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Encyclopedia > Antisemitism around the world
Antisemitism

History · Timeline · Resources
Racial · Religious · New AS
Antisemitism around the world
Arabs and antisemitism
Christianity and antisemitism
Islam and antisemitism
Nation of Islam and antisemitism
Universities and antisemitism
Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights LGBT rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Feminism Mens/Fathers rights · Masculinism Children... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1518x1372, 1426 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Star of David Yellow badge Talk:List of Jewish American journalists User:RolandR Metadata This file contains additional... This does not cite its references or sources. ... A timeline for antisemitism chronicles events from ancient times when hostile attitudes to the Jewish people can be found in among neighbouring civilisations, to the present day. ... This is a list of resources analyzing antisemitism in the alphabetical order of authors name. ... Racial antisemitism is hatred of Jews as a racial group, rather than hatred of Judaism as a religion. ... An example of state-sponsored atheist anti-Judaism. ... New antisemitism is the concept of an international resurgence of attacks on Jewish symbols, as well as the acceptance of antisemitic beliefs and their expression in public discourse, coming from three political directions: the political left, far-right, and Islamism. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The relationship between Christianity and antisemitism has a long history. ... This article is about the relationship between Islam and antisemitism. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Nation of Islam. ... Poster at SFSU resurrects the blood libel: Palestinian Children Meat, Made in Israel and slaughtered according to Jewish Rites under American license. ...

Allegations
Deicide · Blood libel
Well poisoning · Host desecration
Jewish lobby · Jewish Bolshevism
On the Jews and their Lies
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion
The International Jew
Ritual murder · Usury · Dreyfus affair
This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Blood libels are false accusations, usually made by Christians, that Jews use human blood in certain of their religious rituals and magical rites. ... For the logical fallacy, see poisoning the well. ... Host desecration is a form of sacrilege in Christianity, involving the mistreatment or malicious use of a consecrated Host, or communion wafer. ... Jewish lobby is a term referring to allegations that Jews exercise undue influence in a number of areas, including politics, government, the media, academia, popular culture, public policy, international relations, and international finance. ... White Army propaganda poster depicting Leon Trotsky. ... Title page of Martin Luther’s On the Jews and Their Lies. ... 1992 Russian language imprint, adapting Eliphas Levis portrayal of Baphomet image The Protocols of the Elders of Zion (Russian: , see also other titles) is an antisemitic pamphlet that purports to describe a Jewish plot to achieve world domination. ... 1920 publication The International Jew is a four-volume-book originally published and distributed in 1922 by Henry Ford, an American industrialist, automobile developer and manufacturer. ... Ritual murder is murder performed in a ritualistic fashion or on a basis of rituals. ... Of Usury, from Brants Stultifera Navis (the Ship of Fools); woodcut attributed to Albrecht Dürer Usury (//, from the Medieval Latin usuria, interest or excessive interest, from Latin usura interest) was defined originally as charging a fee for the use of money. ... The Dreyfus affair was a political scandal which divided France during the 1890s and early 1900s. ...

Persecutions
Expulsion · Ghetto · Holocaust
Holocaust denial · Inquisition
Judenhut · Judensau · Neo-Nazism
Segregation · Yellow badge
This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In the course of history, Jewish populations have been expelled or ostracised by various local authorities and have sought asylum from Anti-Semitism numerous times. ... A ghetto is an area where people from a specific racial or ethnic background live as a group in seclusion, voluntarily or involuntarily. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ... Saint Dominic (1170 – August 6, 1221) Presiding over an Auto-da-fe, by Pedro Berruguete, (1450 - 1504). ... The Jewish poet Süßkind von Trimberg wearing a Judenhut (Codex Manesse, 14. ... Judensau (German for Jewish swine) is a derogatory and dehumanizing imagery of the Jews that appeared around the 13th century in Germany and some other European countries. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... The Pale of Settlement (Russian: Черта оседлости - cherta osedlosti) was a western border region of Imperial Russia in which permanent residence of Jews was allowed, extending from the pale or demarcation line, to near the border with eastern/central Europe. ... Compulsory Jewish badge under the Nazi occupation of Europe: the Star of David with the word Jew inside (this one in German) A yellow badge, also referred to as a Jewish badge, was a mandatory mark or a piece of cloth of specific geometric shape, worn on the outer garment...

Organizations
Anti-Defamation League
Community Security Trust
EUMC · Stephen Roth Institute
Wiener Library · SPLC · SWC · UCSJ Anti-Defamation League Logo The Anti-Defamation League (or ADL) is an advocacy group founded by Bnai Brith in the United States whose stated aim is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. ... A 2005 CST report into anti-Semitism in the UK The Community Security Trust (CST) is an organization established to ensure the safety and security of the Jewish community in Britain (UK). ... Location: Vienna, Austria Formation: - Signed - Established 1994/1998 Superseding pillar: European Communities Director: Dr Beate Winkle Website: eumc. ... The Stephen Roth Institute for the Study of Contemporary Antisemitism and Racism is a resource for information, provides a forum for academic discussion, and fosters research on issues concerning antisemitic and racist theories and manifestations. ... The Wiener Library is the worlds oldest institution devoted to the study of the Holocaust, its causes and legacies. ... The Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) is an American non-profit legal organization, whose stated purpose is to combat racism and promote civil rights through research, education, and litigation. ... The Simon Wiesenthal Center The Simon Wiesenthal Center is an international Jewish organization that declares itself to be a human rights group dedicated to preserving the memory of the Holocaust by fostering tolerance and understanding through community involvement, educational outreach and social action. ... UCSJ, or the Union of Councils for Jews in the Former Soviet Union, is a collection of Jewish human rights organisations working in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. ...

Categories
Antisemitism · Jewish history

WikiProjects
WikiProject Jewish history

v  d  e

This is a list of countries where prevalent antisemitic sentiment has been experienced. The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster Anti-Semitism (alternatively spelled antisemitism) is hostility towards or prejudice against Jews (not, in common usage, Semites in general — see the Scope section below). ...

Contents

Current antisemitism in specific countries

Asia

Yemen

Further information: Yemenite Jews

Including Aden, there were about 63,000 Jews in Yemen in 1948. Today, there are about 200 left. In 1947, riots killed at least 80 Jews in Aden. Increasingly hostile conditions led to the Israeli government's Operation Magic Carpet, the evacuation of 50,000 Jews from Yemen to Israel in 1949 and 1950. Emigration continued until 1962, when the civil war in Yemen broke out. A small community remained unknown until 1976, but it appears that all infrastructure is lost now. Yemenite Jews (Hebrew: תֵּימָנִים, Standard Temanim Tiberian ; singular תֵּימָנִי, Standard Temani Tiberian ) are those Jews who live, or whose recent ancestors lived, in Yemen (תֵּימָן, Standard Teman Tiberian ; far south), on the southern tip of the Arabian peninsula. ... Port of Aden (around 1910). ... Most of Yemenite Jews had never seen an aircraft before, but they believed in the Biblical prophecy: according to the Book of Isaiah (40:31), God promised to return the Children of Israel to Zion with wings. Operation Magic Carpet was an operation between June 1949 and September 1950 that...


Jews in Yemen were long subject to a number of restrictions, ranging from attire, hairstyle, home ownership, marriage, etc. Under the "Orphan's Decree", many Jewish orphans below puberty were raised as Muslims. This practice began in the late 18th century, was suspended under Ottoman rule, then was revived in 1918. Most cases occurred in the 1920s, but sporadic cases occurred until the 1940s. In later years, the Yemenite government has taken some steps to protect the Jewish community in their country.


Iraq

Further information: History of the Jews in Iraq

In 1948, there were approximately 150,000 Jews in Iraq. In 2003, there were 100 left, though there are reports that small numbers of Jews are returning in the wake of the 2003 invasion of Iraq. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Invading Forces: United States United Kingdom Australia Poland Denmark Occupation forces. ...


In 1941, following Rashid Ali's pro-Axis coup, riots known as the Farhud broke out in Baghdad in which approximately 200 Jews were murdered (some sources put the number higher), and up to 2,000 injured. El-Gaylani Rashid Ali was the Pro-Axis leader of Iraq who fled to Iran when the Allies invaded Iraq. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Farhud (translation from Arabic: pogrom, violent dispossession) was a violent pogrom against the Jews of Iraq on June 1-2, 1941. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ...


Like most Arab League states, Iraq forbade the emigration of its Jews for a few years after the 1948 war on the grounds that allowing them to go to Israel would strengthen that state. However, intense diplomatic pressure brought about a change of mind. At the same time, increasing government oppression of the Jews fueled by anti-Israeli sentiment, together with public expressions of anti-semitism, created an atmosphere of fear and uncertainty. The Arab League or League of Arab States (Arabic: ‎), is an organization of predominantly Arab states (compare Arab world). ...


In March 1950, Iraq passed a law of one year duration allowing Jews to emigrate on condition of relinquishing their Iraqi citizenship. Iraq apparently believed it would rid itself of those Jews it regarded as the most troublesome, especially the Zionists, but retain the wealthy minority who played an important part in the Iraqi economy. Israel mounted an operation called "Ezra and Nehemiah" to bring as many of the Iraqi Jews as possible to Israel, and sent agents to Iraq to urge the Jews to register for immigration as soon as possible. From 1950 to 1952, Operation Ezra and Nehemiah brought almost all the Iraqi Jews to Israel, first by way of Cyprus, then directly to Israel. ...


The initial rate of registration accelerated after a bomb injured three Jews at a café. Two months before the expiry of the law, by which time about 85,000 Jews had registered, a bomb at the Masuda Shemtov Synagogue killed 3 or 5 Jews and injured many. The law expired in March 1951, but was later extended after the Iraqi government froze the assets of departing Jews (including those already left). During the next few months, all but a few thousand of the remaining Jews registered for emigration, spurred on by a sequence of bombings that caused few casualties but had great psychological impact. In total, about 120,000 Jews left Iraq. A synagogue (from Ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogÄ“, assembly; Hebrew: beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: , shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish place of religious worship. ...


In May and June 1951, the arms caches of the Zionist underground in Iraq, which had been supplied from Palestine/Israel since the Farhud of 1942, were discovered. Many Jews were arrested and two Zionist activists, Yusuf Basri and Ibrahim Salih, were tried and hanged for three of the bombings. A secret Israeli inquiry in 1960 reported that most of the witnesses believed that Jews had been responsible for the bombings, but found no evidence that they were ordered by Israel. The issue remains unresolved: Iraqi activists in Israel still regularly charge that Israel used violence to engineer the exodus, while Israeli officials of the time vehemently deny it. According to historian Moshe Gatt, few historians believe that Israel was actually behind the bombing campaign -- based on factors such as records indicating that Israel did not want such a rapid registration rate and that bomb throwing at Jewish targets was common before 1950, making the Istiqlal Party a more likely culprit than the Zionist underground. In any case, the remainder of Iraq's Jews left over the next few decades, and had mostly gone by 1970. Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is... Farhud (translation from Arabic: pogrom, violent dispossession) was a violent pogrom against the Jews of Iraq on June 1-2, 1941. ...


Pakistan

There is a general stereotype against Jews in Pakistan. Jews and Hindus are regarded as "miserly"[1]. The founding of the Islamic state of Pakistan immediately prior to the creation of Israel in the Levant created insecurity among Pakistan's Jews. After Israel's independence in 1948, violent incidents occurred against Pakistan's small Jewish community of about 2,000 Bene Israel Jews. The synagogue in Karachi was attacked, as were individual Jews. The persecution of Jews resulted in their exodus to India, Israel, and the UK. The Peshawar Jewish community ceased to exist.[2] The Bene Israel (Sons of Israel) are a group of Jews who migrated in the nineteenth century from west Maharashtra to the nearby cities, primarily Mumbai, but also to Pune, Ahmadabad, and Karachi (Karachi later became a part of Pakistan). ... Peshāwar (Urdu: پشاور; Pashto: پښور) literally means City on the Frontier in Persian and is known as Pekhawar in Pashto. ...


Pakistani cricket icon Imran Khan's marriage to Jemima Goldsmith in 1996 caused furor in Pakistan and Khan was accused of acting as an agent of the "Jewish Lobby". Egyptian newspapers in Pakistan made other antisemitic accusations against Khan. After Khan complained, the stories were retracted.[2]


India's establishment of diplomatic relations with Israel in 1992 have given rise to antisemitism in Pakistani media, usually combined with anti-Zionist rhetoric. India has been referred to as a "Zionist Threat".[3]


Pakistan-based Islamic terrorist group Lashkar-e-Toiba have also expressed antisemitic views. Their propaganda arm has declared the Jews to be "Enemies of Islam", Israel to be the "Enemy of Pakistan".[4] Lashkar-e-Toiba (Urdu: لشكرِ طيبه laškar-ĕ ṯaiyyiba, literally The Army of Pure, also transliterated as Lashkar-i-Tayyaba, Lashkar-e-Tayyaba, Lashkar-e-Tayyiba or Lashkar-i-Toiba) is one of the largest and most active Islamic terrorist organizations in South Asia. ...


