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Encyclopedia > Antipsychotic

Antipsychotics are a group of drugs commonly but not exclusively used to treat psychosis, which is typified by schizophrenia. Over time a wide range of antipsychotics have been developed. A first generation of antipsychotics, known as typical antipsychotics, was discovered in the 1950s. Most of the drugs in the second generation, known as atypical antipsychotics, have more recently been developed. Both classes of medication tend to block receptors in the brain's dopamine pathways, but antipsychotic drugs encompass a wide range of receptor specificity. A number of side effects have been observed in relation to specific medications, including weight gain, agranulocytosis, tardive dyskinesia, tardive akathisia and tardive psychoses. The development of new antipsychotics, and the relative efficacy of different ones, is an important ongoing field of research. Antipsychotic medication is not generally regarded as a good treatment so much as the best available, and the most appropriate drug for an individual patient requires careful consideration. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Psychosis (disambiguation). ... Typical antipsychotics (sometimes referred to as conventional antipsychotics or conventional neuroleptics) are a class of antipsychotic drugs first developed in the 1950s and used to treat psychosis (in particular, schizophrenia), and are generally being replaced by atypical antipsychotic drugs. ... The atypical antipsychotics (also known as second generation antipsychotics) are a class of prescription medications used to treat psychiatric conditions. ... Tardive dyskinesia is a serious neurological disorder caused by the long-term and/or high-dose use of dopamine antagonists, usually antipsychotics and among them especially the typical antipsychotics. ...

Contents

Terminology

Antipsychotics are also referred to as neuroleptic drugs. The word neuroleptic is derived from Greek: "νεύρον" (originally meaning sinew but today referring to the nerves) and "λαμβάνω" (meaning take hold of). Thus, the word means taking hold of one's nerves. This term reflects the drugs' ability to make movement more difficult and sluggish, which clinicians previously believed indicated that a dose was high enough.[citation needed] The lower doses used currently have resulted in reduced incidence of motor side effects and sedation, and the term is less commonly used than in the past. A tendon or sinew is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue, attached on one end to a muscle and on the other to a bone. ... For other uses, see Nerve (disambiguation). ...


Antipsychotics are broadly divided into two groups, the typical or first-generation antipsychotics and the atypical or second-generation antipsychotics. There are also dopamine partial agonists, which are often categorized as atypicals. Typical antipsychotics (sometimes referred to as conventional antipsychotics or conventional neuroleptics) are a class of antipsychotic drugs first developed in the 1950s and used to treat psychosis (in particular, schizophrenia), and are generally being replaced by atypical antipsychotic drugs. ... Skeletal formula of clozapine, the first atypical antipsychotic The atypical antipsychotics (also known as second generation antipsychotics) are a class of prescription medications used to treat psychiatric conditions. ...


Typical antipsychotics are also sometimes referred to as major tranquilizers, because some of them can tranquilize and sedate. This term is increasingly disused, as the terminology implies a connection with benzodiazepines ("minor" tranquilizers) when none exists. A sedative is a drug that depresses the central nervous system (CNS), which causes calmness, relaxation, reduction of anxiety, sleepiness, slowed breathing, slurred speech, staggering gait, poor judgment, and slow, uncertain reflexes. ... Alprazolam 2 mg tablets The benzodiazepines (pronounced , often abbreviated to benzos) are a class of sedative hypnotic psychoactive drugs with varying hypnotic, sedative, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and amnesic properties, which are mediated by slowing down the central nervous system. ...


