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Encyclopedia > Antoine Lavoisier
Antoine Lavoisier

"Father of modern chemistry"
Born August 26, 1743(1743-08-26)
Paris, France
Died May 8, 1794 (aged 50)
Paris, France
Occupation Chemist, economist, nobleman

Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (August 26, 1743May 8, 1794; pronounced [ɑ̃ˈtwan lɔˈʁɑ̃ də la.vwaˈzje]), the father of modern chemistry,[1] was a French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry, finance, biology, and economics. He stated the first version of the law of conservation of mass,[2] recognized and named oxygen (1778) and hydrogen (1783), disproved the phlogiston theory, introduced the metric system, wrote the first extensive list of elements, and helped to reform chemical nomenclature. He was also an investor and administrator of the "Ferme Générale" a private tax collection company; chairman of the board of the Discount Bank (later the Banque de France); and a powerful member of a number of other aristocratic administrative councils. All of these political and economic activities enabled him to fund his scientific research. However, because of his prominence in the pre-revolutionary government in France, he was beheaded at the height of the French Revolution. Image File history File links Antoine_lavoisier_color. ... Revisions and sourced additions are welcome; please only include historical figures. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events February 14 - Henry Pelham becomes British Prime Minister February 21 - - The premiere in London of George Frideric Handels oratorio, Samson. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events February 14 - Henry Pelham becomes British Prime Minister February 21 - - The premiere in London of George Frideric Handels oratorio, Samson. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Revisions and sourced additions are welcome; please only include historical figures. ... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Finance studies and addresses the ways in which individuals, businesses, and organizations raise, allocate, and use monetary resources over time, taking into account the risks entailed in their projects. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... The law of conservation of mass states that the mass of a system of substances will always remain constant, regardless of the processes acting inside the system. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Phlogiston theory was a 17th century attempt to explain oxidation processes, such as fire and rust. ... The International System of Units (symbol: SI) (for the French phrase Syst me International dUnit s) is the most widely used system of units. ... The periodic table is a tabular method of displaying the chemical elements. ... The Ferme Générale was, in ancien régime France, essentially a franchised customs and excise operation which collected duties on behalf of the king, through 6-years adjudications. ... One of the Banque de Frances offices in Paris. ... Decapitation (from Latin, caput, capitis, meaning head), or beheading, is the removal of a living organisms head. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...

Contents

Early life

Portrait of Monsieur Lavoisier and his Wife, by Jacques-Louis David
Portrait of Monsieur Lavoisier and his Wife, by Jacques-Louis David

Born to a wealthy family in Paris, Antoine Laurent Lavoisier inherited a large fortune at the age of five with the passing of his mother.[3] He attended the College Mazarin from 1754 to 1761, studying chemistry, botany, astronomy, and mathematics. His education was filled with the ideals of the French Enlightenment of the time, and he felt fascination for Maquois's dictionary. From 1761 to 1763, he studied some law at the University of Paris where he received his Bachelor of Law in 1763. At the same time, he continued attending lectures in the natural sciences. Lavoisier's devotion and passion for chemistry was largely influenced by Étienne Condillac, a prominent French scholar of the 18th century. His first chemical publication appeared in 1764. In collaboration with Jean-Étienne Guettard, Lavoisier worked on a geological survey of Alsace-Lorraine in 1767. At the age of 25, he was elected a member of the French Academy of Sciences, France's most elite scientific society, for an essay on street lighting and in recognition for his earlier research. In 1769, he worked on the first geological map of France. Download high resolution version (596x800, 154 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (596x800, 154 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Jacques-Louis David (August 30, 1748 – December 29, 1825) was a highly influential French painter in the Neoclassical style, considered to be the prominent painter of the era. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... The Collège des Quatre-Nations. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: ) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganised as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ... Etienne Bonnot de Condillac. ... Jean-Étienne Guettard (September 22, 1715 - January 7, 1786), French naturalist and mineralogist, was born at Etampes. ... Imperial Province of Elsaß-Lothringen Alsace-Lorraine (German: , generally Elsass-Lothringen) was a territorial entity created by the German Empire in 1871 after the annexation of most of Alsace and parts of Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian War. ... Louis XIV visiting the Académie in 1671 The French Academy of Sciences (Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research. ... A streetlight in front of a red sky at night A street light, also known as a light standard, is a raised light on the edge of a road, turned on or lit at a certain time every night. ...