Military leaflets have been dropped over Waziristan to urge the tribesmen to beware of foreigners and their local supporters who had allied themselves with the "Yahood Aur Hanood".Tribesmen who read the leaflets were wondering over the use of the word "Yahood Aur Hanood" to describe the enemy in the leaflets. Most thought it meant the Jews worldwide and the dominant Hindus of India.[5] Waziristan location map A flag used by a resistance movement in Waziristan against the British during the 1930s, with the Takbir written on it. ...


The U.S. State Department's first Report on Global Anti-Semitism finds increase in antisemitism in Pakistan.[6] In Pakistan, a country without Jewish communities, antisemitic sentiment fanned by antisemitic articles in the press is widespread.[7] Pakistan refuses to recognize Israel as a legitimate state[8] on account of their sympathies with the Arabs in the Arab-Israeli conflict. Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel and the United...


A substantial number of people in Pakistan believe that the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York were a "secret Jewish conspiracy" organized by Israel's MOSSAD, as were the 7 July 2005 London bombings, allegedly perpetrated by Jews in order to "discredit Muslims". Such allegations echo traditional antisemitic conspiracy theories[9][10]. The World Trade Center on fire The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001. ...   (Hebrew: המוסד למודיעין ולתפקידים מיוחדים, The Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations), often referred to as The Mossad (meaning The Institute), is Israels intelligence agency and is responsible for intelligence collection, counter-terrorism, covert operations such as paramilitary activities, and the facilitation of aliyah where it is banned. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ...


Pakistan, an Islamic republic, has declined Israel's offer for humanitarian aid after the 2005 earthquake in the country. ZOA President Morton A. Klein said, "We are deeply disappointed by President Musharraf's snub of Israel's generous offer of aid. It seems to indicate that Pakistan's hatred of Jews is greater than their desire to save Pakistani lives."[11]


India

India is home to several communities of Jews. There have been no antisemitic incidents from the Hindu majority in India in the nearly 3-millennium history of Indian Jewry. Over the course of the twentieth century, several important Hindu leaders, scholars and politicians, such as Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, Sita Ram Goel, Arun Shourie and others have vocally condemned anti-semitism and have expressed support for Israel and the Jewish right to self-determination [11]. Vinayak Damodar Sarvakar Vināyak Dāmodar Sāvarkar (Marathi: विनायक दामोदर सावरकर) (May 28, 1883 – February 27, 1966) was an Indian revolutionary and Hindu nationalist political leader, who is credited with developing a Hindu nationalist political ideology he termed as Hindutva (Hinduness). ... Sita Ram Goel (Devanāgarī: सीता राम गोयल, Sītā Rām Goyal) (1921–2003), author and publisher, is an important figure amongst late 20th century Hindu thinkers. ... Arun Shourie Arun Shourie (born 1941) is a prominent journalist, author, and politician of India. ...


Anti-semitism first came to India with the Portuguese Christian Missionaries in the 16th century. Christian anti-semitism in India manifested itself through the Goa Inquisition that resulted in the depopulation of the Jews in Goa, and the persecution of South Indian Jews by the Portuguese in Kerala. In 2006, a restaurant opened in the Indian city of Mumbai named "Hitlers' Cross" which raised the ire of the small community of Jews in Mumbai. The owner, Puneet Sablok, has since changed the name, apologizing to the Mumbai Jewish community and clarifying that he did not intend to offend Indian Jewry. The relationship between Christianity and antisemitism has a long history. ... St. ... Goa   (Konkani: गोंय goṃya; Marathi: गोवा govā; Portuguese: Goa) is Indias smallest state in terms of area and the fourth smallest in terms of population (after Sikkim, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh). ... Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... “Bombay” redirects here. ... Hitlers Cross was the name of a Hitler-themed restaurant at Kharghar in Navi Mumbai, a satellite city of Mumbai. ... Punit Sablok is the owner of the Cross Café restaurant - formerly known as Hitlers Cross, located in Navi Mumbai, a northern suburb of Bombay, India. ...


Syria

Cartoon from the Syrian Arab daily newspaper Tishreen (Apr 30, 2000). Negative zoomorphism is commonly used in anti-Semitic discourse.

There is a tiny Syrian Jewish community that is confined mainly to Damascus; remnants of a formerly 40,000 strong community. After the 1947 UN Partition plan in Palestine, there were heavy pogroms against Jews in Damascus and Aleppo. The Jewish property was confiscated or burned and after the establishment of the State of Israel, many fled to Israel and only 5000 Jews were left in Syria. Of these, 4000 more left after agreement with the United States in the 1990s. As of 2006, there are only 100-200 Jews left in Syria. Caricature from Syrian newspaper Tishreen, April 30, 2000 This work is copyrighted. ... Caricature from Syrian newspaper Tishreen, April 30, 2000 This work is copyrighted. ... Zoomorphic decoration from the Book of Kells Zoomorphism, from Greek ζωον zōon, meaning animal, and μορφη, morphÄ“, meaning shape or form, refers to the representation of animal forms in ornaments, or to the representation of gods in the form, or with attributes, of non-human animals, and also to the transformation... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... On 29 November 1947 the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine or United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181, a plan to resolve the Arab-Israeli conflict in the British Mandate of Palestine, was approved by the United Nations General Assembly. ... The Russian word pogrom (погром) refers to a massive violent attack on people with simultaneous destruction of their environment (homes, businesses, religious centers). ...


Rioters in Aleppo in 1947 burned the city's Jewish quarter and killed 75 people. [12] In 1948, there were approximately 30,000 Jews in Syria. The Syrian government placed severe restrictions on the Jewish community, including on emigration. Over the next decades, many Jews managed to escape, and the work of supporters, particularly Judy Feld Carr[13], in smuggling Jews out of Syria, and bringing their plight to the attention of the world, raised awareness of their situation. Following the Madrid Conference of 1991 the United States put pressure on the Syrian government to ease its restrictions on Jews, and, in 1992, the government of Syria began granting exit visas to Jews on condition that they not emigrate to Israel. At that time, the country had several thousand Jews; today, under a hundred remain. The rest of the Jewish community have emigrated, mostly to the United States and Israel. There is a large and vibrant Syrian Jewish community in South Brooklyn, New York. In 2004, the Syrian government attempted to establish better relations with the emigrants, and 12 Syrian-Jews visited Syria. [14] Judith Feld Carr is a musician and humanitarian, who resides in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... The Madrid Conference was hosted by the government of Spain and co-sponsored by the USA and the USSR. It convened on October 30, 1991 and lasted for three days. ... Brooklyn (named after the Dutch city Breukelen) is one of the five boroughs of New York City. ... NY redirects here. ...


Lebanon

In 1948, there were approximately 5,000 Jews in Lebanon, with communities in Beirut, and in villages near Mount Lebanon, Deir al Qamar, Barouk, and Hasbayah. While the French mandate saw a general improvement in conditions for Jews, the Vichy regime placed restrictions on them. The Jewish community actively supported Lebanese independence after World War II and had mixed attitudes toward Zionism. For other uses, see Beirut (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mount Lebanon (disambiguation). ... Deir el Qamar (in Arabic دير القمر, meaning monastery of the Moon) is a village in south-central Lebanon, 5 kilometres outside of Beiteddine, consisting of stone houses with red-tiled roofs. ... Barouk is a village in the Chouf region of Lebanon. ... Vichy France (French: now called Régime de Vichy or Vichy; called itself at the time État Français, or French State) was the French state of 1940-1944 which was a puppet government under Nazi influence, as opposed to the Free French Forces, based first in London and later...


Negative attitudes toward Jews increased after 1948, and, by 1967, most Lebanese Jews had emigrated - to the United States, Canada, France, and Israel. The remaining Jewish community was particularly hard hit by the civil wars in Lebanon, and, by 1967, most Jews had emigrated. In the 1980s, Hizballah kidnapped several Lebanese Jewish businessmen, and in the 2004 elections, only one Jew voted in the municipal elections. By all accounts, there are fewer than 100 Jews left in Lebanon. Hezbollah militant Guerrilla carrying Hezbollah Flag Hezbollah (Arabic ‮حزب الله‬, meaning Party of God) is a political and military organization in Lebanon founded in 1982 to fight Israel in southern Lebanon. ...


Bahrain

Bahrain's tiny Jewish community, mostly the descendants of immigrants who entered the country in the early 1900s from Iraq, numbered 600 in 1948. Over the next few decades, most left for other countries, especially England; some 36 remain (as of 2006.)[15] Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area...


Relations between Jews and Muslims are generally considered good, with Bahrain being the only state on the Arabian Peninsula where there is a specific Jewish community and the only Gulf state with a synagogue. One member of the community, Rouben Rouben, who sells electronics and appliances from his downtown showroom, said “95 percent of my customers are Bahrainis, and the government is our No. 1 corporate customer. I’ve never felt any kind of discrimination.”[15]


Members play a prominent role in civil society: Ebrahim Nono was appointed in 2002 a member of Bahrain's upper house of parliament, the Consultative Council, while a Jewish woman heads a human rights group, the Bahrain Human Rights Watch Society. According to the JTA news agency, the active Jewish community is "a source of pride for Bahraini officials".[15] The Consultative Council (majlis al-shura) is the name given to the upper house of the National Assembly, the main legislative body of Bahrain. ... The Bahrain Human Rights Watch Society (BHRWS) is a Bahraini human rights organization established in November 2004 which has been at the forefront of efforts to protect housemaids, fight for women’s rights and confront Islamist campaigns to restrict personal freedoms. ...


In Bahrain's 2006 parliamentary election, some candidates have specifically sought out the Jewish vote; writer Munira Fakhro, Vice President of the Leftist National Democratic Action, standing in Isa Town told the local press: "There are 20- 30 Jews in my area and I would be working for their benefit and raise their standard of living."[16] The National Assembly is bicameral with the lower house, the Chamber of Deputies, having 40 members elected in single-seat constituencies for a four year term. ... Munira Fakhro, Bahraini academic and leftist political activist. ... The National Democratic Action is Bahrains largest Leftist political party, comprised of an alliance between former Maoists, socialists and Arab nationalists. ... The Bahrain National Stadium in Isa Town Isa Town (Madinat Isa) is a middle class suburb of Bahrains capital, Manama. ...


Turkey

Despite close economic and military ties to Israel, Turkey has experienced a recent surge in anti-Semitic literature, most notably the sale of Mein Kampf, the autobiography of Adolf Hitler, which has become a bestseller through the country. Sales of the similarly-themed books The Protocols of the Elders of Zion and Henry Ford's The International Jew have also increased. In the same vein, the 2005 bestselling book Metal fırtına, which depicts a fictional war between Turkey and the United States, is described by the author, in an interview with Vatan, as helping people understand the realities behind Israel and the Jews, and would see how the Jews betrayed Turkey. [12] Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle) is the signature work of Adolf Hitler, combining elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers political ideology of Nazism. ... Hitler redirects here. ... 1992 Russian language imprint, adapting Eliphas Levis portrayal of Baphomet image The Protocols of the Elders of Zion (Russian: , see also other titles) is an antisemitic pamphlet that purports to describe a Jewish plot to achieve world domination. ... Henry Ford (1919) Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was the founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of modern assembly lines used in mass production. ... 1920 publication The International Jew is a four-volume-book originally published and distributed in 1922 by Henry Ford, an American industrialist, automobile developer and manufacturer. ... Metal fırtına (English: ) is a 2004 novel from Turkey by Orkhun Uçar and Burak Turna. ... This word means own country/fatherland in Turkish. ...


While the exact reason for the book's popularity is uncertain, it may reflect anger over the treatment of fellow Muslim in Palestine by Israelis, anti-western sentiments caused by the war in Iraq, or simply backlash caused by Turkey's bid to join the European Union.


Anti-Semitic sentiments have also been observed in the Turkish media, such as in the nationalist Ortadogu, where Selcuk Duzgun, in an article titled Here is the Real Jew stated: "We are surrounded. Wherever we look we see traitors. Wherever we turn we see impure, false converts. Whichever stone you turn over, there is a Jew under it. And we keep thinking to ourselves: Hitler did not do enough to these Jews."