Usage

Common conditions with which antipsychotics might be used include schizophrenia, mania, and delusional disorder. They might be used to counter psychosis associated with a wide range of other diagnoses. Antipsychotics may also be used in mood disorder (e.g., bipolar disorder) even when no signs of psychosis are present. In addition, these drugs are used to treat non-psychotic disorders. For example, some antipsychotics (haloperidol, pimozide) are used off-label to treat Tourette syndrome, whereas Aripiprazole is prescribed in some cases of Asperger's syndrome. This article is an expansion of a section entitled Mania from within the main article Bipolar disorder. ... Delusional disorder is a psychiatric diagnosis denoting a psychotic mental illness that involves holding one or more non-bizarre delusions in the absence of any other significant psychopathology (signs or symptoms of mental illness). ... A mood disorder is a condition whereby the prevailing emotional mood is distorted or inappropriate to the circumstances. ... For other uses, see Bipolar. ... Haloperidol (sold under the tradenames Aloperidin, Bioperidolo, Brotopon, Dozic, Duraperidol (Germany), Einalon S, Eukystol, Haldol, Halosten, Keselan, Linton, Peluces, Serenace, Serenase, Sigaperidol) is a conventional, or typical, butyrophenone antipsychotic drug. ... Pimozide (sold as Orap®) is an antipsychotic drug. ... Off-label use is the practice of prescribing drugs for a purpose outside the scope of the drugs approved label, most often concerning the drugs indication. ... Tourette redirects here. ... Aripiprazole (produced by Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co,. Ltd. ... Asperger described his patients as little professors. Aspergers syndrome (AS, or the more common shorthand Aspergers), is characterized as one of the five pervasive developmental disorders, and is commonly referred to as a form of high functioning autism. ...


In routine clinical practice, antipsychotics may be used as part of risk management, and to control difficult patients since the patient becomes deenergized or deenervated, will or volition is crushed, and passivity and docility are induced therefore the patient complains less and becomes more manageable, although this is controversial.


History

The original antipsychotic drugs were happened upon largely by chance and were tested empirically for their effectiveness. The first antipsychotic was chlorpromazine, which was developed as a surgical anesthetic. It was first used on psychiatric patients because of its powerful calming effect; at the time it was regarded as a "chemical lobotomy". Lobotomy was used to treat many behavioral disorders, including psychosis, although its "effectiveness" was (from a modern viewpoint) due to its tendency to markedly reduce behavior of all types. However, chlorpromazine quickly proved to reduce the effects of psychosis in a more effective and specific manner than the extreme lobotomy-like sedation it was known for. Chlorpromazine was the first antipsychotic drug, used during the 1950s and 1960s. ... Anesthesia (AE), also anaesthesia (BE), is the process of blocking the perception of pain and other sensations. ... Look up Lobotomy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The underlying neurochemistry involved has since been studied in detail, and it hardly needs stating that subsequent anti-psychotic drugs have been discovered by a more rational approach that incorporates this sort of information.


Common antipsychotics

Chlorpromazine.
Chlorpromazine.
Haloperidol.
Haloperidol.
Quetiapine.
Quetiapine.

Commonly used antipsychotic medications are listed below by drug group. Trade names appear in parentheses. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x753, 36 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Chlorpromazine ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x753, 36 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Chlorpromazine ... The formula is drawn in bkchem and GIMP. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The formula is drawn in bkchem and GIMP. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ...


First generation antipsychotics

Typical antipsychotics (sometimes referred to as conventional antipsychotics or conventional neuroleptics) are a class of antipsychotic drugs first developed in the 1950s and used to treat psychosis (in particular, schizophrenia), and are generally being replaced by atypical antipsychotic drugs. ...

Butyrophenones

Butyrophenones are a class of pharmaceutical drugs used to treat various pyschiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. ... Haloperidol (sold under the tradenames Aloperidin, Bioperidolo, Brotopon, Dozic, Duraperidol (Germany), Einalon S, Eukystol, Haldol, Halosten, Keselan, Linton, Peluces, Serenace, Serenase, Sigaperidol) is a conventional, or typical, butyrophenone antipsychotic drug. ...