In 1771, Lavoisier married the 13-year-old Marie-Anne Pierrette Paulze, the daughter of a co-owner of the Ferme. Over time, she proved to be a scientific colleague to her husband. She translated documents from English for him, including Richard Kirwan's Essay on Phlogiston and Joseph Priestley's research. She created many sketches and carved engravings of the laboratory instruments used by Lavoisier and his colleagues. She also edited and published Lavoisier’s memoirs (whether any English translations of those memoirs have survived is unknown as of today) and hosted parties at which eminent scientists discussed ideas and problems related to chemistry.[4] Marie-Anne Pierette Paulze (1758-1836) was the wife and collaborator of Antoine Lavoisier, an 18th century French nobleman and scientist sometimes called the father of modern chemistry. The daughter of one of Lavoisiers co-owners of the Ferme Générale she married him when she was thirteen. ... The Ferme Générale was, in ancien régime France, essentially a franchised customs and excise operation which collected duties on behalf of the king, through 6-years adjudications. ... Richard Kirwan (1733 – June 1, 1812) was an Irish scientist. ... Priestley by Ellen Sharples (1794)[1] Joseph Priestley (March 13, 1733 (old style) – February 8, 1804) was an eighteenth-century British natural philosopher, Dissenting clergyman, political theorist, theologian, and educator. ... For scale drawings or plans, see Plans (drawings). ...


Contributions to chemistry

Research on gases, water, and combustion

Antoine Lavoisier's famous phlogiston experiment. Engraving by Mme Lavoisier in the 1780s taken from Traité élémentaire de chemie (Elementary treatise on chemistry).

Some of Lavoisier's most important experiments were in thermodynamics and the nature of combustion, or burning. Through these experiments, he demonstrated that burning is a process that involves the combination of a substance with oxygen. (He gave this gas its name, which means "acid former," incorrectly believing that all acids had to contain it). Lavoisier also demonstrated the role of oxygen in the rusting of metal, as well as oxygen's role in animal and plant respiration. Working with Pierre-Simon Laplace, Lavoisier conducted experiments that showed that respiration was essentially a slow combustion of organic material using inhaled oxygen. Lavoisier's explanation of combustion disproved the phlogiston theory, which postulated that materials released a substance called phlogiston when they burned. Image File history File links Hidrogenexp2. ... Image File history File links Hidrogenexp2. ... Marie-Anne Pierette Paulze (1758-1836) was the wife and collaborator of Antoine Lavoisier, an 18th century French nobleman and scientist sometimes called the father of modern chemistry. The daughter of one of Lavoisiers co-owners of the Ferme Générale she married him when she was thirteen. ... Thermodynamics (from the Greek θερμη, therme, meaning heat and δυναμις, dynamis, meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace (March 23, 1749 - March 5, 1827) was a French mathematician and astronomer whose work was pivotal to the development of mathematical astronomy. ... The phlogiston theory is a now discredited 17th century hypothesis regarding combustion. ...


Lavoisier also discovered that Henry Cavendish's 'inflammable air', which Lavoisier had termed hydrogen (Greek for "water-former"), combined with oxygen to produce a dew, as Joseph Priestley had reported, which appeared to be water. Lavoisier's work was partly based on the research of Priestley. However, he tried to take credit for Priestley's discoveries. This tendency to use the results of others without acknowledgment, then draw conclusions of his own, is said to be characteristic of Lavoisier. In "Sur la combustion en général" ("On Combustion in general," 1777) and "Considérations Générales sur la Nature des Acides" ("General Considerations on the Nature of Acids," 1778), he demonstrated that the "air" responsible for combustion was also the source of acidity. In 1779, he named this part of the air "oxygen" (Greek for "becoming sharp" because he claimed that the sharp taste of acids came from oxygen), and the other "azote" (Greek for "no life"). In "Réflexions sur la Phlogistique" ("Reflections on Phlogiston," 1783), Lavoisier showed the phlogiston theory to be inconsistent. For other persons named Henry Cavendish, see Henry Cavendish (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Priestley by Ellen Sharples (1794)[1] Joseph Priestley (March 13, 1733 (old style) – February 8, 1804) was an eighteenth-century British natural philosopher, Dissenting clergyman, political theorist, theologian, and educator. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Phlogiston theory was a 17th century attempt to explain oxidation processes, such as fire and rust. ...