In the Milli Gazette, Turkish author Hakan Albayrak wrote an article accusing the Israeli Government of Genocide and stating Zionism itself constituted genocide. [13]


On 8 January the Islamist daily Yeni Şafak, the unofficial mouthpiece of the Justice and Development Party, published an article which alleged that the Israeli Government was attempting to set up farms in southeastern Turkey, and populate them with Russian and Ethiopian Jews whose integration into Israel they found difficult. In 2005, it was reported by journalists such as Ayhan Bilgin in Vakit, that the Mossad and Israel were responsible for planting mines which killed Turkish soldiers in southeast Turkey. Such claims have created a very negative atmosphere against Israelis and Turkish Jews. Anti-Semitism has also recently been observed in the publications Anadoluda, Vakit, and Yeniçağ. [14] Yeni Åžafak is a Turkish daily newspaper. ...


Several anti-Semitic conspiracy theories from Islamists and ultra-nationalists in Turkey have attempted to demonize Jews and Israel. These theories have been fed in part by Turkish Israeli arms modernization projects, agricultural projects in southeast Turkey connected to the South-East Anatolia Agricultural Irrigation Project, which employ Israeli experts; mutual visits of Turkish and Israeli officials; and the alleged role of the Mossad in northern Iraq (the Iraq war is highly unpopular in Turkey) making statements such as "The Mossad is the boss in Northern Iraq" have all nourished these theories. The common conspiracy theory that Jews, the supposed chosen people who consider themselves superior, are trying to take over the world by creating internal problems has also been cited by Turkish newspapers. [15] A conspiracy theory is a theory that defies common historical or current understanding of events, under the claim that those events are the result of manipulations by two or more individuals or various secretive powers or conspiracies. ... // Turkey was the first Muslim-majority nation to formally recognize the State of Israel [1].Israel has been a major supplier of arms to Turkey. ... Other Turkish Topics Culture - Education Geography - History - Politics Turkey Portal The Southeastern Anatolia Project (Turkish: GüneydoÄŸu Anadolu Projesi, GAP) is a multi-sector integrated regional development project based on the concept of sustainable development for the 9 million people [1] living in a region. ...   (Hebrew: המוסד למודיעין ולתפקידים מיוחדים, The Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations), often referred to as The Mossad (meaning The Institute), is Israels intelligence agency and is responsible for intelligence collection, counter-terrorism, covert operations such as paramilitary activities, and the facilitation of aliyah where it is banned. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ...


The well-known Turkish novelist Orhan Pamuk, often criticized by the Turkish media and accused of being a traitor due to his interpretation of certain events in Turkish history, has been criticized as being "the servant of Jews," and "a Jew-lover" by several nationalistic publications.[16] Ferit Orhan Pamuk (born on June 7, 1952 in Istanbul) is a Nobel Prize-winning Turkish novelist. ...


Africa

Morocco

Further information: History of the Jews in Morocco

In 1948, approximately 265,000 Jews lived in Morocco. Between 5,000 and 8,000 live there now, mostly in Casablanca, but also in Fez and other cities. Moroccan Jews constitute an ancient community. ... For other uses, see Casablanca (disambiguation). ...


In June 1948, soon after Israel was established and in the midst of the first Arab-Israeli war, riots against Jews broke out in Oujda and Djerada, killing 44 Jews. In 1948-9, 18,000 Jews left the country for Israel. After this, Jewish emigration continued (to Israel and elsewhere), but slowed to a few thousand a year. Through the early fifties, Zionist organizations encouraged emigration, particularly in the poorer south of the country, seeing Moroccan Jews as valuable contributors to the Jewish State: Oujda is a city in eastern Morocco with an estimated population of half a million inhabitants. ... Jerada is a town in northeastern Morocco, in the Atlas Mountains. ... Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is...

...These Jews constitute the best and most suitable human element for settlement in Israel's absorption centers. There were many positive aspects which I found among them: first and foremost, they all know (their agricultural) tasks, and their transfer to agricultural work in Israel will not involve physical and mental difficulties. They are satisfied with few (material needs), which will enable them to confront their early economic problems. (Yehuda Grinker (an organizer of Jewish emigration from the Atlas), The Emigration of Atlas Jews to Israel, Tel Aviv, The Association of Moroccan Immigrants in Israel, 1973.[17])

In 1955, Morocco attained independence. Jews occupied several political positions, including three Members of Parliament and a Minister of Posts and Telegraphs. However, emigration to Israel jumped from 8,171 in 1954 to 24,994 in 1955, increasing further in 1956. Beginning in 1956, emigration to Israel was prohibited until 1963, when it resumed.[18] In 1961, the government informally relaxed the laws on emigration to Israel; over the three following years, more than 80,000 Moroccan Jews emigrated there. By 1967, only 60,000 Jews remained in Morocco.


The Six-Day War in 1967 led to increased Arab-Jewish tensions worldwide, including Morocco. By 1971, the Jewish population was down to 35,000; however, most of this wave of emigration went to Europe and North America rather than Israel. Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ...


Despite their current small numbers, Jews continue to play a notable role in Morocco; the king retains a Jewish senior adviser, André Azoulay, and Jewish schools and synagogues receive government subsidies. However, Jewish targets have sometimes been attacked (notably in Al-Qaeda's bombing of a Jewish community center in Casablanca, see Casablanca Attacks), and there is sporadic anti-Semitic rhetoric from radical Islamist groups. Late King Hassan II's invitations for Jews to return have not been taken up by the people who emigrated. André Azoulay is a senior advisor to king Mohamed VI and prior to that to his father king Hassan II, he was born in Essaouira in 1941, in a Moroccan Jewish family. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... For other uses, see Casablanca (disambiguation). ... The 2003 Casablanca bombings were a series of suicide bombings on May 16, 2003, in Casablanca, Morocco. ... Hassan II (July 9, 1929-July 23, 1999) was King of Morocco from 1961 to his death. ...


Egypt

Further information: History of the Jews in Egypt

In 1948, approximately 75,000 Jews lived in Egypt. About 100 remain today, mostly in Cairo. In 1948, Jewish neighborhoods in Cairo suffered bomb attacks that killed at least 70 Jews. Hundreds of Jews were arrested and had their property confiscated. The 1954 Lavon Affair, in which Israelis and Egyptian Jews were arrested for bombing Egyptian and American targets served as a pretext for further persecution of the remaining Jewish community in Egypt. After the 1956 Suez Crisis, Egypt expelled over 25,000 Jews, confiscated their property, and about 3,000 were imprisoned. About 1,000 more were imprisoned or detained. In 1967, Jews were detained and tortured, and Jewish homes were confiscated as emigration continued. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... The Lavon Affair refers to the scandal over a failed Israeli covert operation in Egypt known as Operation Suzannah, in which Egyptian, American and British-owned targets in Egypt were bombed in the summer of 1954. ... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA 2,900 WIA 2...


Egypt was once home of one of the most dynamic Jewish communities in their diaspora. Caliphs in the ninth, tenth, and eleventh centuries CE exercised various repressive policies, culminating in the destruction and mass murder of the Jewish quarter in Cairo in 1012. Conditions varied between then and the advent of the Ottoman Empire in 1517, when they deteriorated again. There were at least six blood libel persecutions in cities between 1870 and 1892. In more recent times, the fraudulent Protocols of the Elders of Zion have been published and promoted as though they were authentic historical records, fueling anti-Semitic sentiments in Egyptian public opinion. Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... 1992 Russian language imprint, adapting Eliphas Levis portrayal of Baphomet image The Protocols of the Elders of Zion (Russian: , see also other titles) is an antisemitic pamphlet that purports to describe a Jewish plot to achieve world domination. ...


Tunisia

Further information: History of the Jews in Tunisia

Jews have lived in Tunisia for at least 2300 years. In the 13th century, Jews were expelled from their homes in Kairouan and were ultimately restricted to ghettos, known as hara. Forced to wear distinctive clothing, several Jews earned high positions in the Tunisian government. Several prominent international traders were Tunisian Jews. From 1855 to 1864, Muhammad Bey relaxed dhimmi laws, but reinstated them in the face of anti-Jewish riots that continued at least until 1869. ... Kairouan (Arabic القيروان) (also known as Kairwan, Kayrawan, Al Qayrawan) is a muslim holy city which ranks after Mecca and Medina as a place of pilgrimage. ...


Tunisia, as the only Middle Eastern country under direct Nazi control during World War II, was also the site of anti-Semitic activities such as prison camps, deportations, and other persecution. National Socialism redirects here. ...


In 1948, approximately 105,000 Jews lived in Tunisia. About 1,500 remain today, mostly in Djerba, Tunis, and Zarzis. Following Tunisia's independence from France in 1956, a number of anti-Jewish policies led to emigration, of which half went to Israel and the other half to France. After attacks in 1967, Jewish emigration both to Israel and France accelerated. There were also attacks in 1982, 1985, and most recently in 2002 when a bomb in Djerba took 21 lives (most of them German tourists) near the local synagogue, in a terrorist attack claimed by Al-Qaeda. Djerba [1] (also transliterated as Jerba, Jarbah or Girba جزيرة جربة) is the largest island off North Africa, located in the Gulf of Gabes off the coast of Tunisia. ... Zarzis is a coastal town in southeastern Tunisia, on the coast of Mediterranean Sea. ... Djerba [1] (also transliterated as Jerba, Jarbah or Girba جزيرة جربة) is the largest island off North Africa, located in the Gulf of Gabes off the coast of Tunisia. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ...


The Tunisian government makes an active effort to protect its Jewish minority now and visibly supports its institutions.


Algeria

Further information: History of the Jews in Algeria

Almost all Jews in Algeria left upon independence in 1962. Algeria's 140,000 Jews had French citizenship since 1870 (briefly revoked by Vichy France in 1940), and they mainly went to France, with some going to Israel. Jews and Judaism have a rather long history in Algeria. ...


Since 2000, there has been a large, consistent flow of Algerian origin Jews moving from France to Israel.


Libya

The area now known as Libya was the home of one of the oldest Jewish communities in the world, dating back to at least 300 BCE. In 1948, about 38,000 Jews lived there.


A series of pogroms started in November 1945, when more than 140 Jews were killed in Tripoli and most synagogues in the city looted. The pogroms continued in June 1948, when 15 Jews were killed and 280 Jewish homes destroyed.[17] Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Tarābulus) is the capital city of Libya. ...


Upon Libya's independence in 1951, most of the Jewish community emigrated from Libya. After the Suez Crisis in 1956, another series of pogroms forced all but about 100 Jews to flee. When Muammar al-Qaddafi came to power in 1969, all remaining Jewish property was confiscated and all debts to Jews cancelled. Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA 2,900 WIA 2... Muammar Abu Minyar al-Qaddafi 1 — pronounced Gaddafi — (Arabic: معمر القذافي ) (born c. ...


Although the main synagogue in Tripoli was renovated in 1999, it has not reopened for services. The last Jew in Libya, Esmeralda Meghnagi died in February of 2002. Israel is home to about 40,000 Jews of Libyan descent, who maintain unique traditions.[19] [20]


Europe

The summary of a 2004 poll by the "Pew Global Attitudes Project" noted, "Despite concerns about rising antisemitism in Europe, there are no indications that anti-Jewish sentiment has increased over the past decade. Favorable ratings of Jews are actually higher now in France, Germany and Russia than they were in 1991. Nonetheless, Jews are better liked in the U.S. than in Germany and Russia."[18]

A cartoon circa 1938 depicts the Jews as an octopus encircling the globe. [10]

However, according to 2005 survey results by the ADL,[19] antisemitic attitudes remain common in Europe. Over 30% of those surveyed indicated that Jews have too much power in business, with responses ranging from lows of 11% in Denmark and 14% in England to highs of 66% in Hungary, and over 40% in Poland and Spain. The results of religious antisemitism also linger and over 20% of European respondents agreed that Jews were responsible for the death of Jesus, with France having the lowest percentage at 13% and Poland having the highest number of those agreeing, at 39%.[20] Image File history File links OctopusNAS1. ...


The Vienna-based European Union Monitoring Centre (EUMC), for 2002 and 2003, identified France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Belgium, and the Netherlands as EU member countries with notable increases in incidents. Many of these incidents can be linked to immigrant communities in these countries and result from hightened tensions in the Middle East. As these nations keep reliable and comprehensive statistics on antisemitic acts, and are engaged in combating antisemitism, their data was readily available to the EUMC.


