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Encyclopedia > Anton Bruckner
Anton Bruckner

Anton Bruckner (portrait by Josef Büche)
Born September 4, 1824(1824-09-04)
Ansfelden, Austria
Died October 11, 1896 (aged 72)
Vienna, Austria

Anton Bruckner (4 September 182411 October 1896) was an Austrian composer known primarily for his symphonies, masses, and motets. His symphonies are often considered emblematic of the final stage of Austro-German Romanticism because of their rich harmonic language, complex polyphony, and considerable length. Bruckner's compositions helped to define contemporary musical radicalism, owing to their dissonances, unprepared modulations, and roving harmonies. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Ansfelden is a town in Upper Austria, located 289 meters above sea level, with a population of about 15300. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Bruckner most often refers to Anton Bruckner, Austrian composer. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses of Mass, see Mass (disambiguation). ... In Western music, motet is a word that is applied to a number of highly varied choral musical compositions. ... The era of Romantic music is defined as the period of European classical music that runs roughly from the early 1800s to the first decade of the 20th century, as well as music written according to the norms and styles of that period. ... Polyphony is a musical texture consisting of two or more independent melodic voices, as opposed to music with just one voice (monophony) or music with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords (homophony). ... In music, a consonance (Latin consonare, sounding together) is a harmony, chord, or interval considered stable, as opposed to a dissonance, which is considered unstable. ... In music, modulation is most commonly the act or process of changing from one key (tonic, or tonal center) to another. ... Harmony is the use and study of pitch simultaneity, and therefore chords, actual or implied, in music. ...


Unlike other radicals, such as Wagner or Hugo Wolf who fit the enfant terrible mold, Bruckner showed extreme humility before other musicians, Wagner in particular. This apparent dichotomy between Bruckner the man and Bruckner the composer hampers efforts to describe his life in a way that gives a straightforward context for his music. Wagner may refer to more than one place in the United States: Wagner, South Dakota Wagner, Wisconsin Wagner may refer to more than one person: Richard Wagner, German composer Cosima Wagner, daughter of Franz Liszt and wife of Richard Wagner Heinrich Leopold Wagner, dramatist and author John Peter Honus Wagner... Photograph of Hugo Wolf Hugo Wolf (March 13, 1860 – February 22, 1903) was an Austrian composer of Slovene origin, particularly noted for his art songs, or Lieder. ... An enfant terrible, from the French meaning terrible child, is one whose startlingly unconventional behavior, work, or thought embarrasses or disturbs others. ... Wagner may refer to more than one place in the United States: Wagner, South Dakota Wagner, Wisconsin Wagner may refer to more than one person: Richard Wagner, German composer Cosima Wagner, daughter of Franz Liszt and wife of Richard Wagner Heinrich Leopold Wagner, dramatist and author John Peter Honus Wagner...


His works, the symphonies in particular, have detractors (especially in English-speaking countries) who point to their large size, their use of repetition, Bruckner's propensity to revise many of his works, often with the assistance of colleagues, and his apparent indecision about which versions he preferred. The Bruckner Problem is a term that refers to the difficulties and complications resulting from the numerous contrasting versions and editions that exist for most of the symphonies of Anton Bruckner. ...

Contents

Biography

Anton Bruckner was born in Ansfelden on September 4, 1824. His father, a schoolmaster and organist, was his first music teacher. Bruckner worked for a few years as a teacher's assistant, fiddling at village dances at night to supplement his income. He studied at the Augustinian monastery in St. Florian, becoming an organist there in 1851. He continued his studies to the age of 40, under Simon Sechter and Otto Kitzler, the latter introducing him to the music of Richard Wagner, which Bruckner studied extensively from 1863 onwards. Bruckner's genius, unlike that of a child prodigy (Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, for example), did not appear until well into the fourth decade of his life. Furthermore, broad fame and acceptance did not come until he was over 60. A devout Catholic who loved to drink beer, Bruckner was out of step with his contemporaries. He had already in 1861 made acquaintance with Liszt who, like Bruckner, was religious and who first and foremost was a harmonic innovator, initiating the new German school together with Wagner. Soon after Bruckner had ended his studies under Sechter and Kitzler, he wrote his first mature work, the Mass in D Minor. Ansfelden is a town in Upper Austria, located 289 meters above sea level, with a population of about 15300. ... St. ... 1851 (MDCCCLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Simon Sechter (October 11, 1788 -September 10, 1867), was an Austrian music theorist, teacher, organist, conductor and composer. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... “Liszt” redirects here. ...