Pioneer of stoichiometry

Laboratory instruments used by Lavoisier circa 1780s
Laboratory instruments used by Lavoisier circa 1780s

Lavoisier's researches included some of the first truly quantitative chemical experiments. He carefully weighed the reactants and products in a chemical reaction, which was a crucial step in the advancement of chemistry. He showed that, although matter can change its state in a chemical reaction, the quantity of matter is the same at the end as at the beginning of every chemical change. These experiments supported the law of conservation of mass, which Lavoisier was the first to state,[2] although Mikhail Lomonosov (1711-1765) had previously expressed similar ideas in 1748 and proved them in experiments. Others who anticipated the work of Lavoisier include Joseph Black (1728-1799), Henry Cavendish (1731-1810), and Jean Rey (1583-1645). Image File history File links Instruments_lavoisier. ... Image File history File links Instruments_lavoisier. ... Laboratory equipment refers to the various tools and equipment used by scientists working in a laboratory. ... Stoichiometry (sometimes called reaction stoichiometry to distinguish it from composition stoichiometry) is the calculation of quantitative (measurable) relationships of the reactants and products in chemical reactions (chemical equations). ... The law of conservation of mass/matter, also known as law of mass/matter conservation (or the Lomonosov-Lavoisier law), states that the mass of a closed system of substances will remain constant, regardless of the processes acting inside the system. ... For other uses, see Lomonosov (disambiguation). ... Joseph Black Joseph Black (April 16, 1728 - December 6, 1799) was a Scottish physicist and chemist. ... For other persons named Henry Cavendish, see Henry Cavendish (disambiguation). ... See: Jean Rey (physician), a French physician and chemist. ...


Analytical chemistry and chemical nomenclature

Chemist's laboratory, from Diderot's Encyclopédie, with alchemical table of elements
Chemist's laboratory, from Diderot's Encyclopédie, with alchemical table of elements

Lavoisier investigated the composition of water and air, which at the time were considered elements. He determined that the components of water were oxygen and hydrogen, and that air was a mixture of gases, primarily nitrogen and oxygen. With the French chemists Claude-Louis Berthollet, Antoine Fourcroy and Guyton de Morveau, Lavoisier devised a systematic chemical nomenclature. He described it in Méthode de nomenclature chimique (Method of Chemical Nomenclature, 1787). This system facilitated communication of discoveries between chemists of different backgrounds and is still largely in use today, including names such as sulfuric acid, sulfates, and sulfites. Image File history File links Lavoisiers_lab. ... Image File history File links Lavoisiers_lab. ... Denis Diderot Denis Diderot (October 5, 1713 - July 31, 1784) was a French writer and philosopher. ... This article is about the 18th-century French encyclopaedia. ... For other uses, see Alchemy (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... Claude Louis Berthollet Claude Louis Berthollet (December 9, 1748 – November 6, 1822) was a French chemist. ... Antoine François, comte de Fourcroy (June 15, 1755 – December 16, 1809), French chemist, the son of an apothecary in the household of the duke of Orleans, was born at Paris. ... Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau. ...


Lavoisier's Traité Élémentaire de Chimie (Treatise of Elementary Chemistry, 1789, translated into English by Scotsman Robert Kerr) is considered to be the first modern chemistry textbook. It presented a unified view of new theories of chemistry, contained a clear statement of the law of conservation of mass, and denied the existence of phlogiston. This text clarified the concept of an element as a substance that could not be broken down by any known method of chemical analysis, and presented Lavoisier's theory of the formation of chemical compounds from elements. This article is about the country. ... Robert Kerr (1755 - October 11, 1813) was a scientific writer and translator from Scotland. ... Three textbooks. ... The law of conservation of mass/matter, also known as law of mass/matter conservation (or the Lomonosov-Lavoisier law), states that the mass of a closed system of substances will remain constant, regardless of the processes acting inside the system. ... The phlogiston theory is a now discredited 17th century hypothesis regarding combustion. ...


His Traité Élémentaire contained a list of elements that included oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, phosphorus, mercury, zinc, and sulfur. His list, however, also included light and caloric, which he incorrectly believed to be material substances. General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... For other uses, see Light (disambiguation). ... The caloric theory is an obsolete scientific theory that heat consists of a fluid called caloric that flows from hotter to colder bodies. ...


While many leading chemists of the time refused to accept Lavoisier's new ideas, the Traité Élémentaire was sufficiently sound to convince the next generation.

Combustion generated by focusing sunlight over flammable materials using lenses, an experiment conducted by Lavoisier cin the 1770s
Combustion generated by focusing sunlight over flammable materials using lenses, an experiment conducted by Lavoisier cin the 1770s
Detail of picture of a combustion experiment
Detail of picture of a combustion experiment

Image File history File links Lentilles_ardentes. ... Image File history File links Lentilles_ardentes. ... Flammable or Flammability refers to the ease at which a substance will ignite, causing fire or combustion. ... Image File history File links Zoom_lunette_ardente. ... Image File history File links Zoom_lunette_ardente. ...