In western Europe, traditional far-right groups still account for a significant proportion of the attacks against Jews and Jewish properties; disadvantaged and disaffected Muslim youths increasingly were responsible for most of the other incidents. In Eastern Europe, with a much smaller Muslim population, neo-Nazis and others members of the radical political fringe were responsible for most antisemitic incidents. Antisemitism remained a serious problem in Russia and Belarus, and elsewhere in the former Soviet Union, with most incidents carried out by ultra-nationalist and other far-right elements. The stereotype of Jews as manipulators of the global economy continues to provide fertile ground for antisemitic aggression.


France

Further information: History of the Jews in France

Today, despite a steady trend of decreasing antisemitism among the indigenous population,[21] acts of antisemitism are a serious cause for concern,[22] as is tension between the Jewish and Muslim populations of France, both the largest in Europe. However, according to a poll by the Pew Global Attitudes Project, 71% of French Muslims had positive views of Jews, the highest percentage in the world [23]. According to the National Advisory Committee on Human Rights, antisemitic acts account for a majority— 72% in all in 2003— of racist acts in France.[24] The current Jewish community in France numbers around 606,561, according to the World Jewish Congress and 500,000 according to the Appel Unifié Juif de France (France Jewish community main organism), and is found mainly in the metropolitan areas of Paris, Marseille and Strasbourg. ...


In July, 2005 the Pew Global Attitudes Project found that 82% of French people questioned had favorable attitudes towards Jews, the second highest percentage of the countries questioned. The Netherlands was highest at 85%.[25]


Holocaust denial and anti-Semitic speech are prohibited under the 1990 Gayssot Act. Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ... The Gayssot Act (Loi Gayssot), voted for on July 13, 1990, makes it an offense in France to question the existence of the category of crimes against humanity as defined in the London Charter of 1945, on the basis of which Nazi leaders were convicted by the International Military Tribunal...


With the start of the Second Intifada in Israel, anti-semitic incidents increased in France. In 2002, the Commission nationale consultative des droits de l'homme (Human Rights Commission) reported six times more anti-semitic incidents than in 2001 (193 incidents in 2002). The commission's statistics showed that anti-semitic acts constituted 62% of all racist acts in the country (compared to 45% in 2001 and 80% in 2000). The report documented 313 violent acts against people or property, including 38 injuries and the murder of someone with Maghrebin origins by far right skinheads.[26] The al-Aqsa Intifada is the wave of violence and political conflict that began in September 2000 between Palestinian Arabs and Israelis; it is also called the Second Intifada (see also First Intifada). ... The Commission nationale consultative des droits de lhomme (National Consultative Commission on Human Rights, CNCDH) is a French governmental organization created in 1947 by an arrêté from the Foreign Affairs Ministry to control the respect of human rights in the country. ... A graph of a Normal bell curve showing statistics used in educational assessment and comparing various grading methods. ... The Algerian bay (view from the west). ... A Nazi skinhead from Germany Nazi skinheads are a far right subculture that developed in the United Kingdom around the late 1970s. ...


Russia

Further information: History of the Jews in Russia and Soviet Union

Today, anti-Semitic pronouncements, speeches and articles are common in Russia, and there are a large number of anti-Semitic neo-Nazi groups in the republics of the former Soviet Union, leading Pravda to declare in 2002 that "Anti-semitism is booming in Russia."[27] Over the past few years there have also been bombs attached to anti-Semitic signs, apparently aimed at Jews, and other violent incidents, including stabbings, have been recorded. Historical background As waves of anti-Jewish pogroms and expulsions from the countries of Western Europe marked the last centuries of the Middle Ages, a sizable portion of the Jewish populations there moved to the more tolerant countries of Central and Eastern Europe, as well as the Middle East. ...


Though the government of Vladimir Putin takes an official stand against anti-semitism, some political parties and groups are explicitly anti-Semitic, in spite of a Russian law (Art. 282) against fomenting racial, ethnic or religious hatred. In 2005, a group of 15 Duma members demanded that Judaism and Jewish organizations be banned from Russia. In June, 500 prominent Russians, including some 20 members of the nationalist Rodina party, demanded that the state prosecutor investigate ancient Jewish texts as "anti-Russian" and ban Judaism — the investigation was actually launched, but halted amid international outcry.[citation needed] Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: ) (born October 7, 1952) is the incumbent President of Russia. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with State Duma. ...


Sweden

Sweden has a relatively small Jewish community of around 20,000.[28] Jews have been permitted to immigrate to Sweden since the late 18th century, at first only to Stockholm, Göteborg and Norrköping, and various restrictions on permitted areas of settlement and holding of political office existed until after World War II; in 1951, the last restriction, the right to hold ministerial office, was lifted.[29] Yiddish has legal status as one of the country's official minority languages.[30] Nickname: Location of Stockholm in northern Europe Coordinates: Country Sweden Municipality Stockholm Municipality County Stockholm Province Södermanland and Uppland Charter 13th Century Population (April 2007)  - City 782,885  - Density 4,160/km² (10,774. ... Gothenburg (Swedish: Göteborg  listen? ) is a city and a municipality on the western coast of Sweden, in the County of Västra Götaland. ... Nickname: Peking Coordinates: Area  - City 1,503. ... Yiddish (ייִדיש, Jiddisch) is a Germanic language spoken by about four million Jews throughout the world. ... In 1999 the Minority Language Committee of Sweden formally declared five minority languages of Sweden: Sami language, Romani, Finnish, Yiddish, and Meänkieli (Tornedal). ...


There have, however, been a number of antisemitic incidents in recent years. A government study in 2006 estimated that 15% of Swedes agree with the statement: "The Jews have too much influence in the world today".[31] 5% of the entire adult population, and 39% of the muslim population, harbour strong and consistent antisemitic views. Former Prime Minister Göran Persson described these results as "surprising and terrifying". Hans Göran Persson ( ) (born January 20, 1949), was the thirty-first Prime Minister of Sweden (1996 – 2006). ...


Hungary

Today, hatred towards Judaism and Israel can be observed from many prominent Hungarian politicians. The most famous example is the MIÉP party and its Chairman, István Csurka. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...


Antisemitism in Hungary was manifested mainly in far right publications and demonstrations. MIÉP supporters continued their tradition of shouting antisemitic slogans and tearing the US flag to shreds at their annual rallies in Budapest in March 2003 and 2004, commemorating the 1848–49 revolution. Further, during the anniversary demonstrations of both right and left marking the 1956 uprising, antisemitic and anti-Israel slogans were heard from the right, such as accusing Israel of war crimes. The center-right traditionally keeps its distance from the right-wing demonstration, which was led by Csurka. [32] The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... National flag and ensign. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Historical antisemitism in specific countries

Europe

Spain

Further information: History of the Jews in Spain

The first major persecution of Jews in Spain occurred on Dec. 30, 1066 when the Jews were expelled from Granada and nearly 3,000 Jews were killed when they did not leave. This was the first persecution of Jews by the Christians on the Peninsula while under Islamic rule. [33] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned September 20 - Battle of Fulford September 25 - Battle of Stamford Bridge September 29 - William of Normandy lands in England at Pevensey. ... Coordinates: Country Spain Autonomous community Andalusia Settled since 7th century BC Area  - City 88 km²  (34 sq mi) Elevation 738 m (2,421. ...

Manuscript page by Maimonides, one of the greatest Jewish scholars of Al Andalus, born in Córdoba. Arabic language in Hebrew letters

A possible date of the end of the Golden Age might be in 1090 with the invasion of the Almoravids, a puritan Muslim sect from Morocco. Even under the Almoravids, some Jews prospered (although far more so under Ali III, than under his father Yusuf ibn Tashfin). Among those who held the title of "vizier" or "nasi" in Almoravid times were the poet and physician Abu Ayyub Solomon ibn al-Mu'allam, Abraham ibn Meïr ibn Kamnial, Abu Isaac ibn Muhajar, and Solomon ibn Farusal (although Solomon was murdered May 2, 1108). However, the Almoravids were ousted in 1148, to be replaced by the even more puritanical Almohades. Under the reign of the Almohades, the Jews were forced to accept the Islamic faith; the conquerors confiscated their property and took their wives and children, many of whom were sold as slaves. The most famous Jewish educational institutions were closed, and synagogues everywhere destroyed. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (518x792, 111 KB)Source: Jewish Encyclopedia ([1]) From the Cairo genizah This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (518x792, 111 KB)Source: Jewish Encyclopedia ([1]) From the Cairo genizah This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... Location within Europe, Spain and Andalusia Córdoba, the Roman bridge and the Mosque-Cathedral View across the old Roman bridge towards the Mezquita Interior court of the Mezquita Córdoba redirects here. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Map showing the extent of the Almoravid empire Almoravides (In Arabic المرابطون al-Murabitun, sing. ... Ali ibn Yusuf (died in 1142) was a Berber ruler in North Africa and Muslim Spain, reigned 1106–1142, also a member of Almoravids dynasty. ... Yusuf ibn Tashfin يوسف ابن تاشفين or Tashufin (died in 1106), was the Almoravid ruler in Muslim Spain and North Africa. ... A Vizier (Arabic,وزير - wazÄ«r) (sometimes also spelled Vazir, Vizir, Vasir, Wazir, Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many oriental languages), literally burden-bearer or helper, is a term, originally Persian, for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or minister, often to a Muslim monarch... Nāśī’ (נָשִׂיא) is a Hebrew term meaning, roughly, Prince. In classical times it was the title given to the head of the Sanhedrin, the supreme court and legislative body of ancient Israel. ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... Events May - Battle of Ucles Consecration of Chichester cathedral Saint Magnus becomes the first earl of Orkney In Pistoia, Italy, Cathedral of San Zeno burned to the ground. ... Events Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona conquered Tortosa in posetion of the moors. ... The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ... Slave redirects here. ... A synagogue (from Ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogÄ“, assembly; Hebrew: beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: , shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish place of religious worship. ...


Most Muslims and Jews were forced to either convert to Christianity or leave Spain and Portugal and have their assets seized during the Reconquista . Many Muslims and Jews moved to North Africa rather than submit to forced conversion. During the Islamic administration, Christians and Jews were allowed to convert or retain their religions with many reduced rights and a token tax, which if not paid the penalty was death, although during the time of the Almoravids and especially the Almohads they were also treated badly, in contrast to the policies of the earlier Umayyad rulers. Conquista redirects here. ... This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ... In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية; Ottoman Turkish cizye) is a per capita tax imposed on able bodied non-Muslim men of military age. ... Almoravides (From Arabic المرابطون sing. ... The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ...


Denmark

Anti-semitism in Denmark has not been as widespread as in other countries. Initially Jews were banned as in other countries in Europe, but beginning in the 17th century, Jews were allowed to live in Denmark freely, unlike in other European countries where they were forced to live in ghettos.[34]


In 1813, Denmark had gone bankrupt and people were looking for a scapegoat. A German anti-Semitic book, translated into Danish, provoked a flood of polemical articles both for and against the Jews.[citation needed] Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar). ...


In 1819 a series of anti-Jewish riots in Germany spread to several neighboring countries including Denmark, resulting in mob attacks on Jews in Copenhagen and many provincial towns. These riots were known as Hep! Hep! Riots, from the derogatory rallying cry against the Jews in Germany. Riots lasted for five months during which time shop windows were smashed, stores looted, homes attacked, and Jews physically abused.


However, during World War II, Denmark was very uncooperative with the Nazi occupation on Jewish matters. Danish officials repeatedly insisted to the German occupation authorities that there was no "Jewish problem" in Denmark. As a result, even ideologically committed Nazis such as Reich Commissioner Werner Best followed a strategy of avoiding and deferring discussion of Denmark's Jews. When Denmark's German occupiers began planning the deportation of the 8,000 or so Jews in Denmark to Nazi concentration camps, many Danes and Swedes took part in a collective effort to evacuate the roughly 8,000 Jews of Denmark by sea to nearby Sweden (see also Rescue of the Danish Jews).[citation needed] Werner Best (1903-June 23, 1989), was a German Doctor in Law and Nazi official, serving during World War II. SS-Obergruppenführer (Lieutenant-General), department head in the SS-Gestapo within the Reich Security Main Office (RSHA) and deputy of Reinhard Heydrich from 1939 to 1940, Best was one... Piles of bodies in a liberated Nazi concentration camp in Germany Prior to and during World War II, Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, abbreviated KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled. ... The rescue of the Danish Jews occurred during Denmarks occupation by Nazi Germany during World War II. When German authorities in Denmark ordered that Danish Jews be arrested and deported to Germany in October 1943, many Danes and Swedes took part in a collective effort to evacuate the roughly...