Bruckner, circa 1860
Bruckner, circa 1860

In 1868 he accepted a post as a teacher of music theory at the Vienna Conservatory, during which time he concentrated most of his energies on writing symphonies. These symphonies, however, were poorly received, at times considered "wild" and "nonsensical". He later accepted a post at the Vienna University in 1875, where he tried to make music theory a part of the curriculum. Overall, he was unhappy in Vienna, which was musically dominated by the critic Eduard Hanslick. At that time there was a feud between those who liked Wagner's music and those who liked Brahms's music. By aligning himself with Wagner, Bruckner made an unintentional enemy out of Hanslick. He did have supporters; famous conductors such as Arthur Nikisch and Franz Schalk constantly tried to bring his music to the public, and for this purpose proposed 'improvements' for making Bruckner's music more acceptable to the public. While Bruckner allowed these changes, he also made sure in his will to bequeath his original scores to the Vienna National Library, confident of their musical validity. Another proof of Bruckner's confidence in his artistic ability is that he often started work on a new symphony just a few days after finishing another. Image File history File links Bruckner_circa_1860. ... Image File history File links Bruckner_circa_1860. ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Arthur Nikisch (or Nikitsch) (October 12, 1855 – January 23, 1922) was a Hungarian conductor who performed mainly in Germany. ... Franz Schalk (born 27 May 1863 in Vienna, died 3 September 1931 in Edlach, Austria) was an Austrian conductor. ...


In addition to his symphonies, Bruckner wrote masses, motets and other sacred choral works, and a few chamber works, including a string quintet. Unlike his romantic symphonies, Bruckner's choral works are often conservative and contrapuntal in style. The Mass, a form of sacred musical composition, is a choral composition that sets the fixed portions of the Eucharistic liturgy (principally that of the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Church, generally known in the US as the Episcopal Church, and also the Lutheran Church) to music. ... In Western music, motet is a word that is applied to a number of highly varied choral musical compositions. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The era of Romantic music is defined as the period of European classical music that runs roughly from the early 1800s to the first decade of the 20th century, as well as music written according to the norms and styles of that period. ... For other uses, see Counterpoint (disambiguation). ...


Bruckner was a very simple man, and numerous anecdotes abound as to his dogged pursuit of his chosen craft and his humble acceptance of the fame that eventually came his way. Once, after a rehearsal of his Fourth Symphony, the well-meaning Bruckner tipped the conductor Hans Richter: "When the symphony was over," Richter related, "Bruckner came to me, his face beaming with enthusiasm and joy. I felt him press a coin into my hand. 'Take this' he said, 'and drink a glass of beer to my health.'" Richter, of course, accepted the coin, a Maria Theresa thaler, and wore it on his watch-chain ever after. Anton Bruckners Symphony No. ... Hans Richter (1843–1916), Austrian conductor (born in what is now Hungary), studied at the Vienna Conservatory (showing a special interest in the horn) and developed his conducting career at several opera-houses in the Austro-Hungarian empire. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ...


Bruckner was a renowned organist in his time, impressing audiences in France in 1869, and England in 1871, giving six recitals on a new Henry Willis organ at Royal Albert Hall in London and five more at the Crystal Palace. Though he wrote no major works for the organ, his improvisation sessions sometimes yielded ideas for the Symphonies. He taught organ performance at the Conservatory; among his students were Hans Rott and Franz Schmidt. Gustav Mahler, who called Bruckner his "forerunner", attended the conservatory at this time (Walter n.d.). 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... “Albert Hall” redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Crystal Palace. ... Studio photograph of Hans Rott, aged about 20 Hans Rott (August 1, 1858 - June 25, 1884) was an Austrian composer. ... Franz Schmidt (December 22, 1874 – February 11, 1939) was an Austrian composer, cellist and pianist. ... “Mahler” redirects here. ...


Bruckner died in Vienna in 1896, of natural causes. Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ...