Phenothiazines

Phenothiazines are the largest of the 5 main classes of antipsychotic drugs. ... Chlorpromazine was the first antipsychotic drug, used during the 1950s and 1960s. ... Fluphenazineis a typical antipsychoticdrug. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Prochlorperazine is a highly potent neuroleptic, which is 10 to 20-times more potent than chlorpromazine. ... Thioridazine is a piperidine antipsychotic drug previously widely used in the treatment of schizophrenia and psychosis. ... Trifluoperazine (sold as Eskazinyl, Eskazine, Jatroneural, Modalina, Stelazine, Terfluzine, Trifluoperaz) is a typical antipsychotic drug of the phenothiazine group. ... Serentil® (mesoridazine besylate) is a neuroleptic drug that is used in the treatment of schizophrenia, organic brain disorders, psychoneuroses, and alcoholism. ... Promazine is an antipsychotic medication. ... Triflupromazine is an antipsychotic medication. ... // General Remarks and Pharmacology Levomepromazine is an aliphatic phenothiazine neuroleptic drug. ... Promethazine is a first-generation H1 receptor antagonist antihistamine and antiemetic medication. ...

Thioxanthenes

Xanthene Flupenthixol Thioxanthene is a molecule in which the oxygen in a xanthene molecule is replaced with a sulfur. ... Chlorprothixene is a typical antipsychotic drug of the thioxanthine class. ... Flupentixol is a synthetic compound that acts on a subset of dopamine receptors. ... Thiothixene is an antipsychotic drug of the conventional or typical antipsychotics class. ... Zuclopenthixol (marketed as Clopixol or Acuphase) is a typical antipsychotic neuroleptic drug of the thioxanthene group. ...

Second generation antipsychotics

  • Clozapine (Clozaril) - Requires weekly to biweekly CBC (FBC) because of risk of agranulocytosis (a severe decrease of white blood cells).
  • Olanzapine (Zyprexa) - Used to treat psychotic disorders including schizophrenia, acute manic episodes, and maintenance of bipolar disorder. Dosing 2.5 to 20 mg per day. Comes in a form that quickly dissolves in the mouth (Zyprexa Zydis). May cause appetite increase, weight gain, and altered glucose metabolism leading to an increased risk of diabetes mellitus.
  • Risperidone (Risperdal) - Dosing 0.25 to 6 mg per day and is titrated upward; divided dosing is recommended until initial titration is completed, at which time the drug can be administered once daily. Available in long-acting form (Risperdal Consta that is administered every 2 weeks; usual dose is 25 mg). Comes in a form that quickly dissovles in the mouth (Risperdal M-Tab). Used off-label to treat Tourette Syndrome or Anxiety Disorder.
  • Quetiapine (Seroquel) - Used primarily to treat bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, and "off-label" to treat chronic insomnia and restless legs syndrome; it is a powerful sedative (if it is used to treat sleep disorders and is not effective at 200 mg, it is not going to be effective in this regard). Dosing starts at 25 mg and continues up to 800 mg maximum per day, depending on the severity of the symptom(s) being treated. Users typically take smaller doses during the day for the neuroleptic properties and larger dose at bedtime for the sedative effects, or divided in two equal high doses every 12 hours (75 - 400 mg bid).
  • Ziprasidone (Geodon) - Now (2006) approved to treat bipolar disorder. Dosing 20 mg twice daily initially up to 80 mg twice daily. Prolonged QT interval a concern; watch closely with patients that have heart disease; when used with other drugs that prolong QT interval potentially life-threatening.
  • Amisulpride (Solian) - Selective dopamine antagonist. Higher doses (greater than 400 mg) act upon post-synaptic dopamine receptors resulting in a reduction in the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, such as psychosis. Lower doses, however, act upon dopamine autoreceptors, resulting in increased dopamine transmission, improving the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Lower doses of amisulpride have also been shown to have anti-depressant and anxiolytic effects in non-schizophrenic patients, leading to its use in dysthymia and social anxiety disorder. In one particular study, amisulpride was found to have greater efficacy than fluoxetine in decreasing anxiety. At present, amisulpride is approved in Europe, Australia, and other countries for use in schizophrenia, and is approved and marketed in lower dosages in some countries for treating dysthymia (such as in Italy as Deniban). Amisulpride has not been approved by the FDA for use in the United States.
  • Paliperidone (Invega) - Derivative of risperidone. Approved in December 2006.
  • Dopamine partial agonists:
  • Under clinical development - Bifeprunox; norclozapine (ACP-104).