France

The concentration camp at Drancy, near Paris, where Jews were confined until they were deported to the death camps.
Further information: History of the Jews in France

Antisemitism was particularly virulent in Vichy France during WWII. The Vichy government openly collaborated with the Nazi occupiers to identify Jews for deportation and transportation to the death camps. Image File history File links DrancyConcentrationCamp. ... Image File history File links DrancyConcentrationCamp. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... Drancy is a commune in the northeastern suburbs of Paris, France. ... A death camp is either a concentration camp, the important (though not necessarily single) function of which is to facilitate mass murder of the people deported into such a camp (such as the Nazis Auschwitz and Majdanek, which acquired their murderous functions only some time after they had been... The current Jewish community in France numbers around 606,561, according to the World Jewish Congress and 500,000 according to the Appel Unifié Juif de France (France Jewish community main organism), and is found mainly in the metropolitan areas of Paris, Marseille and Strasbourg. ... Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Work, family, fatherland Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Head of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 - 1944 Pierre Laval Legislature National Assembly... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Norway

Jews were prohibited from living or entering Norway by paragraph 2 (known as the Jewish Paragraph in Norway) of the Constitution, which originally read, "The evangelical-Lutheran religion remains the public religion of the State. Those inhabitants, who confess thereto, are bound to raise their children to the same. Jesuits and monkish orders are not permitted. Jews are still prohibited from entry to the Realm." In 1851 the last sentence was struck. Monks were permitted in 1897; Jesuits not before 1956.[35] Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... Munichs city symbol celebrates its founding by Benedictine monks—and the origin of its name A monk is a person who practices religious asceticism, the conditioning of mind and body in favor of the spirit. ...


The "Jewish Paragraph" was reinstated March 13th 1942 by Vidkun Quisling during Germany's occupation of Norway. The change was reversed when Norway was liberated in May 1945. Quisling was after the following legal purge deemed guilty of unlawful change of the Constitution. Vidkun Abraham Lauritz Jonssøn Quisling, (July 18, 1887 – October 24, 1945) was a Norwegian army officer and fascist politician. ... Following the general capitulation of Germany in Europe and in Norway on May 10, 1945, the legitimate Norwegian government moved quickly to prosecute individuals who were suspected of treason or war crimes during the German occupation. ...


Poland

Further information: History of the Jews in Poland

In 1264, Duke Boleslaus the Pious from Greater Poland legislated a Statute of Kalisz, a charter for Jewish residence and protection, which encouraged money-lending, hoping that Jewish settlement would contribute to the development of the Polish economy. By the sixteenth century, Poland had become the center of European Jewry and the most tolerant of all European countries regarding the matters of faith, although occasionally also Poland witnessed violent antisemitic incidents[citation needed]. The history of the Jews in Poland reaches back over a millennium. ... Boleslaus the Pious (born between 1221-1227, died 14 April 1279), was a duke of Greater Poland (provinces of Poznań, Kalisz, and Gniezno). ... Voivodship wielkopolskie since 1999 Coat of Arms for voivodship wielkopolskie Greater Poland (also Great Poland; Polish: , German: Großpolen, Latin: Polonia Maior) is a historical region of west-central Poland. ... The General Charter of Jewish Liberties known as the Statute of Kalisz was issued by the Duke of Greater Poland Boleslaus the Pious on September 8, 1264 in Kalisz. ...


At the onset of the seventeenth century, tolerance began to give way to increased anti-Semitism. Elected to the Polish throne King Sigismund III of the Swedish House of Vasa, a strong supporter of the counter-reformation, began to undermine the principles of the Warsaw Confederation and the religious tolerance in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, revoking and limiting privileges of all non-Catholic faiths. In 1628 he banned publication of Hebrew books, including the Talmud.[36] Acclaimed twentieth century historian Simon Dubnow, in his magnum opus History of the Jews in Poland and Russia, detailed: Reign in Poland From September 18, 1587 until April 19, 1632 Reign in Sweden From November 17, 1592 until July 24, 1599 Elected in Poland On September 18, 1587 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation in Poland On December 27, 1587 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland... The Vasa Coat of Arms The House of Vasa was the Royal House of Sweden (1523-1654) and of Poland (1587-1668). ... The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ... The Warsaw Confederation (January 28, 1573) was an important event in the history of Poland, and is considered as the beginning of religious freedom in Poland The religious tolerance in Poland had much longer tradition and was de facto policy during the reign of the recently deceased king Sigismund II... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a The Talmud (Hebrew: תלמוד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... Simon Dubnow (alternatively spelled Dubnov, Russian: Семен Маркович Дубнов; September 10, 1860–December 8, 1941) was a Jewish historian, writer and activist. ... Magnum opus (sometimes Opus magnum, plural magna opera), from the Latin meaning great work,[1] refers to the best, most popular, or most renowned achievement of an author, artist, or composer, and most commonly one who has contributed a very large amount of material. ...

"At the end of the 16th century and thereafter, not one year passed without a blood libel trial against Jews in Poland, trials which always ended with the execution of Jewish victims in a heinous manner..." (ibid., volume 6, chapter 4).

In the 1650s the Swedish invasion of the Commonwealth (The Deluge) and the Chmielnicki Uprising of the Cossacks resulted in vast depopulation of the Commonwealth, as over 30% of the ~10 million population has perished or emigrated. In the related 1648-55 pogroms led by the Ukrainian uprising against Polish nobility (szlachta), during which approximately 100,000 Jews were slaughtered, Polish and Ruthenian peasants often participated in killing Jews (The Jews in Poland, Ken Spiro, 2001). The besieged szlachta, who were also decimated in the territories where the uprising happened, typically abandoned the loyal peasantry, townsfolk, and the Jews renting their land, in violation of "rental" contracts. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Chmielnicki Uprising or Chmielnicki Rebellion is the name of a civil war in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the years 1648–1654. ... Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Ottoman Empire. ... Polish szlachcic. ... Ruthenian may refer to: Ruthenia, a name applied to various parts of Eastern Europe Ruthenians, the peoples of Ruthenia Ruthenian language, a name applied to several Slavic languages This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


In the aftermath of the Deluge and Chmielnicki Uprising, many Jews fled to the less turbulent Netherlands, which had granted the Jews a protective charter in 1619. From then until the Nazi deportations in 1942, the Netherlands remained a remarkably tolerant haven for Jews in Europe, excedeeing the tolerance extant in all other European countries at the time, and becoming one of the few Jewish havens until nineteenth century social and political reforms throughout much of Europe. Many Jews also fled to England, open to Jews since the mid-seventeenth century, in which Jews were fundamentally ignored and not typically persecuted. Historian Berel Wein notes: National Socialism redirects here. ...

"In a reversal of roles that is common in Jewish history, the victorious Poles now vented their wrath upon the hapless Jews of the area, accusing them of collaborating with the Cossack invader!... The Jews, reeling from almost five years of constant hell, abandoned their Polish communities and institutions..." (Triumph of Survival, 1990).

Throughout the sixteenth to eighteenth century, many of the szlachta mistreated peasantry, townsfolk and Jews. Threat of mob violence was a specter over the Jewish communities in Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth at the time. On one occasion in 1696, a mob threatened to massacre the Jewish community of Posin, Vitebsk. The mob accused the Jews of murdering a Pole. At the last moment, a peasant woman emerged with the victim's clothes and confessed to the murder. One notable example of actualized riots against Polish Jews is the rioting of 1716, during which many Jews lost their lives. Later, in 1723, the Bishop of Gdańsk instigated the massacre of hundreds of Jews. Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Ottoman Empire. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Coat of arms of Vitebsk. ... GdaÅ„sk ( ; IPA: ), also known by its German name Danzig ( ) and several other names, is the sixth-largest city in Poland and is Polands principal seaport and the capital of the Pomeranian Voivodeship. ...


On the other hand, it should be noted that despite the mentioned incidents, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was a relative haven for Jews when compared to the period of the partitions of Poland and the PLC's destruction in 1795 (see Imperial Russia and the Soviet Union, below). Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ...


Anti-Jewish sentiments continued to be present in Poland, even after the country regained its independence. One notable manifestation of these attitudes includes numerus clausus rules imposed, by almost all Polish universities in the 1937. William W. Hagen in his Before the "Final Solution": Toward a Comparative Analysis of Political Anti-Semitism in Interwar Germany and Poland article in Journal of Modern History (July, 1996): 1-31, details: Numerus Clausus (closed number in Latin) is one of many methods used to limit the number of students who may study at a university. ... William W. Hagen is a prominent historian and Professor of History at the University of California, Davis. ...

"In Poland, the semidictatorial government of Piłsudski and his successors, pressured by an increasingly vocal opposition on the radical and fascist right, implemented many anti-Semitic policies tending in a similar direction, while still others were on the official and semiofficial agenda when war descended in 1939.... In the 1930s the realm of official and semiofficial discrimination expanded to encompass limits on Jewish export firms... and, increasingly, on university admission itself. In 1921-22 some 25 percent of Polish university students were Jewish, but in 1938-39 their proportion had fallen to 8 percent."

While there are many examples of Polish support and help for the Jews during World War II and the Holocaust, there are also numerous examples of anti-Semitic incidents, and the Jewish population was certain of the indifference towards their fate from the Christian Poles. The Polish Institute for National Memory identified twenty-four pogroms against Jews during World War II, the most notable occurring at the village of Jedwabne in 1941 (see massacre in Jedwabne). Office Chief of State, Marshal of Poland Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Statesman Political party none (see Sanacja for details), formerly PPS Spouse Maria PiÅ‚sudska Aleksandra PiÅ‚sudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays... The Russian word pogrom (погром) refers to a massive violent attack on people with simultaneous destruction of their environment (homes, businesses, religious centers). ... Jedwabne is a village in Poland with about 2,500 inhabitants in the Podlasie Voivodship. ... The Massacre in Jedwabne or Jedwabne Pogrom was an event in July 1941, during World War II where a significant part of (or most of, according to J. T. Gross) the Jewish population of the Polish village of Jedwabne was massacred, many of them burned alive, by their non-Jewish...


After the end of World War II the remaining anti-Jewish sentiments were skillfully used at certain moments by Communist party or individual politicians in order to achieve their assumed political goals, which pinnacled in the March 1968 events. These sentiments started to diminish only with the collapse of the communist rule in Poland in 1989, which has resulted in a re-examination of events between Jewish and Christian Poles, with a number of incidents, like the massacre at Jedwabne, being discussed openly for the first time. Violent anti-semitism in Poland in 21st century is marginal[37] compared to elsewhere, but there are very few Jews remaining in Poland. Still, according to recent (June 7, 2005) results of research by B'nai Briths Anti-Defamation League, Poland remains among the European countries (with others being Italy, Spain and Germany) with the largest percentages of people holding anti-Semitic views. Banners from March 1968. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Bnai Brith Membership Certificate, 1876. ... Anti-Defamation League Logo The Anti-Defamation League (or ADL) is an advocacy group founded by Bnai Brith in the United States whose stated aim is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. ...


Germany

Further information: History of the Jews in Germany
See also: Holocaust

From the early Middle Ages to the 18th century, the Jews in Germany were subject to many persecutions as well as brief times of tolerance. Though the 19th century began with a series of riots and pogroms against the Jews, emancipation followed in 1848, so that, by the early 20th century, the Jews of Germany were the most integrated in Europe. The situation changed in the early 1930s with the rise of the Nazis and their explicitly anti-Semitic program. Hate speech which referred to Jewish citizens as "dirty Jews" became common in anti-Semitic pamphlets and newspapers such as the Völkischer Beobachter and Der Stürmer. Additionally, blame was laid on German Jews for having caused Germany's defeat in World War I (see Dolchstosslegende). German Jews have lived in Germany for over 1700 years, through both periods of tolerance and spasms of anti-Semitic violence, culminating in the Holocaust and the near-destruction of the Jewish community in Germany and much of Europe. ... ... Dates of Jewish emancipation. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Hate speech is a controversial term for speech intended to degrade, intimidate, or incite violence or prejudicial action against a person or group of people based on their race, gender, age, ethnicity, nationality, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, disability, language ability, moral or political views, socioeconomic class, occupation or appearance... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... One of the last editions of the Völkischer Beobachter (April 20, 1945) hails Adolf Hitler as man of the century on the occasion of his 56th birthday, ten days before his suicide. ... 1943 Stürmer issue: Satan Der Stürmer (literally, The Stormer) was a weekly Nazi newspaper published by Julius Streicher from 1923 to the end of World War II in 1945, with brief suspensions in circulation due to legal difficulties. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Magazine title from 1924, example of a propaganda illustration in support of the legend The Dolchstosslegende (German: Dolchstoßlegende, literally Dagger stab legend often translated into English as stab-in-the-back myth) refers to a social myth and persecution-propaganda theory popular in Germany in the period after World...