Anton Bruckner Private University for Music, Drama, and Dance, an institution of higher education in Linz, close to his native Ansfelden, was named after him in 1932 ("Bruckner Conservatory Linz" until 2004). The Bruckner Orchester Linz was also named in his honor. Anton Bruckner Private University for Music, Drama, and Dance (common short forms are Anton Bruckner Private University or just Bruckner University) is one of four universities in Linz, the capital of Upper Austria. ... The Poestlingberg church in Linz. ... The Bruckner Orchestra Linz (German: Bruckner Orchester Linz) is one of the leading orchestras in Austria, situated in the city of Linz. ...


Works

Sometimes Bruckner's works are referred to by WAB numbers, from the Werkverzeichnis Anton Bruckner, a catalogue of Bruckner's works edited by Renate Grasberger.


The revision issue has generated controversy. A common explanation for the multiple versions is that Bruckner was willing to revise his work on the basis of harsh, uninformed criticism from his colleagues. This explanation was given enormous cachet when it was championed by Bruckner scholar Robert Haas, who was the chief editor of the first critical editions of Bruckner's works published by the International Bruckner Society; it continues to be found in the majority of program notes and biographical sketches concerning Bruckner. It was however sharply criticized by scholars such as Haas's successor Leopold Nowak, Benjamin Korstvedt and conductor Leon Botstein who argue that Haas' explanation is at best idle speculation, at worst a shady justification of Haas' own editorial decisions. Robert Maria Haas (August 15, 1886 - October 4, 1960) Austrian musicologist. ... The International Bruckner Society (German Internationale Bruckner-Gesellschaft) was an organization which began its existence in 1927 in Leipzig and was officially founded in 1929 in Vienna. ... Leopold Nowak (Vienna, Austria, 17 August 1904 - May 27, 1991) Musicologist, chiefly known for editing works by Anton Bruckner. ... Leon Botstein, as photographed during a February 2004 interview with WXBC Radio Bard. ...


Symphonies

Anton Bruckner

Bruckner's Symphonies are all in four movements, starting with a modified sonata form allegro, a slow movement, a scherzo in 3/4 time, and a modified sonata form allegro finale. (In the Eighth, Ninth, and one version of the Second, the slow movements and scherzi are reversed. The Fourth features a scherzo in which the outer sections are in 2/4 meter, not the customary 3/4.) They are scored for a fairly standard orchestra of woodwinds in pairs, four horns, two or three trumpets, three trombones, tuba, timpani and strings. The later symphonies increase this complement, but not by much. Notable is the use of Wagner tubas in his last three symphonies. With the exception of Symphony No. 4, none of Bruckner's Symphonies has subtitles, and most of the nicknames were not thought up by the composer. Bruckner's works are trademarked with powerful codas and grand finales, as well as the frequent use of unison passages and orchestral tutti. His style of orchestral writing was criticized by his Viennese contemporaries, but by the middle of the 20th century musicologists recognized that Bruckner's orchestration was modeled after the sound of his primary instrument, the pipe organ. Anton Bruckner (pre-1897 photo) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Anton Bruckner (pre-1897 photo) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... A scherzo (plural scherzi) is a name given to a piece of music or a movement from a larger piece such as a symphony. ... The time signature (also known as meter signature) is a notational convention used in Western musical notation to specify how many beats are in each bar and what note value constitutes one beat. ... The Wagner tuba is a comparatively rare brass instrument that combines elements of both the horn and the tuba. ... For other uses, see Unison (disambiguation). ... In music, a tutti section in a concerto is one in which the orchestra plays and the soloist does not. ... The baroque organ in Roskilde Cathedral, Denmark The pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by forcing pressurized air (referred to as wind) through a series of pipes. ...


Otto Kitzler, Bruckner's last composition teacher, set him three final tasks as the climax of his studies: a choral work, an overture, and a symphony. The latter, completed in 1863, was then Bruckner's Study Symphony in F minor. Bruckner later rejected this work, but he did not destroy it. While it certainly reminds one of earlier composers such as Robert Schumann, it undeniably also bears the hallmarks of the later Bruckner style. Kitzler simply commented that the work was "not very inspired". It was first performed in 1924 and not published until 1973 and is usually listed as Symphony No. 00. Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Anton Bruckners Study Symphony in F minor, (Studiensimphonie), or simply Symphony in F minor, WAB 99, was written in 1863 as an exercise under Otto Kitzlers instruction in form and orchestration. ... For others with the same name see Robert Schumann (disambiguation). ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ...