Legacy

Constant pressure calorimeter , engraving made by madamme Lavoisier for thermochemistry experiments.

Lavoisier's fundamental contributions to chemistry were a result of a conscious effort to fit all experiments into the framework of a single theory. He established the consistent use of the chemical balance, used oxygen to overthrow the phlogiston theory, and developed a new system of chemical nomenclature which held that oxygen was an essential constituent of all acids (which later turned out to be erroneous). Lavoisier also did early research in physical chemistry and thermodynamics in joint experiments with Laplace. They used a calorimeter to estimate the heat evolved per unit of carbon dioxide produced, eventually finding the same ratio for a flame and animals, indicating that animals produced energy by a type of combustion reaction. Image File history File links Calorimeter. ... Image File history File links Calorimeter. ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... A calorimeter is a device used for calorimetry, the science of measuring the heat of chemical reactions or physical changes as well as heat capacity. ... The world’s first ice-calorimeter, used in the winter of 1782-83, by Antoine Lavoisier and Pierre-Simon Laplace, to determine the heat evolved in various chemical changes; calculations which were based on Joseph Black’s prior discovery of latent heat. ... A doctors scale A weighing scale (usually just scale in common usage) is a device using for measuring the weight of an object. ... Pierre-Simon Laplace Pierre-Simon Laplace (March 23, 1749 – March 5, 1827) was a French mathematician and astronomer, the discoverer of the Laplace transform and Laplaces equation. ...


Lavoisier also contributed to early ideas on composition and chemical changes by stating the radical theory, believing that radicals, which function as a single group in a chemical process, combine with oxygen in reactions. He also introduced the possibility of allotropy in chemical elements when he discovered that diamond is a crystalline form of carbon. In chemistry, radicals (often referred to as free radicals) are atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons on an otherwise open shell configuration. ... Diamond and graphite are two allotropes of carbon: pure forms of the same element that differ in structure. ... This article is about the mineral. ...


However, much to his professional detriment, Lavoisier actually discovered no new substances, devised no really novel apparatus, and worked out no improved methods of preparation. He was essentially a theorist, and his great merit lay in the capacity of taking over experimental work that others had carried out--without always, unfortunately, adequately recognizing their claims--and by a rigorous logical procedure, reinforced by his own quantitative experiments, of expounding the true explanation of the results. He completed the work of Black, Priestley and Cavendish, and gave a correct explanation of their experiments.


Overall, his contributions are considered the most important in advancing chemistry to the level reached in physics and mathematics during 18th century.[5]

Lavoisier conducting an experiment on respiration in the 1770s.
Lavoisier conducting an experiment on respiration in the 1770s.

Image File history File links Lavoisier_humanexp. ... Image File history File links Lavoisier_humanexp. ...

Contributions to biology

Lavoisier used a calorimeter to measure heat production as a result of respiration in a guinea pig. The outer shell of the calorimeter was packed with snow, which melted to maintain a constant temperature of 0 °C around an inner shell filled with ice. The guinea pig in the center of the chamber produced heat which melted the ice. The water that flowed out of the calorimeter was collected and weighed. Lavoisier found that 1 kg of melted ice corresponded to 80 kcal of heat production by the guinea pig. Lavoisier concluded, "la respiration est donc une combustion", that is, respiratory gas exchange is a combustion, like that of a candle burning.[6] A calorimeter is a device used for calorimetry, the science of measuring the heat of chemical reactions or physical changes as well as heat capacity. ... For other uses, see Guinea pig (disambiguation). ...


Law and politics

Lavoisier received a law degree and was admitted to the bar, but never practiced as a lawyer. He did become interested in French politics, and at the age of 26 he obtained a position as a tax collector in the Ferme Générale, a tax farming company, where he attempted to introduce reforms in the French monetary and taxation system to help the peasants. While in government work, he helped develop the metric system to secure uniformity of weights and measures throughout France. A Law degree is the degree conferred on someone who successfully completes studies in law. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... “Taxes” redirects here. ... The Ferme Générale was, in ancien régime France, essentially a franchised customs and excise operation which collected duties on behalf of the king, through 6-years adjudications. ... Tax farming refers to the method of tax collection practiced in France during the days of the Ancien Régime (prior to Louis XVI). ... A monetary system secures the proper functioning of money by regulating economic agents, transaction types, and money supply. ... Look up si, Si, SI in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Weights and measures is a term used by legal authorities in English speaking countries such as the United Kingdom for a function related to units of measurement in trade. ...