Anti-Jewish propaganda expanded rapidly. Nazi cartoons depicting "dirty Jews" frequently portrayed a dirty, physically unattractive and badly dressed "talmudic" Jew in traditional religious garments similar to those worn by Hasidic Jews. Articles attacking Jewish Germans, while concentrating on commercial and political activities of prominent Jewish individuals, also frequently attacked them based on religious dogmas, such as blood libel. Hasidic Judaism (also Chasidic, etc. ... Blood libels are unfounded allegations that a particular group eats people as a form of human sacrifice, often accompanied by the claim of using the blood of their victims in various rituals. ...


The Nazi antisemitic program quickly expanded beyond mere speech. Starting in 1933, repressive laws were passed against Jews, culminating in the Nuremberg Laws which removed most of the rights of citizenship from Jews, using a racial definition based on descent, rather than any religious definition of who was a Jew. Sporadic violence against the Jews became widespread with the Kristallnacht riots, which targeted Jewish homes, businesses and places of worship, killing hundreds across Germany and Austria. Nuremberg Laws of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed in Nazi Germany. ... Kristallnacht, also known as Reichskristallnacht, Pogromnacht, Crystal Night and the Night of Broken Glass, was a pogrom[1] against Jews throughout Germany and parts of Austria on November 9–10, 1938. ...


The antisemitic agenda culminated in the genocide of the Jews of Europe, known as the Holocaust. Genocide is the mass killing of a group of people as defined by Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or... ...


Russia and the Soviet Union

"Judaism Without Embellishments" by Trofim Kichko, published by the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR in 1963: "It is in the teachings of Judaism, in the Old Testament, and in the Talmud, that the Israeli militarists find inspiration for their inhuman deeds, racist theories, and expansionist designs..."
Further information: History of the Jews in Russia and Soviet Union
See also: Pogrom

The Pale of Settlement was the Western region of Imperial Russia to which Jews were restricted by the Tsarist Ukase of 1792. It consisted of the territories of former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, annexed with the existing numerous Jewish population, and the Crimea (which was later cut out from the Pale). Judaism Without Embellishments, (Ukrainian edition) by Trofim Kichko, published by the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences in 1963: It is in the teachings of Judaism, in the Old Testament, and in the Talmud, that the Israeli militarists find inspiration for their inhuman deeds, racist theories, and expansionist designs. ... Judaism Without Embellishments, (Ukrainian edition) by Trofim Kichko, published by the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences in 1963: It is in the teachings of Judaism, in the Old Testament, and in the Talmud, that the Israeli militarists find inspiration for their inhuman deeds, racist theories, and expansionist designs. ... Historical background As waves of anti-Jewish pogroms and expulsions from the countries of Western Europe marked the last centuries of the Middle Ages, a sizable portion of the Jewish populations there moved to the more tolerant countries of Central and Eastern Europe, as well as the Middle East. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centers. ... The Pale of Settlement (Russian: Черта оседлости - cherta osedlosti) was a western border region of Imperial Russia in which permanent residence of Jews was allowed, extending from the pale or demarcation line, to near the border with eastern/central Europe. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Ukase (Russian: указ, ukaz) in Imperial Russia was a proclamation of the tsar government, or a religions leader patriarch that had the force of law. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) on the map of Ukraine. ...


During 1881-1884, 1903-1906 and 1914-1921, waves of antisemitic pogroms swept Russian Jewish communities. At least some pogroms are believed to have been organized or supported by the Russian okhranka. Although there is no hard evidence for this, the Russian police and army generally displayed indifference to the pogroms, for instance during the three-day First Kishinev pogrom of 1903. Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centers. ... The Okhrannoye otdeleniye (Russian: , meaning Security Section or Security Station), also the Okhrana or Tsarist Okhranka in Western sources, or diminutive Okhranka by those dissatisfied with the tsarist regime, was a secret police force of the Russian Empire and part of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) in late 1800s... Herman S. Shapiro. ...


During this period the May Laws policy was also put into effect, banning Jews from rural areas and towns, and placing strict quotas on the number of Jews allowed into higher education and many professions. The combination of the repressive legislation and pogroms propelled mass Jewish emigration, and by 1920 more than two million Russian Jews had emigrated, most to the United States while some made aliya to the Land of Israel. On May 15, 1882, Tsar Alexander III of Russia introduced the so-called Temporary laws which stayed in effect for more than thirty years and came to be known as the May Laws. ... Aliyah is a Hebrew term, literally meaning ascent, widely used to mean Jewish immigration to the Russia in 1882, are known as aliyot (the plural of aliyah). ... Kingdom of Israel: Early ancient historical Israel — land in pink is the approximate area under direct central royal administration during the United Monarchy. ...


One of the most infamous antisemitic tractates was the Russian okhranka literary hoax, The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, created in order to blame the Jews for Russia's problems during the period of revolutionary activity. A hoax is an attempt to trick an audience into believing that something false is real. ... 1992 Russian language imprint, adapting Eliphas Levis portrayal of Baphomet image The Protocols of the Elders of Zion (Russian: , see also other titles) is an antisemitic pamphlet that purports to describe a Jewish plot to achieve world domination. ...


Even though many Old Bolsheviks were ethnically Jewish, they sought to uproot Judaism and Zionism and established the Yevsektsiya to achieve this goal. By the end of the 1940s the Communist leadership of the former USSR had liquidated almost all Jewish organizations, including Yevsektsiya. An Old Bolshevik (старый большевик) was a member of the Bolsheviks before the Russian Revolution. ... Yevsektsiya (alternative spelling: Yevsektsia), Russian: ЕвСекция, the abbreviation of the phrase Еврейская секция (Yevreyskaya sektsiya) was the Jewish section of the Soviet Communist party created to challenge and eventually destroy...


Stalin's antisemitic campaign of 1948-1953 against so-called "rootless cosmopolitans," destruction of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee, the fabrication of the "Doctors' plot," the rise of "Zionology" and subsequent activities of official organizations such as the Anti-Zionist committee of the Soviet public were officially carried out under the banner of "anti-Zionism," but the use of this term could not obscure the anti-Semitic content of these campaigns, and by the mid-1950s the state persecution of Soviet Jews emerged as a major human rights issue in the West and domestically. See also: Jackson-Vanik amendment, Refusenik, Pamyat. Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... Rootless cosmopolitan (Russian language: безродный космополит, bezrodny kosmopolit) was a Soviet euphemism during Joseph Stalins anti-Semitic campaign of 1948-1953, which culminated in the exposure of the alleged Doctors plot. The... The Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee (JAC, Russian language: Еврейский антифашистский комитет, ЕАК) was formed in Kuibyshev in April 1942 with the official support of the Soviet authorities. ... The Doctors plot (Russian language: дело врачей (doctors affair), врачи-вредители (doctors-saboteurs) or врачи-убийцы (doctors-killers)) was an alleged conspiracy to eliminate the leadership of the Soviet Union by means of Jewish doctors poisoning top leadership. ... Zionology (Russian language: сионология sionologiya) was a doctrine promulgated in the Soviet Union during the course of the Cold War, and intensified after the 1967 Six Day War. ... On March 29, 1983, the Secretariat of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union has approved the resolution 101/62ГС to Support the proposition of the Department of Propaganda of the Central Committee and the KGB USSR about the creation of the Anti-Zionist... According to the 1974 Trade act, the Jackson-Vanik amendment, named for its major co-sponsors, Sen. ... Refusenik (Hebrew: , transliterated: mesorav; or: אסיר ציון, transliterated: asir tzion, literally means: Prisoner of Zion) or Otkaznik (Russian: , from отказ, English equivalent: refusal, rejection) was an unofficial term for individuals, typically but not exclusively Soviet Jews, who were denied permission to emigrate abroad by the authorities of the former Soviet Union. ... The symbol of NPF Pamyat with the Russian swastika Pamyat (Russian language: Память, English translation: Memory) is a Russian ultra-nationalist organization identifying itself as the Peoples National-patriotic Orthodox Christian movement. History In the end of 1970s, a historical association Vityaz (В&#1080...


Stalin sought to segregate Russian Jews into "Soviet Zion", with the help of Komzet and OZET in 1928[citation needed]. The Jewish Autonomous Oblast with the center in Birobidzhan in the Russian Far East attracted only limited settlement, and never achieved Stalin's goal[citation needed] of an internal exile for the Jewish people. Komzet (Russian: ) was the Committee for the Settlement of Toiling Jews on the Land in the Soviet Union aiming to help impoverished and persecuted Jewish population of the former Pale of Settlement to adopt agricultural labor. ... OZET (Russian: ) was public Society for Settling Toiling Jews on the Land in the Soviet Union in the period from 1925 to 1938. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Birobidzhan (ru: Биробиджа́н, yi: ביראָבידזשאן) is the capital of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast in Russia; the name is sometimes also used to refer to the entire oblast. ... Far Eastern Federal District (highlighted in red) Russian Far East (Russian: Д́альний Вост́ок Росс́ии; English transliteration: Dalny Vostok Rossii) is an informal term that refers to the Russian part of the Far East, i. ...


Stalin's antisemitic campaign of 1948-1953 against so-called "rootless cosmopolitans," destruction of the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee, the fabrication of the "Doctors' plot," the rise of "Zionology" and subsequent activities of official organizations such as the Anti-Zionist committee of the Soviet public were officially carried out under the banner of "anti-Zionism," but the use of this term could not obscure the antisemitic content of these campaigns, and by the mid-1950s the state persecution of Soviet Jews emerged as a major human rights issue in the West and domestically. See also: Jackson-Vanik amendment, Refusenik, Pamyat. Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... Rootless cosmopolitan (Russian language: безродный космополит, bezrodny kosmopolit) was a Soviet euphemism during Joseph Stalins anti-Semitic campaign of 1948-1953, which culminated in the exposure of the alleged Doctors plot. The... The Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee (JAC, Russian language: Еврейский антифашистский комитет, ЕАК) was formed in Kuibyshev in April 1942 with the official support of the Soviet authorities. ... The Doctors plot (Russian language: дело врачей (doctors affair), врачи-вредители (doctors-saboteurs) or врачи-убийцы (doctors-killers)) was an alleged conspiracy to eliminate the leadership of the Soviet Union by means of Jewish doctors poisoning top leadership. ... Zionology (Russian language: сионология sionologiya) was a doctrine promulgated in the Soviet Union during the course of the Cold War, and intensified after the 1967 Six Day War. ... On March 29, 1983, the Secretariat of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union has approved the resolution 101/62ГС to Support the proposition of the Department of Propaganda of the Central Committee and the KGB USSR about the creation of the Anti-Zionist... According to the 1974 Trade act, the Jackson-Vanik amendment, named for its major co-sponsors, Sen. ... Refusenik (Hebrew: , transliterated: mesorav; or: אסיר ציון, transliterated: asir tzion, literally means: Prisoner of Zion) or Otkaznik (Russian: , from отказ, English equivalent: refusal, rejection) was an unofficial term for individuals, typically but not exclusively Soviet Jews, who were denied permission to emigrate abroad by the authorities of the former Soviet Union. ... The symbol of NPF Pamyat with the Russian swastika Pamyat (Russian language: Память, English translation: Memory) is a Russian ultra-nationalist organization identifying itself as the Peoples National-patriotic Orthodox Christian movement. History In the end of 1970s, a historical association Vityaz (В&#1080...


Hungary

In June 1944, Hungarian police deported nearly 440,000 Jews in more than 145 trains, mostly to Auschwitz [2]. Ultimately, over 400,000 Jews in Hungary were killed during the Holocaust. Although Jews were on both sides of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956[citation needed], there was a perceptible antisemitic backlash against Jewish members of the former government led by Mátyás Rákosi. Combatants Soviet Union; ÁVH (Hungarian State Security Police) Ad hoc local Hungarian militias Commanders Ivan Konev Various independent militia leaders Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks Unknown number of militia and soldiers Casualties 722 killed, 1,251 wounded[1] 2,500 killed 13,000 wounded[2] The Hungarian Revolution... Portrait of Mátyás Rákosi Mátyás Rákosi (born March 14, 1892 as Mátyás Rosenfeld –February 5, 1971) was a Hungarian politician and the leader of Hungary from 1945 to 1956 through his post as General Secretary of the Hungarian Communist Party. ...