Bruckner's Symphony No. 1 in C minor (sometimes called by Bruckner "das kecke Beserl", roughly translated as "the saucy maid" [1]) was completed in 1866, but the original text of this symphony was not reconstructed until 1998. Instead, it is commonly known in two versions, the so-called Linz Version which is based mainly on rhythmical revisions made in 1877, and the completely revised Vienna Version of 1891, which begins to reveal his mature style, e.g. Symphony No. 8. Anton Bruckners Symphony No. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Anton Bruckners Symphony No. ...


Next was the so-called Symphony No. 0 in D minor of 1869, a very charming work which was so harshly criticized that Bruckner retracted it completely, and it was not performed at all during his lifetime, hence his choice for the number of the symphony. This Symphony in D minor composed by Anton Bruckner was not assigned a number by its composer, and has subsequently become known by the German designation Die Nullte (translated to The Zeroth or Number Nought in English). ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


The Symphony No. 2 in C minor was revised in 1873, 1876, 1877 and 1892. It is sometimes called the Symphony of Pauses for its dramatic use of whole-orchestra rests, which accentuate the form of the piece. In the Carragan edition of the 1872 version, the Scherzo is placed second and the Adagio third. Anton Bruckners Symphony No. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1876 Pick up Sticks(MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Bruckner presented his Symphony No. 3 in D minor, written in 1873, to Wagner along with the Second, asking which of them he might dedicate to him. Wagner chose the Third, and Bruckner sent him a fair copy soon later, which is why the original version of the Wagner Symphony is preserved so well despite revisions in 1874, 1876, 1877 and 1888/1889. One thing that helped Wagner choose which Symphony to accept the dedication of was that the 3rd contains quotations from Wagner's music dramas, such as Die Walküre and Lohengrin. These quotations were taken out in revised versions. Anton Bruckners Symphony No. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1876 Pick up Sticks(MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... For the toll-free telephone number see Toll-free telephone number Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Bruckner's first great success was his Symphony No. 4 in E flat major, more commonly known as the Romantic Symphony, the only epithet applied to a symphony by the composer himself. The 1874 version has been seldom played and success came only after major revisions in 1878, including a completely new scherzo and finale, and again in 1880/1881, once again with a completely rewritten finale. This version was premiered in 1881 (under the conductor Hans Richter). Bruckner made more minor revisions of this symphony in 1886-1888. Anton Bruckners Symphony No. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Hans Richter (1843–1916), Austrian conductor (born in what is now Hungary), studied at the Vienna Conservatory (showing a special interest in the horn) and developed his conducting career at several opera-houses in the Austro-Hungarian empire. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For the toll-free telephone number see Toll-free telephone number Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Bruckner's Symphony No. 5 in B flat major crowns his most productive era of symphony-writing, finished at the beginning of 1876. The original version seems unrecoverable and we know only the thoroughly revised version of 1878. Many consider this symphony to be Bruckner's lifetime masterpiece in the area of counterpoint. For example, the Finale is a combined fugue and sonata form movement: the first theme (characterized by the downward leap of an octave) appears in the exposition as a four-part fugue in the strings and the concluding theme of the exposition is presented first as a chorale in the brass, then as a four part fugue in the development, and culminating in a double fugue with the first theme at the recapitulation; additionally, the coda combines not only these two themes but also the main theme of the first movement. The Symphony No. ... Year 1876 Pick up Sticks(MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Counterpoint (disambiguation). ...


Symphony No. 6 in A major, written in 1879-1881, is an oft-neglected work; whereas the Bruckner rhythm (two quarters plus a quarter triplet or vice versa) is an important part of his previous symphonies, it pervades this work, particularly in the first movement, making it particularly difficult to perform. Anton Bruckners Symphony No. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The phrase Bruckner rhythm refers to the use of 2+3 (duplet+triplet) in Anton Bruckners symphonic music, where it occurs prevalently. ...

Bruckner, 1894

Symphony No. 7 in E major was the most beloved of Bruckner's symphonies with audiences of the time, and is still popular. It was written 1881-1883 and revised in 1885. During the time that Bruckner began work on this Symphony, he was aware that Wagner's death was imminent, and so the Adagio is slow mournful music for Wagner, and for the first time in Bruckner's oeuvre, the Wagner tuba is included in the orchestra. Image File history File links Bruckner_final_years. ... Image File history File links Bruckner_final_years. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Anton Bruckners Symphony No. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Wagner tuba is a comparatively rare brass instrument that combines elements of both the horn and the tuba. ...