Final days, execution, and aftermath

Statue of Lavoisier, at Hôtel de Ville, Paris.
Statue of Lavoisier, at Hôtel de Ville, Paris.

As one of twenty-eight French tax collectors and a powerful figure in the unpopular Ferme Générale, Lavoisier was branded a traitor during the Reign of Terror by French Revolutionists in 1794. Lavoisier had also intervened on behalf of a number of foreign-born scientists including mathematician Joseph Louis Lagrange, granting them exception to a mandate stripping all foreigners of possessions and freedom.[7] Lavoisier was tried, convicted, and guillotined on May 8 in Paris, at the age of 50. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 194 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (507 × 1563 pixel, file size: 149 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Antoine Lavoisier, French chemist. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 194 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (507 × 1563 pixel, file size: 149 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Antoine Lavoisier, French chemist. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Joseph-Louis, comte de Lagrange (January 25, 1736 Turin, Kingdom of Sardinia - April 10, 1813 Paris) was an Italian-French mathematician and astronomer who made important contributions to all fields of analysis and number theory and to classical and celestial mechanics as arguably the greatest mathematician of the 18th century. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Lavoisier was actually one of the few liberals in his position. One of his actions that might have sealed his fate was a clash a few years earlier with the young Jean-Paul Marat whom he dismissed curtly after being presented with a preposterous 'scientific invention', but who subsequently became a leading revolutionary and one of the French Revolution's more extreme "professional common men." Marat redirects here. ...


An appeal to spare his life so that he could continue his experiments was cut short by the judge: "The Republic needs neither scientists nor chemists; the trial can not be restrained."[8]


Lavoisier's importance to science was expressed by Lagrange who lamented the beheading by saying: "Cela leur a pris seulement un instant pour lui couper la tête, mais la France pourrait ne pas en produire un autre pareil en un siècle." ("It took them only an instant to cut off his head, but France may not produce another like it in a century.")[9][10]


One and a half years following his death, Lavoisier was exonerated by the French government. When his private belongings were delivered to his widow, a brief note was included reading "To the widow of Lavoisier, who was falsely convicted."


About a century after his death, a statue of Lavoisier was erected in Paris. It was later discovered that the sculptor had not actually copied Lavoisier's head for the statue, but used a spare head of the Marquis de Condorcet, the Secretary of the Academy of Sciences during Lavoisier's last years. Lack of money prevented alterations being made. The statue was melted down during the Second World War and has not since been replaced. However, one of the main "lycées" (highschools) in Paris and a street in the 8th arrondissement are named after Lavoisier, and statues of him are found on the Hôtel de Ville (illustration, right) and on the façade of the Cour Napoléon of the Louvre. “Condorcet” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... In France, secondary education is divided into two schools: the collège (IPA: ) (somewhat comparable to U.S. junior high school) for the first four years directly following primary school; the lycée (IPA: ) (comparable to a U.S. high school) for the next three years. ... The 8th arrondissement (VIIIe arrondissement), located on the Right Bank, is one of the 20 arrondissements of Paris, France. ... The cour dhonneur looking west The palais du Louvre in Paris, on the Right Bank of the Seine is a former royal palace, situated between the Tuileries Gardens and the church of Saint-Germain lAuxerrois. ...


Selected writings

  • Lavoisier, Antoine (1789). Traité élémentaire de chimie, présenté dans un ordre nouveau et d'après les découvertes modernes. Paris: Chez Cuchet. - Reprinted 1965, Bruxelles: Cultures et Civilisations
Lavoisier, Antoine (1965). Elements of Chemistry. New York: Dover. - Reprint of Robert Kerr's English translation of 1790