North America

United States

The KKK: Nazi salute and Holocaust denial
Further information: History of the Jews in the United States

Jews were often condemned by populist politicians alternately for their left-wing politics, or their perceived wealth, at the turn of the century.[citation needed] Anti-semitism grew in the years leading up to America's entry into World War II, Father Charles Coughlin, a radio preacher, as well as many other prominent public figures, condemned "the Jews," and Henry Ford reprinted The Protocols of the Elders of Zion in his newspaper.[citation needed] Holocaust denial by the members of Ku Klux Klan Credits: ADL Source: Neo-Nazis: A Growing Threat by Kathlyn Gay, 1997 (p. ... Holocaust denial by the members of Ku Klux Klan Credits: ADL Source: Neo-Nazis: A Growing Threat by Kathlyn Gay, 1997 (p. ... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... The history of the Jews in the United States comprises a theological dimension, with a three-way division into Orthodox, Conservative and Reform. ... Populism is a political ideology or rhetorical style that holds that the common person is oppressed by the elite in society, which exists only to serve its own interests, and therefore, the instruments of the State need to be grasped from this self-serving elite and instead used for the... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... Father Coughlin Father Charles Edward Coughlin (October 25, 1891 – October 27, 1979) was a Canadian-born Roman Catholic priest at Royal Oak, Michigans National Shrine of the Little Flower Church. ... Henry Ford (1919) Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was the founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of modern assembly lines used in mass production. ... 1992 Russian language imprint, adapting Eliphas Levis portrayal of Baphomet image The Protocols of the Elders of Zion (Russian: , see also other titles) is an antisemitic pamphlet that purports to describe a Jewish plot to achieve world domination. ...


In 1939 a Roper poll found that only thirty-nine percent of Americans felt that Jews should be treated like other people. Fifty-three percent believed that "Jews are different and should be restricted" and ten percent believed that Jews should be deported.[38] Several surveys taken from 1940 to 1946 found that Jews were seen as a greater threat to the welfare of the United States than any other national, religious, or racial group. [21] It has been estimated that 190,000 - 200,000 Jews could have been saved during the Second World War had it not been for bureaucratic obstacles to immigration deliberately created by Breckinridge Long and others.[39] Roper may refer to: Roper (profession), a rope maker, or user of rope; for example, a cowboy engaged in tie down or trick roping. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Breckinridge Long Breckinridge Long (May 16, 1881 – September 26, 1958) was United States ambassador to Italy and a state department official appointed by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. ...


In a speech at an America First rally on September 11, 1941 in Des Moines, Iowa entitled "Who Are the War Agitators?", Charles Lindbergh claimed that three groups had been "pressing this country toward war": the Roosevelt Administration, the British, and the Jews - and complained about what he insisted was the Jews' "large ownership and influence in our motion pictures, our press, our radio and our government." [40] The antisemitism of Lindbergh is one of the subjects of the novel The Plot Against America (2004) by Philip Roth. The America First Committee was the foremost pressure group against American entry into the Second World War. ... September 11 is the 254th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (255th in leap years). ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Nickname: Hartford of the West, City of Skywalks, Raccoon City, DSM Location in the State of Iowa, USA Coordinates: Country United States State Iowa County Polk County Incorporated September 22, 1851 Government  - Mayor Frank Cownie Area  - City  77. ... For Charles Augustus Lindbergh, Junior, see Lindbergh kidnapping. ... FDR redirects here. ... Lindbergh may refer to: Charles August Lindbergh (1859–1924), U.S. Congressman. ... The Plot Against America: A Novel (ISBN 0-618-50928-3) is a novel by Philip Roth published in 2004. ... Philip Roth Goodbye Columbus (1959), 2006 Vintage paperback edition Philip Milton Roth (born March 19, 1933, Newark, New Jersey) is an American novelist. ...


Unofficial antisemitism was also widespread in the first half of the century. For example, to limit the growing number of Jewish students between 1919-1950s a number of private liberal arts universities and medical and dental schools employed Numerus clausus. These included Harvard University, Columbia University, Cornell University, and Boston University. In 1925 Yale University, which already had such admissions preferences as "character", "solidity", and "physical characteristics" added a program of legacy preference admission spots for children of Yale alumni, in an explicit attempt to put the brakes on the rising percentage of Jews in the student body. This was soon copied by other Ivy League and other schools, and admissions of Jews were kept down to 10% through the 1950s. Such policies were for the most part discarded during the early 1960s. Numerus Clausus (closed number in Latin) is one of many methods used to limit the number of students who may study at a university. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ... Columbia University is a private research university in the United States. ... Cornell University is a private university located in Ithaca, New York, USA. Its two medical campuses are in New York City and Education City, Qatar. ... For similarly-named academic institutions, see Boston (disambiguation). ... “Yale” redirects here. ... Numerus Clausus (closed number in Latin) is one of many methods used to limit the number of students who may study at a university. ...


Some cults also support conspiracy theories regarding Jews as dominating and taking over the world. These cults are often vitriolic and severely anti-semititic. For instance, the Necedah Shrine Cult from the 1950s on to the mid 1980s, has Mary Ann Van Hoof receiving anti-semitic "visions" from the Virgin Mary telling her that the Rothschilds, a prominent Jewish banking family, are "mongrel yids(Jews)" bent on dominating the entire world economy through international banking. Most of the worlds problems, from poverty to world wars, are the cause of International Banking Jews and their "satanic secret society," according to Van Hoof.[22] Cults is a suburb on the western edge of Aberdeen, Scotland. ... Necedah Shrine, Necedah,Wisconsin. ... Mrs Mary Ann Van Hoof (1909-1984) was an alleged Marian visionary who was said to witness manifestations of the Virgin Mary at Necedah, Wisconsin, at which she and her followers constructed a Necedah Shrine. ... The term Virgin Mary has several different meanings: Mary, the mother of Jesus, the historical and multi-denominational concept of Mary Blessed Virgin Mary, the Roman Catholic theological and doctrinal concept of Mary Marian apparitions shrines to the Virgin Mary Virgin Mary in Islam, the Islamic theological and doctrinal concept...


American antisemitism underwent a modest revival in the late twentieth century. The Nation of Islam under Louis Farrakhan claimed that Jews were responsible for slavery, economic exploitation of black labor, selling alcohol and drugs in their communities, and unfair domination of the economy. Jesse Jackson issued his infamous "Hymietown" remarks during the 1984 Presidential primary campaign. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan. ...


According to ADL surveys begun in 1964, African-Americans are "significantly more likely" than white Americans to hold antisemitic beliefs, although there is a strong correlation between education level and the rejection of anti-Semitic stereotypes.[41]


Actor and director Mel Gibson has been accused of anti-semitism based upon the remarks of his father, Hutton Gibson, the release of his controversial film The Passion of the Christ and remarks allegedly made upon his arrest for drunken driving.[42] Mel Columcille Gerard Gibson AO (born January 3, 1956) is an American born Australian actor, director, and producer. ... Hutton Peter Gibson (born August 26, 1918) is the father of actor Mel Gibson and a writer on religion. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Former president Jimmy Carter has been criticized for alleged "anti-Semitism" in published reactions to and commentary about his 2006 book Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid. James Earl Jimmy Carter, Jr. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights LGBT rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Feminism Mens/Fathers rights · Masculinism Children...

See main article: Commentary on Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid#The_Anti-Defamation_League

Africa

Egypt

Further information: History of the Jews in Egypt

Professor Peter Schafer of the Freie University of Berlin has argued that antisemitism was first spread by "the Greek retelling of ancient Egyptian prejudices". In view of the anti-Jewish writings of the Egyptian priest Manetho, Schafer suggests that antisemitism may have emerged "in Egypt alone".[43] According to the 1st century Jewish historian Flavius Josephus [44], Manetho, a Hellenistic Egyptian chronicler and priest, in his books on Egyptian history, alleges that in the 3rd century BCE, Moses was not a Jew, but an Egyptian renegade priest called Osarseph, and portrays the Exodus as the expulsion of a leper colony. Josephus argues that Manetho's claims are inconsistent. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Satellite photo of Berlin. ... Manetho, also known as Manethon of Sebennytos, was an Egyptian historian and priest from Sebennytos who lived during the Ptolematic era, circa 3rd century BC. Manetho recorded Aegyptiaca (History of Egypt). ... Josephus, also known as Flavius Josephus (c. ... Manetho, also known as Manethon of Sebennytos, was an Egyptian historian and priest from Sebennytos who lived during the Ptolematic era, circa 3rd century BC. Manetho recorded Aegyptiaca (History of Egypt). ... The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... (4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events The first two Punic Wars between Carthage and Rome over dominance in western Mediterranean Rome conquers Spain Great Wall of China begun Indian traders regularly visited Arabia Scythians occupy... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ... Osarseph is a person that Manetho (writing in the first millenium BC) claimed was a high priest mainly during the reign of Amenhotep III. According to Manetho, he was part of the priesthood at Heliopolis, and supported the introduction of monotheism by Akhenaten. ... It has been suggested that Pharaoh of the Exodus be merged into this article or section. ... Hansens disease, commonly known as leprosy, is an infectious disease caused by infection by Mycobacterium leprae. ...


In 629 the emperor Heraclius I. had driven the Jews from Jerusalem this was followed by a massacre of Jews throughout the empire—in Egypt, aided by the Copts, who had old scores to settle with the Jews , dating from the Persian conquest of Alexandria at the time of Emperor Anastasius I (502) and of the Persian general Shahin (617), when the Jews assisted the conquerors in fighting against the Christians. Heraclius and his sons Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas. ... Flavius Anastasius. ...


The mad caliph Al-Ḥakim (996-1020) vigorously applied the Pact of Omar, and compelled the Jews to wear bells and to carry in public the wooden image of a calf. A street in the city, Al-Jaudariyyah, was inhabited by Jews. Al-Ḥakim, hearing that they were accustomed to mock him in verses, had the whole quarter burned down. Tāriqu l-ḤakÄ«m, called bi Amr al-Lāh (Arabic الحاكم بأمر الله Ruler by Gods Command), was the sixth Fatimid Caliph in Egypt, ruling from 996 to 1021. ... The Pact (Covenant) of Umar is a treaty supposedly agreed to between the eponymous second caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab and the ahl al-dhimma (people of the book) vanquished in the first wave of Arab-Muslim jihad invasions. ...


Under the Baḥri Mamelukes (1250-1390) the Jews led a comparatively quiet existence; though they had at times to contribute heavily toward the maintenance of the vast military equipment, and were harassed by the cadis and ulemas of these strict Moslems.Al-Maqrizi relates that the first great Mameluke, Sultan Baibars (Al-Malik al-Thahir, 1260-77), doubled the tribute paid by the "ahl al-dhimmah." At one time he had resolved to burn all the Jews, a ditch having been dug for that purpose; but at the last moment he repented, and instead exacted a heavy tribute, during the collection of which many perished. The Bahri dynasty or Bahriyya Sultanate المماليك البحرية was a Mamluk dynasty of Kipchak Turk origin that ruled Egypt from 1250 to 1382 when they were succeeded by the Burji dynasty, another group of Mamluks. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for... Taqi al-Din Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Abd al-Qadir ibn Muhammad al-Maqrizi (1364 - 1442); Arabic: ‎, was an Egyptian historian more commonly known as al-Maqrizi or Makrizi. ... al-Malik al-Zahir Rukn al-Din Baibars al-Bunduqdari (also spelled Baybars) (Arabic: ) was a Mamluk Sultan of Egypt and Syria. ...


In 1324 the Jews were accused of incendiarism at Fostat and Cairo; they had to exculpate themselves by a payment of 50,000 gold pieces.Under the Burji Mamelukes the Franks again attacked Alexandria (1416), and the laws against the Jews were once more strictly enforced by Sheik al-Mu'ayyid (1412-21); by Ashraf Bars Bey (1422-38), because of a plague which decimated the population in 1438; by Al-Ẓahir Jaḳmaḳ (1438-53); and by Ḳa'iṭ-Bey (1468-95). The lastnamed is referred to by Obadiah of Bertinoro [45]. The Jews of Cairo were compelled to pay 75,000 gold pieces. Fostat (also spelled Fustat; Arabic: ) was the first capital city of Egypt under Arab rule. ... The Burji dynasty ruled Egypt from 1382 until 1517. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ...


Morocco

Further information: History of the Jews in Morocco

Jewish communities, in Islamic times often living in ghettos known as mellah, have existed in Morocco for at least 2,000 years. Intermittent large scale massacres (such as that of 6,000 Jews in Fez in 1033, over 100,000 Jews in Fez and Marrakesh in 1146 and again in Marrakesh in 1232)[33][46] were accompanied by systematic discrimination through the years. During the 13th through the 15th centuries Jews were appointed to a few prominent positions within the government, typically to implement decisions. A number of Jews, fleeing the expulsion from Spain and Portugal, settled in Morocco in the 15th century and afterwards, many moving on to the Ottoman Empire. Moroccan Jews constitute an ancient community. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... A ghetto is an area where people from a specific racial or ethnic background live as a group in seclusion, voluntarily or involuntarily. ... Mellah is a walled Jewish quarter of a city in Morocco, an analogue of the European ghetto. ... This article is about the city Fez in Morocco. ... Marrakech (مراكش marrākish), known as the Pearl of the South, is a city in southwestern Morocco in the foothills of the Atlas Mountains. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI...