Bruckner began composition of his Symphony No. 8 in C minor in 1884. In 1887 Bruckner sent the work to Hermann Levi, the conductor who had led his Seventh to great success. Levi, who had said Bruckner’s Seventh Symphony was the greatest symphony written after Beethoven, believed that the Eighth was a confusing jumble. Bruckner revised the work, sometimes with the aid of Franz Schalk, and completed this new version in 1890. Anton Bruckners Symphony No. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Hermann Levi (born November 7, 1839 in Giessen; died May 13, 1900 in Garmisch-Partenkirchen) was a German orchestral conductor. ... Franz Schalk (born 27 May 1863 in Vienna, died 3 September 1931 in Edlach, Austria) was an Austrian conductor. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ...


The final accomplishment of Bruckner's life was to be his Symphony No. 9 in D minor which he started in April 1891, and which he dedicated "To God the Beloved." The first three movements were completed by the end of 1894, the Adagio alone taking 18 months to complete. Work was delayed by the composer's poor health and by his compulsion to revise his early symphonies, and by the time of his death in 1896 he had not finished the last movement. The first three movements remained unperformed until their premiere in Vienna (in Ferdinand Löwe's version) on February 11, 1903. Anton Bruckners Symphony No. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Ferdinand Löwe (born 19 February 1865 in Vienna, died 6 January 1925) was an Austrian conductor. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1900 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ...


Bruckner suggested using his Te Deum as a Finale, which would complete the homage to Beethoven's Ninth symphony (also in D minor). The problem was that the Te Deum is in C Major, while the 9th Symphony is D Minor, and, although Bruckner began sketching a transition from the Adagio key of E Major to the triumphant key of C Major, he did not pursue the idea. There have been several attempts to complete these sketches and prepare them for performance, as well as completions of his later sketches for an instrumental Finale, but only the first three movements of the Symphony are usually performed. Te Deum is an early Christian hymn of praise. ... “Beethoven” redirects here. ... Composer Ludwig van Beethoven The Symphony No. ... D minor is a minor scale based on D, consisting of the pitches D, E, F, G, A, B-flat, C, and D (natural minor scale). ...


Sacred choral works

Bruckner wrote a Te Deum, settings of various Psalms (including Psalm 150 in the 1890s), various motets (among them settings of Christus Factus Est and Ave Maria), and at least seven Masses. His early Masses were usually short Austrian Landmesse for use in local churches and did not always set all the numbers of the ordinary. The three Masses Bruckner wrote in the 1860s and revised later on in his life are more often performed. The Masses numbered 1 in D minor and 3 in F minor are for solo singers, chorus and orchestra, while No. 2 in E minor is for chorus and a small group of wind instruments, and was written in an attempt to meet the Cecilians halfway. The Cecilians wanted to rid church music of instruments entirely. No. 3 was clearly meant for concert, rather than liturgical performance, and it is the only one of his Masses in which he set the first line of the Gloria, "Gloria in excelsis Deo", and of the Credo, "Credo in unum Deum", to music. (In concert performances of the other Masses, these lines are intoned by a tenor soloist in the way a priest would, with a psalm formula). Te Deum is an early Christian hymn of praise. ... Psalms (from the Greek: Psalmoi) (originally meaning songs sung to a harp, from psallein play on a stringed instrument, Ψαλμοί; Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים, or praises) is a book of the Hebrew Bible, Tanakh or Old Testament. ... In Western music, motet is a word that is applied to a number of highly varied choral musical compositions. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Hail Mary... The Mass, a form of sacred musical composition, is a choral composition that sets the fixed portions of the Eucharistic liturgy (principally that of the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Church, generally known in the US as the Episcopal Church, and also the Lutheran Church) to music. ...