Skeletal formula of clozapine, the first atypical antipsychotic The atypical antipsychotics (also known as second generation antipsychotics) are a class of prescription medications used to treat psychiatric conditions. ... Clozapine (sold as Clozaril®, Leponex®, Fazaclo®) was the first of the atypical antipsychotics to be developed. ... Schematics of shorthand for complete blood count commonly used by physicians. ... White Blood Cells is also the name of a White Stripes album. ... Olanzapine (oh-LAN-za-peen, sold as Zyprexa®, Zyprexa Zydis®, or in combination with fluoxetine, as Symbyax®) was the third atypical antipsychotic to gain approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and has become one of the most commonly used atypical antipsychotics. ... Risperdal tablets Risperidone (pronounced Ris-PER-ǐ-dōn and sold under the trade name Risperdal in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Portugal and several other countries, Risperdal or Ridal in New Zealand, Rispolept in Eastern Europe, and Belivon, or Rispen elsewhere) is an atypical antipsychotic medication developed by... Tourette redirects here. ... Anxiety disorder is a blanket term covering several different forms of abnormal, pathological anxiety, fears, phobias. ... Quetiapine (IPA: , kwe-TYE-a-peen), marketed by AstraZeneca with the brand name Seroquel, belongs to a series of neuroleptics known as atypical antipsychotics, which have, over the last two decades, become increasingly popular alternatives to typical antipsychotics, such as haloperidol. ... This article is about the sleeping disorder. ... Restless legs syndrome (RLS, Wittmaack-Ekboms syndrome, or sometimes, but inaccurately, referred to as Nocturnal myoclonus) is a condition that is characterized by an irresistible urge to move ones body to stop uncomfortable or odd sensations. ... Ziprasidone (marketed as Geodon, Zeldox) was the fifth atypical antipsychotic to gain FDA approval (February 2001). ... Schematic representation of normal ECG trace (sinus rhythm), with waves, segments, and intervals labeled. ... Amisulpride (brand name Solian®) is an antipsychotic drug sold by Sanofi laboratories. ... ... An anxiolytic is a drug prescribed for the treatment of symptoms of anxiety. ... Dysthymia is a mood disorder that falls within the depression spectrum. ... Social anxiety, sometimes known as social phobia or social anxiety disorder (SAD), is a common form of anxiety disorder that causes sufferers to experience intense anxiety in some or all of the social interactions and public events of everyday life. ... Prozac redirects here. ... Dysthymia is a mood disorder that falls within the depression spectrum. ... Paliperidone is an atypical antipsychotic being developed by Janssen. ... Agonists An agonist is a substance that binds to a receptor and triggers a response by the cell. ...

Third generation antipsychotics

  • Aripiprazole (Abilify) - Dosing 1 mg up to maximum of 30 mg has been used. Mechanism of action is thought to reduce susceptibility to metabolic symptoms seen in some other atypical antipsychotics.[1]

Skeletal formula of clozapine, the first atypical antipsychotic The atypical antipsychotics (also known as second generation antipsychotics) are a class of prescription medications used to treat psychiatric conditions. ... Aripiprazole (produced by Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co,. Ltd. ...

