, translated by S.S. Koteliansky and Leonard Woolf, B.W. Heubsch, 1921. Full text at Gutenberg. Retrieved 16 February 2007.
  • Chekhov, Anton, Seven Short Novels, translated by Barbara Makanowitzky, W.W.Norton & Company, 2003 edition, ISBN 978-0-393-00552-3
  • Finke, Michael, Chekhov's 'Steppe': A Metapoetic Journey, an essay in Anton Chekhov Rediscovered, ed Savely Senderovich and Munir Sendich, Michigan Russian Language Journal, 1988, ISBN 9999838855
  • Gerhardie, William, Anton Chekhov, Macdonald, (1923) 1974 edition, ISBN 978-0-356-04609-9
  • Gorky, Maksim, Alexander Kuprin, and I.A. Bunin, Reminiscences of Anton Chekhov, translated by S.S. Koteliansky and Leonard Woolf, B.W.Huebsch, 1921. Read at eldritchpress. Retrieved 16 February 2007.
  • Gottlieb, Vera, and Paul Allain (eds), The Cambridge Companion to Chekhov, Cambridge University Press, 2000, ISBN 978-0-521-58917-8
  • Jackson, Robert Louis, Dostoevsky in Chekhov's Garden of Eden — 'Because of Little Apples', in Dialogues with Dostoevsky, Stanford University Press, 1993, ISBN 978-0-8047-2120-2
  • Nabokov, Vladimir, Anton Chekhov, in Lectures on Russian Literature, Harvest/HBJ Books, [1981] 2002 edition, ISBN 978-0-15-602776-2.
  • Malcolm, Janet, Reading Chekhov, a Critical Journey, Granta Publications, 2004 edition, ISBN 978-1-86207-635-8
  • Miles, Patrick (ed), Chekhov on the British Stage, Cambridge University Press, 1993, ISBN 978-0-521-38467-4
  • Pitcher, Harvey, Chekhov's Leading Lady: Portrait of the Actress Olga Knipper, J Murray, 1979, ISBN 978-0-7195-3681-6
  • Prose, Francine, Learning from Chekhov, in Writers on Writing, ed. Robert Pack and Jay Parini, UPNE, 1991, ISBN 978-0-87451-560-2
  • Rayfield, Donald, Anton Chekhov: A Life, Henry Holt & Co, 1998, ISBN 978-0-8050-5747-8
  • Simmons, Ernest J., Chekhov: A Biography, University of Chicago Press, (1962) 1970 edition, ISBN 978-0-226-75805-3
  • Stanislavski, Konstantin, My Life in Art, Methuen Drama, 1980 edition, ISBN 978-0-413-46200-8
  • Styan, John Louis, Modern Drama in Theory and Practice, Cambridge University Press, 1981, ISBN 978-0-521-29628-1
  • Wood, James, What Chekhov Meant by Life, in The Broken Estate: Essays in Literature and Belief, Pimlico, 2000 edition, ISBN 978-0-7126-6557-5

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Антон Павлович Чехов
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Anton Chekhov
Wikisource
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Anton Chekhov
  • Works by Anton Chekhov at Project Gutenberg. All Constance Garnett's translations of the short stories and letters are available, plus the edition of the Note-book translated by S.S. Koteliansky and Leonard Woolf (see the "References" section for print publication details of all of these). The site also has translations of all the plays.
  • A Chekhov Lexicon. An ABC of Chekhov by the novelist William Boyd, published in The Guardian on 3 July 2004. Retrieved 17 February 2007.
  • Антон Павлович Чехов Texts of Chekhov's works in the original Russian. Retrieved 16 February 2007.
  • Anton Chekhov's The Bear Summary from Shvoong.com


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Plays by Anton Chekhov

That Worthless Fellow Platonov | On the Harmful Effects of Tobacco | Ivanov | The Bear | A Marriage Proposal | The Wedding | The Wood Demon | The Seagull | Uncle Vanya | Three Sisters | The Cherry Orchard Chekhov in a 1905 illustration. ... Ivanov is a four-act play by Anton Chekhov first performed in 1887 Ivanov was originally commisioned by a Moscow theatre owner as comedy. ... Anton Chekhov, a Russian author of the late 1800s, is one of the worlds major playwrights. ... Chekhov in an 1898 portrait by Osip Braz. ... Anton Chekhov (left) and Maxim Gorky in Yalta. ... Chekhov in a 1905 illustration. ... Bust of Anton Chekhov at Badenweiler, Germany The Cherry Orchard (Вишнëвый сад or Vishniovy sad in Russian) is Russian playwright Anton Chekhovs last play. ...

Persondata
NAME Chekhov, Anton Pavlovich
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Анто́н Па́влович Че́хов (Russian)
SHORT DESCRIPTION Doctor, short-story writer, playwright
DATE OF BIRTH 29 January [O.S. 17 January] 1860
PLACE OF BIRTH Taganrog, Russia
DATE OF DEATH 15 July [O.S. 2 July] 1904
PLACE OF DEATH Badenweiler, Germany

  Results from FactBites:
 
Anton Chekhov - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2021 words)
Anton Chekhov was born in Taganrog, a small provincial port on the Sea of Azov, in southern Russia on January 29, 1860.
Anton attended a school for Greek boys in Taganrog (1866-1868), and at the age of eight he was sent to the Taganrog Gymnasium for boys, where he proved an average pupil.
Chekhov qualified as a physician in 1884, but continued writing for weekly periodicals and in 1885 began submitting to the Peterburgskaya Gazeta ("The Petersburg Gazette") longer works of a more somber nature; these were rejected by Leykin.
Anton Chekhov - definition of Anton Chekhov in Encyclopedia (1548 words)
Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (Анто́н Па́влович Че́хов) (born January 29 1860 (Jan. 17 O.S) in Taganrog, Russia – died July 14 or July 15 (July 1 or 2) 1904 in Badenweiler, Germany) was a major Russian playwright and perhaps the finest modern writer of the short story.
Chekhov's plays were immensely popular in England in the 1920s and have become classics of the British stage.
John Cheever has been called "the Chekhov of the suburbs" for his ability to capture the drama and sadness of the lives of his characters by revealing the undercurrents of apparently insignificant events.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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