In 1875, 20 Jews were killed by a mob in Demnat, Morocco; elsewhere in Morocco, Jews were attacked and killed in the streets in broad daylight.[47] Demnate (Arabic: دمناط) is a town in central Morocco, in the Atlas Mountains. ...


The imposition of a French protectorate in 1912 alleviated much of the discrimination. While the Vichy regime during World War II passed discriminatory laws against Jews, King Muhammad prevented deportation of Jews to death camps (although Jews with French, as opposed to Moroccan, citizenship, being directly subject to Vichy law, were still deported.) Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Work, family, fatherland Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Head of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 - 1944 Pierre Laval Legislature National Assembly... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Sultan Mohammed V of Morocco visiting Lawrence Livermore Lab, United States, in 1957 Mohammed V (August 10, 1909–February 26, 1961) was Sultan of Morocco from 1927 to 1953 and 1955 to 1961. ...


Asia

Iraq

Further information: History of the Jews in Iraq

During the Sassanid rule over babylon (225 to 634) both Christians and Jews suffered occasional persecution, especially under Sassanian high-priest Kartir The first legal expression of Islam toward the Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians after the conquests of the 630s were the poll-tax ("jizyah"), the tax upon real estate ("kharaj") was instituted. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... Babylon (in Arabic: بابل; in Syriac: ܒܒܙܠ in Hebrew:בבל) was an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq), the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, about 50 miles (80 km) south of Baghdad. ... Kartir Hangirpe (alternatively, Karder or Kirdir) was a highly influential Zoroastrian high-priest of the late 3rd century CE and served as advisor to at least three Sassanid emperors. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... In Islamic law, jizyah (Arabic: جزْية) is a per capita tax required of adult males of other faiths under Muslim rule in exchange for the protection of the Muslim community. ...


The Ommiad calif, Umar II. (717-720), persecuted the Jews. He issued orders to his governors: "Tear down no church, synagogue, or fire-temple; but permit no new ones to be built". it is said that the law requiring Jews to wear a yellow badge upon their clothing originated with Harun. Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (c. ... March 21 - Battle of Vincy between Charles Martel and Ragenfrid. ... Events Umayyad caliph Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz succeeded by Yazid II ibn Abd al-Malik The Nihonshoki (日本書紀), one of the oldest history books in Japan, is completed Births Bertrada, wife of Pippin III (d. ...


Historian Martin Gilbert writes that it was in the 19th century that the position of Jews worsened in Muslim countries. In 1828, there was a massacre of Jews in Baghdad. [33] Sir Martin John Gilbert, CBE (born October 25, 1936 in London) is a British historian and the author of over seventy books, including works on the Holocaust and Jewish history. ... Year 1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ...


Syria

Further information: History of the Jews in Syria

In Roman times about 10,000 Jews lived at Damascus, governed by an ethnarch.[48] During the conflicts between the Byzantines and the Persians the city frequently suffered heavily. When Syria was conquered by the Persians (614), the Jews of Damascus, profiting by the presence of the invaders, joined with their coreligionists of Palestine to take vengeance on the Christians, especially those of Tyre. During the Cursades, a large number of Palestinian Jews sought refuge at Damascus from the enormous taxes imposed upon them by the Crusaders, thus increasing the community. This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... Damascus ( transliteration: , also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the largest city of Syria and is also the capital. ... Ethnarch refers generally to political leadership over a common ethnic group or heterogeneous kingdom. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ...


During the nineteenth century the Jews of Damascus were several times made the victims of calumnies, the gravest being those of 1840 and 1860, in the reign of the sultan Abdülmecit. That of 1840, commonly known as the Damascus affair, was an accusation of ritual murder brought against the Jews in connection with the death of Father Thomas.[49] A Jewish barber was tortured until he "confessed"; two other Jews who were arrested died under torture, while a third converted to Islam to save his life. The second accusation brought against the Jews, in 1860, was that of having taken part in the massacre of the Christians by the Druze and the Muslims. Five hundred Muslims, who had been involved in the affair, were hanged by the grand vizier Fuad Pasha. Two hundred Jews were awaiting the same fate, in spite of their innocence, and the whole Jewish community had been fined 4,000,000 piastres.[50] The condemned Jews were saved only by the official intervention of Fuad Pasha himself; that of the Prussian consul, Dr. Wetzstein; of Sir Moses Montefiore of London, and of the bankers Abraham Salomon Camondo of Constantinople and Shemaya Angel of Damascus. From that time to the end of the nineteenth century, several further blood accusations were brought against the Jews; these, however, never provoked any great excitement.[47] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Damascus affair was an accusation of ritual murder and blood libel against Jews in Damascus in 1840. ... Blood libels are false accusations, usually made by Christians, that Jews use human blood in certain of their religious rituals and magical rites. ... Druze star The Druze (Arabic: درزي, derzÄ« or durzÄ«, plural دروز, durÅ«z; Hebrew: , Druzim; also transliterated Druz or Druse) are a Middle Eastern religious community whose traditional religion stemmed primarily from an offshoot of an Islamic sect, but is unique in its incorporation of Gnostic, neo-Platonic and other philosophies. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Fuad Pasha (1815 – 1869) was a Turkish statesman known for his leadership during the Crimean War and in the Westernization movement within the Ottoman Empire. ... Moshe Montefiori and his wind mill. ... Count Abraham Camondo (1781-March 30, 1873) was an Italian and Turkish financier and philanthropist and the patriarch of the Camondo family. ...


Japan

Main article: Antisemitism in Japan

Originally Japan, with no Jewish population, had no anti-Semitism, however, Nazi ideology and propaganda left its influence on Japan during World War II, and the Protocols of the Elders of Zion were subsequently translated into Japanese. Today, anti-Semitism and belief in Jewish manipulation of Japan and the world remains despite the small size of the Jewish community in Japan. Books about Jewish conspiracies are best sellers. According to a 1988 survey, 8% of Japanese had read one of these books.[51] With only a small and relatively obscure Jewish population, Japan had no traditional anti-Semitism until Nazi ideology and propaganda influenced some Japanese during the World War II era. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights LGBT rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Feminism Mens/Fathers rights · Masculinism Children... New antisemitism is the concept of an international resurgence of attacks on Jewish symbols, as well as the acceptance of antisemitic beliefs and their expression in public discourse, coming from three political directions: the political left, far-right, and Islamism. ... The relationship between Christianity and antisemitism has a long history. ... This article is about the relationship between Islam and antisemitism. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Jewish exodus from Arab lands refers to the 20th century emigration and expulsion of Jews, primarily of Sephardi and Mizrahi background, from majority Arab lands. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ...

References

  1. ^ Why are the Jews ‘kanjoos’? —Khaled Ahmed’s Review of the Urdu press,Daily times (Pakistan)
  2. ^ a b Jewish Virtual Library: Pakistan Accessed October 8, 2006
  3. ^ Pakistan Accessed October 8, 2006
  4. ^ Lashkar-e-Toiba: Spreading the jehad Accessed October 8, 2006
  5. ^ Military drops leaflets in Waziristan Accessed October 8, 2006
  6. ^ Global Antisemitism Report - 01.05.2005 Accessed October 8, 2006
  7. ^ Report on Global Anti-Semitism Accessed October 8, 2006
  8. ^ Musharraf says Pakistan not to recognize Israel Accessed October 8, 2006
  9. ^ Pakistan and Israel - new friends?,BBC
  10. ^ Pakistan: In the Land of Conspiracy Theories,PBS.org
  11. ^ Hindu Pro-Zionism
  12. ^ Daniel Pipes, Greater Syria: The History of an Ambition (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990) p. 57, records 75 victims of the Aleppo massacre.
  13. ^ Levin, 2001, pp. 200-201.
  14. ^ [1]
  15. ^ a b c Larry Luxner, Life’s good for Jews of Bahrain — as long as they don’t visit Israel, JTA News, October 18, 2006. Accessed 25 October 2006.
  16. ^ Sandeep Singh Grewal, Dr Munira Fakhro hopes for better future, WomenGateway, October 2006. Accessed 25 October 2006.
  17. ^ Harris, 2001, pp. 149-150.
  18. ^ "A Year After Iraq War: Mistrust of America in Europe Even Higher, Muslim Anger Persists", Pew Global Attitudes Project, accessed March 12, 2006.
  19. ^ "ADL Survey in 12 European Countries Finds Antisemitic Attitudes Still Strongly Held", Anti-Defamation League, 2005, accessed March 12, 2006.
  20. ^ Flash Map of Attitudes Toward Jews in 12 European Countries (2005), Philo. Sophistry, accessed March 12, 2006.
  21. ^ "L'antisémitisme en France", Association Française des Amis de l'Université de Tel Aviv, accessed March 12, 2006.
  22. ^ Thiolay, Boris. "Juif, et alors?", L'Express, June 6, 2005.
  23. ^ [2]
  24. ^ "Communiqués Officiels: Les actes antisémites", Ministère de l'Intérieur et de l'Aménagement du territoire, accessed March 12, 2006.
  25. ^ Islamic Extremism: Common Concern for Muslim and Western Publics. Pew Global Attitude Project (2005-07-14).
  26. ^ "2002 : le racisme progresse en France, les actes antisémites se multiplient", Le Monde, 28 March, 2003
  27. ^ Litvinovich, Dmitri. "Explosion of anti-Semitism in Russia", Pravda July 30, 2002.
  28. ^ Specktor, Mordecai."Stockholm conference puts spotlight on Sweden's Jews", The American Jewish World. Retrieved Dec 17, 2006 from the "Jews of Sweden", The Stockholm International Forum on the Holocaust website (26-28 January 2000).
  29. ^
  30. ^ (Swedish) "Rgeringens proposition 1998/99:143 Nationella minoriteter i Sverige", 10 June 1999. Accessed online 17 October 2006.
  31. ^ [3]
  32. ^ [4]
  33. ^ a b c Morris, Benny. Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881-2001. Vintage Books, 2001, pp. 10-11.
  34. ^ The Virtual Jewish History Tour - Norway Accessed October 8, 2006
  35. ^ The Virtual Jewish History Tour - Norway Accessed October 8, 2006
  36. ^ Jones, Derek. "Censorship in Poland: From the Beginnings to the Enlightenment", Censorship: A World Encyclopedia, Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 2000.
  37. ^ "Major Violent Incidents in 2004: Breakdown by Country", The Steven Roth Institute for the Study of Contemporary Antisemitism and Racism, Tel Aviv University, accessed March 12, 2006.
  38. ^ Smitha, Frank E. "Roosevelt and Approaching War: The Economy, Politics and Questions of War, 1937-38", accessed March 12, 2006.
  39. ^ "Breckinridge Long (1881-1958)", Public Broadcasting System (PBS), accessed March 12, 2006.
  40. ^ PBC: The Perilous Fight. Antisemitism Accessed October 8, 2006
  41. ^ "Anti-Semitism and Prejudice in America: Highlights from an ADL Survey - November 1998", Anti-Defamation League, accessed March 12, 2006.
  42. ^ [ http://www.latimes.com/news/printedition/front/la-me-gibson30jul30,1,422264.story?track=rss&ctrack=1&cset=true]; [5]; [6]; [7]; [8]; [9].
  43. ^ Schafer, Peter. Judeophobia, Harvard University Press, 1997, p 208.
  44. ^ Against Apion Bk 1.14, 1.26
  45. ^ Obadiah of Bertinoro p. 53
  46. ^ For the events of Fez see Cohen, 1995, pp 180-182. On Marrekesh, see the Jewish Encyclopedia of 1906.
  47. ^ a b Gilbert, Martin. Dearest Auntie Fori. The Story of the Jewish People. HarperCollins, 2002, pp. 179-182.
  48. ^ Acts 9-2; II Cor. 9-32
  49. ^ The Origins and the Development of German-Jewish Press in Germany till 1850 by Johannes Valentin Schwarz. (66th International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) Council and General Conference. Jerusalem, Israel, 13-18 August 2000. Code Number: 106-144-E
  50. ^ The Damascus Blood Libel (1840) as Told by Syria's Minister of Defense, Mustafa Tlass (MEMRI Inquiry and Analysis Series - No. 99) June 27, 2002
  51. ^ Japanese Attitudes Towards Jews Accessed October 8, 2006

 
 

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