Other music

"Anton Bruckner arrives in Heaven". Bruckner is greeted by (from left to right): Liszt, Wagner, Schubert, Schumann, Weber, Mozart, Beethoven, Gluck, Haydn, Handel, Bach. (Silhouette drawing by Otto Böhler)
"Anton Bruckner arrives in Heaven". Bruckner is greeted by (from left to right): Liszt, Wagner, Schubert, Schumann, Weber, Mozart, Beethoven, Gluck, Haydn, Handel, Bach. (Silhouette drawing by Otto Böhler)

As a young man Bruckner sang in men's choirs and wrote music for them. This music is rarely played. Biographer Derek Watson characterizes the pieces for men's choir as being "of little concern to the non-German listener". Of thirty such pieces, Helgoland is the only secular vocal work Bruckner thought worthy enough to bequeath to the Vienna National Library. Image File history File links Bruckner_arrives_in_heaven. ... Image File history File links Bruckner_arrives_in_heaven. ... “Liszt” redirects here. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... Franz Schubert Franz Peter Schubert (January 31, 1797 – November 19, 1828) was an Austrian composer. ... For others with the same name see Robert Schumann (disambiguation). ... Carl Maria von Weber Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst, Freiherr von Weber (November 18, 1786 in Eutin, Holstein – June 5, 1826 in London, England) was a German composer, conductor, pianist and critic, one of the first significant composers of the Romantic school. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... “Beethoven” redirects here. ... Gluck redirects here. ... “Haydn” redirects here. ... “Handel” redirects here. ... “Bach” redirects here. ...


The Overture in G minor is occasionally included in recordings of the Symphonies, and it is one of the works Bruckner wrote during his apprentice with Otto Kitzler. At that time he also wrote a March in D minor and three short orchestral pieces. These works already show hints of Bruckner's emerging style.


A String Quartet in C minor was discovered decades after Bruckner's death, but is only of interest as a student composition. The later String Quintet in F major, contemporaneous with the Fifth and Sixth Symphonies, has been frequently performed.


There is an orchestral Symphonic Prelude that is sometimes attributed to Bruckner and sometimes to Mahler. It was discovered in the Vienna National Library in 1974 in a piano duet transcription and later orchestrated by Albrecht Gürsching. It is likely the work of one of Bruckner's students.


Bruckner's Two Aequale for three trombones is a solemn, brief work.


He also wrote Lancer-Quadrille for piano. Among his most unusual and evocative compositions is the choral Abendzauber (1878) for tenor, yodelers and four alpine horns. It was never performed in Bruckner's lifetime. 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Reception in the 20th century

Hitler before the bust of Bruckner at Walhalla, 1937

The study of Bruckner today remains prominent among orchestrators and composers to address the problems Bruckner encountered in an age when the orchestra itself was expanding in size. Image File history File linksMetadata Bruckner_hitler. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Bruckner_hitler. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song titled Orchestra, see The Servant (band). ...


The National Socialists approved of Bruckner and Hitler even consecrated a bust of Bruckner in a widely photographed ceremony in 1937 at Regensburg's Walhalla temple. This was in part because Hitler, like Bruckner, hailed from near Linz -- Hitler from Braunau-am-Inn, Bruckner from Ansfelden. In addition, Bruckner, like Hitler, idolized Wagner and Hitler also identified with Bruckner as an artist rejected by the establishment in Vienna (which included Jews). Thus Bruckner's humble origins and Wagnerism were emphasized while his religiousness was downplayed. When Herbert von Karajan wanted to play Bruckner's Fifth Symphony in Aachen together with the motets, the Party disapproved. The Adagio from Bruckner's 7th Symphony was broadcast by the German radio (Deutscher Reichsrundfunk) upon announcing the news of Hitler's death on May 1, 1945. The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: , or NSDAP, commonly, the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Regensburg (also Ratisbon, Latin Ratisbona) is a city (population 151. ... View of the Walhalla from the Danube View of the Walhalla main hall The Walhalla, Hall of Fame and Honor is a hall of fame located on the Danube River 10 km from Regensburg, in Bavaria, Germany. ... The Poestlingberg church in Linz. ... Wagnerism is a set of philosophical ideals put forward by Richard Wagner which states the traits of a true German among other aesthetic ideas. ... Herbert von Karajan (April 5, 1908 – July 16, 1989) was an Austrian conductor. ... Oche redirects here; in darts the oche is the line from which players must throw. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


The 1966 film It Happened Here, set in an alternate history in which Nazi Germany successfully invades and occupies the United Kingdom during World War II, is thought to be the only film besides Visconti's Senso which uses Bruckner's music in its soundtrack.[1] It Happened Here is a 1966 British film set during World War II, about the possible effects of a successful German invasion of the United Kingdom. ... Senso is a film adaption of the Italian novella by Camillo Boito, Senso, made in 1954 by noted Italian film director, Luchino Visconti, with Alida Valli as Livia and Farley Granger as Lieutenant Franz Mahler (a name change for the Remigio Ruz character). ...