References

  1. ^ "Lavoisier, Antoine." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 24 July 2007 <http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9369846>.
  2. ^ a b Schwinger, Julian (1986). Einstein's Legacy. New York: Scientific American Library, p. 93. ISBN 0-7167-5011-2. 
  3. ^   "Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier". Catholic Encyclopedia. (1913). New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  4. ^ Eagle, Cassandra T.; Jennifer Sloan (1998). "Marie Anne Paulze Lavoisier: The Mother of Modern Chemistry" (PDF). The Chemical Educator 3 (5): 1 – 18. Retrieved on 2007-12-14. 
  5. ^ Charles C. Gillespie, Foreword to Lavoisier by Jean-Pierre Poirier, University of Pennsylvania Press, English Edition, 1996.
  6. ^ Is a Calorie a Calorie? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 79, No. 5, 899S–906S, May 2004
  7. ^ O'Connor, J. J.; Robertson, E. F. (2006-09-26). Lagrange Biography (English). Retrieved on 2006-04-20. “In September 1793 a law was passed ordering the arrest of all foreigners born in enemy countries and all their property to be confiscated. Lavoisier intervened on behalf of Lagrange, who certainly fell under the terms of the law, and he was granted an exception. On 8 May 1794, after a trial that lasted less than a day, a revolutionary tribunal condemned Lavoisier, who had saved Lagrange from arrest, and 27 others to death. Lagrange said on the death of Lavoisier, who was guillotined on the afternoon of the day of his trial”
  8. ^ Commenting on this quotation, Denis Duveen, an English expert on Lavoiser and a collector of his works, wrote that "it is pretty certain that it was never uttered." For Duveen's evidence, see the following: Duveen, Denis I. (February 1954). "Antoine Laurent Lavoisier and the French Revolution". Journal of Chemical Education 31: 60 – 65. .
  9. ^ Delambre, Jean-Baptiste (1867), "Notice sur la vie et les ouvrages de M. le Comte J.-L. Lagrange", in Serret, J. A., Oeuvres de Lagrande, vol. 1, pp. xl
  10. ^ Guerlac, Henry (1973). Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier - Chemist and Revolutionary. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 130. 

Julian Seymour Schwinger (February 12, 1918 -- July 16, 1994) was an American theoretical physicist. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

Lavoisier, by Jacques-Léonard Maillet, ca 1853, among culture heroes in the Louvre's Cour Napoléon
Lavoisier, by Jacques-Léonard Maillet, ca 1853, among culture heroes in the Louvre's Cour Napoléon
  • Berthelot, M. (1890). La révolution chimique: Lavoisier. Paris: Alcan. 
  • Daumas, M. (1955). Lavoisier, théoricien et expérimentateur. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. 
  • Donovan, Arthur (1993). Antoine Lavoisier: Science, Administration, and Revolution. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. 
  • Grey, Vivian (1982). The Chemist Who Lost His Head: The Story of Antoine Lavoisier. Coward, McCann & Geoghegan, Inc.. 
  • Guerlac, Henry (1961). Lavoisier - The Crucial Year. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. 
  • Holmes, Frederic Lawrence (1985). Lavoisier and the Chemistry of Life. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. 
  • Holmes, Frederic Lawrence (1998). Antoine Lavoisier - The Next Crucial Year, or the Sources of his Quantitative Method in Chemistry. Princeton University Press. 
  • Jackson, Joe (2005). A World on Fire: A Heretic, An Aristocrat And The Race to Discover Oxygen. Viking. 
  • Johnson, Horton A. (2008). "Revolutionary Instruments, Lavoisier's Tools as Objets d'Art". Chemical Heritage 26: 30 – 35. 
  • Kelly, Jack (2004). Gunpowder: Alchemy, Bombards, & Pyrotechnics. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-03718-6. 
  • McKie, Douglas (1935). Antoine Lavoisier: The Father of Modern Chemistry. Philadelphia: J. P. Lippincott Company. 
  • McKie, Douglas (1952). Antoine Lavoisier: Scientist, Economist, Social Reformer. New York: Henry Schuman. 
  • Poirier, Jean-Pierre (1996, English edition). Lavoisier. University of Pennsylvania Press. 
  • Scerri, Eric (2007). The Periodic Table: Its Story and Its Significance. Oxford University Press. 

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Antoine Lavoisier
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Persondata
NAME Lavoisier, Antoine
ALTERNATIVE NAMES de Lavoisier, Antoine-Laurent
SHORT DESCRIPTION chemist, economist and nobleman.
DATE OF BIRTH August 26, 1743(1743-08-26)
PLACE OF BIRTH Paris, France
DATE OF DEATH May 8, 1794
PLACE OF DEATH Paris, France

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia4U - Antoine Lavoisier - Encyclopedia Article (975 words)
Lavoisier is often referred to as the father of modern chemistry.
As one of 28 French tax collectors Lavoisier was branded a traitor by revolutionists in 1794 and guillotined at the age of 51.
Lavoisier's fundamental contributions to chemistry were a result of a conscious effort to fit all experiments into the framework of a single theory.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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