Among the conductors most associated with the works of Bruckner are (in chronological order of birth):

  • Bruno Walter: acted as an "ambassador" for Bruckner in the United States; made celebrated recordings of symphonies 4, 7 and 9 late in his career; wrote an essay on "Bruckner and Mahler".
  • Carl Schuricht: made celebrated recordings with the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra late in his career.
  • Otto Klemperer: made one of the first two recordings of Bruckner (the adagio of the Eighth Symphony from 1924 [2]); recorded symphonies 4-9 with the Philharmonia Orchestra; 4, 6 and 7 are especially widely recommended.
  • Wilhelm Furtwängler: made his conducting debut with the Ninth Symphony in 1906; conducted Bruckner constantly throughout his career; many unofficial live recordings of symphonies 4-9 available.
  • Hans Knappertsbusch: was unusual in continuing to perform the first published editions of Bruckner's symphonies even after the critical editions became available.
  • Eugen Jochum: associated more with Bruckner than any other composer; recorded all the symphonies multiple times.
  • Herbert von Karajan: conducted Bruckner throughout his career; made many recordings. His final recordings of the 8th and 7th symphonies with the Vienna Philharmonic show him at his most impressive. His style was concerned with structure, control, a sense of architecture and depth.
  • Takashi Asahina: has an almost (and deserved) cult-like status for his Bruckner recordings with the Osaka Philharmonic Orchestra and other Japanese and foreign orchestras. His style is at once distinctive and in a true Bruckner tradition. He recorded many of the Bruckner symphonies numerous times on a variety of Japanese and associated labels.
  • Günter Wand: another conductor primarily identified with Bruckner; made many recordings, in Cologne, Hamburg and latterly, just prior to his death, Munich and Berlin. A range of video performances also attest to his unforced, natural and unaffected - yet completely convincing - style.
  • Sergiu Celibidache: conducted Bruckner's symphonies with extraordinary breadth late in his career; recordings of symphonies 3-9 with the Munich Philharmonic Orchestra were posthumously released.
  • Carlo Maria Giulini: his recordings of symphonies 2 and 7-9 are widely admired.
  • Georg Tintner: received acclaim late in life for his complete cycle of recordings on the Naxos label.
  • Stanisław Skrowaczewski: recorded a celebrated cycle of the symphonies on the Arte Nova label - having conducted Brucker symphonies globally for decades.
  • Bernard Haitink
  • Eliahu Inbal
  • Daniel Barenboim
  • Giuseppe Sinopoli

Bruckner's symphonic works, much maligned in Vienna in his lifetime, now have an important place in the tradition and musical repertoire of the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra. Bruno Walter (Bruno Walter Schlesinger) (September 15, 1876 – February 17, 1962) was a German-born conductor and composer. ... Carl Adolph Schuricht (July 3, 1880 - January 7, 1967) was an orchestra conductor born in Danzig (now Gdansk). ... The Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra (in German: Wiener Philharmoniker) an orchestra in Austria, regularly considered as one of the finest in the world. ... Otto Klemperer (May 14, 1885 – July 6, 1973) was a German-born conductor and composer. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... The Philharmonia is an orchestra based in London. ... Wilhelm Furtwängler (January 25, 1886 – November 30, 1954) was a German conductor and composer. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Hans Knappertsbusch (March 12, 1888 - October 25, 1965) German conductor born in Elberfeld (present-day Wuppertal), best known for his performances of the music of Richard Wagner, Anton Bruckner and Richard Strauss. ... Eugen Jochum (November 1, 1902 – March 26, 1987) was a conductor. ... Herbert von Karajan (April 5, 1908 – July 16, 1989) was an Austrian conductor. ... Takashi Asahina , 9 July 1908—29 December 2001) was a Japanese conductor. ... Günter Wand (born January 7, 1912 in Elberfeld, Germany; died February 14, 2002 in Ulmiz near Bern, Switzerland) was a German orchestra conductor He was also a composer. ... Sergiu Celibidache (June 28, 1912, Roman, Romania - August 14, 1996, Paris) was a Romanian conductor. ... The Munich Philharmonic Orchestra (German: Münchner Philharmoniker) is one of three orchestras located in the city of Munich, along with the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra and the Bavarian State Orchestra. ... Carlo Maria Giulini (May 9, 1914 – June 14, 2005) was an Italian conductor, and violist. ... Georg Tintner (May 22, 1917 - October 2, 1999) was a Viennese-born conductor. ... The conductor StanisÅ‚aw Skrowaczewski (born October 3, 1923) was born in Lwow, Poland (now Lviv, Ukraine) and became best known for his work with the Minnesota Orchestra. ... ... Eliahu Inbal (born February 16, 1936) is a prominent orchestral conductor. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Giuseppe Sinopoli (November 2, 1946 - April 20, 2001) was a conductor and composer. ... The Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra (in German: Wiener Philharmoniker) an orchestra in Austria, regularly considered as one of the finest in the world. ...


Because of the long duration and vast orchestral canvas of much of his music, Bruckner's popularity has greatly benefited from the introduction of long-playing media and from improvements in recording technology.


Quotes

"They want me to write differently. Certainly I could, but I must not. God has chosen me from thousands and given me, of all people, this talent. It is to Him that I must give account. How then would I stand there before Almighty God, if I followed the others and not Him?"

-Anton Bruckner [3]

"In the war waged in Vienna between the factions of Wagner and Brahms, Bruckner strayed into the battlefield and became the only casualty." [citation needed]

-Erwin Doernberg

"Why did they burn Brünnhilde at the end?"

-Bruckner, attending a performance of Wagner's Die Walküre, became so completely immersed in the music he lost track of the narrative.[citation needed]

"A German writer has said that he was half a Caesar and half a village schoolmaster; such men are, in art or life, difficult to place."
Die Walküre (The Valkyrie) is the second of the four operas that comprise Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelung), by Richard Wagner. ...

-Percy Scholes[citation needed]

See also

This is a list of Austrian composers, singers and conductors: Johann Georg Albrechtsberger, composer and music theorist August Wilhelm Ambros, composer (19th century) Wolfgang Ambros, singer (Austropop) Christian Anders, singer Marianne von Auenbrugger, composer and pianist 1759-1782 Paul Badura-Skoda, pianist (born 1927) Ludwig van Beethoven, composer (born in... The following list is a selection of famous Austrians. ... The Bruckner Problem is a term that refers to the difficulties and complications resulting from the numerous contrasting versions and editions that exist for most of the symphonies of Anton Bruckner. ... The International Bruckner Society (German Internationale Bruckner-Gesellschaft) was an organization which began its existence in 1927 in Leipzig and was officially founded in 1929 in Vienna. ... The Bruckner Orchestra Linz (German: Bruckner Orchester Linz) is one of the leading orchestras in Austria, situated in the city of Linz. ...

Media

  • Locus iste
    (1.8 Mb)
  • Problems playing the files? See media help.

Image File history File links Bruckner_Locus_iste_Sung_by_the_dwsChorale. ...

References

  • Bruckner, Anton. Symphony No. 8/2, c minor, 1890 version. Edited by Leopold Nowak. New York: Eulenberg, 1994.
  • Gilliam, Bryan, The annexation of Anton Bruckner: Nazi revisionism and the politics of appropriation, in Bruckner Studies edited by Timothy Jackson and Paul Hawkshaw.
  • Korstvedt, Benjamin M. Anton Bruckner: Symphony No. 8 (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 19.
  1. ^ Roger Hillman, Unsettling Scores: German Film, Music and Ideology Bloomington: Indiana University Press (2005): 158

Bruno Walter (Bruno Walter Schlesinger) (September 15, 1876 – February 17, 1962) was a German-born conductor and composer. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Bruckner, Anton.
Persondata
NAME Bruckner, Anton
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Bruckner
SHORT DESCRIPTION Romantic composer
DATE OF BIRTH September 4, 1824
PLACE OF BIRTH Ansfelden, Austria
DATE OF DEATH October 11, 1896
PLACE OF DEATH Vienna, Austria

  Results from FactBites:
 
Anton Bruckner - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3178 words)
Anton Bruckner was born in Ansfelden to a schoolmaster and organist father with whom he first studied music.
Bruckner was a very simple man, and numerous anecdotes abound as to his dogged pursuit of his chosen craft and his humble acceptance of the fame that eventually came his way.
Anton Bruckner Private University for Music, Drama, and Dance, an institution of higher education in Linz, close to his native Ansfelden, was named after him in 1932 ("Bruckner Conservatory Linz" until 2004).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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