Other options

  • Symbyax - A combination of olanzapine and fluoxetine used in the treatment of bipolar depression.
  • Tetrabenazine (Nitoman in Canada and Xenazine in New Zealand and some parts of Europe) is similar in function to antipsychotic drugs, though is not, in general, considered an antipsychotic itself. This is likely due to its main usefulness being the treatment of hyperkinetic movement disorders such as Huntington's Disease and Tourette syndrome, rather than for conditions such as schizophrenia. Also, rather than having the potential to cause tardive dyskinesia, which most antipsychotics have, tetrabenazine can actually be an effective treatment for the condition.
  • Cannabidiol One of the main psychoactive components of cannabis. A recent study has shown cannabidiol to be as effective as atypical antipsychotics in treating schizophrenia. [2]

The most common typical antipsychotic drugs are now off-patent, meaning any pharmaceutical company is legally allowed to produce cheap generic versions of these medications. While this makes them cheaper than the atypical drugs that are still manufactured under patent constraints, atypical drugs are preferred as a first-line treatment because they are believed to have fewer side effects and seem to have additional benefits for the 'negative symptoms' of schizophrenia, a typical condition for which they might be prescribed. Olanzapine (oh-LAN-za-peen, sold as Zyprexa®, Zyprexa Zydis®, or in combination with fluoxetine, as Symbyax®) was the third atypical antipsychotic to gain approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and has become one of the most commonly used atypical antipsychotics. ... Prozac redirects here. ... Tetrabenazine (marketed under the trade names Nitoman® in Canada and Xenazine® in New Zeland and some parts of Europe - also available in the USA as an orphan drug) is a dopamine-depleting drug that is closely related to the antipsychotics and works similarly, though its action is subtly different and... List of Movement disorders Akinesia (lack of movement) Athetosis (contorted torsion or twisting) Ataxia Ballismus (violent involuntary rapid and irregular movements) Hemiballismus Bradykinesia (slow movement) Chorea (rapid, involuntary movement) Sydenhams chorea Rheumatic chorea Huntingtons chorea Dystonia (sustained torsion) Dystonia muscularum Blepharospasm Writers cramp Spasmodic torticollis (twisting of... Huntingtons disease, also called Huntingtons chorea, chorea major, or HD, is a genetic neurological disorder characterized by abnormal body movements called chorea and a lack of coordination; it also affects a number of mental abilities and some aspects of behavior. ... Tourette redirects here. ... Tardive dyskinesia is a serious neurological disorder caused by the long-term and/or high-dose use of dopamine antagonists, usually antipsychotics and among them especially the typical antipsychotics. ... Cannabidiol, also known as CBD, is an antipsychotic cannabinoid found in the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... // A generic drug (generic drugs, short: generics) is a drug which is produced and distributed without patent protection. ...


Metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 agonism has been seen as a promissing strategy in the development of novel antipsychotics.[3] When tested in patients, the research substance LY2140023 yielded promising results and had few side effects. The active metabolite of this prodrug targets the brain glutamate receptors mGluR2/3 rather than dopamine receptors.[4] It is currently in phase-2 clinical testing (2007). RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez na Ensembl na Uniprot na Refseq Location na Pubmed search na Glutamate receptor, metabotropic 2, also known as GRM2, is a human gene. ... Agonists In pharmacology an agonist is a substance that binds to a specific receptor and triggers a response in the cell. ... A metabolite is the product of metabolism. ... A prodrug is a pharmacological substance (drug) which is administered in an inactive (or significantly less active) form. ... Glutamate is a neurotransmitter in nerve cells which binds to all glutamate receptors located on neuron membranes, and is an example of a transmembrane receptor. ... The dopamine receptors are a class of metabotropic G-protein-coupled receptors with the neurotransmitter dopamine as their endogenous ligand. ... This box:      In health care, a clinical trial is a comparison test of a medication or other medical treatment (such as a medical device), versus a placebo (inactive look-a-like), other medications or devices, or the standard medical treatment for a patients condition. ...


Drug action

All antipsychotic drugs tend to block D2 receptors in the dopamine pathways of the brain. This means that dopamine released in these pathways has less effect. Excess release of dopamine in the mesolimbic pathway has been linked to psychotic experiences. It is the blockade of dopamine receptors in this pathway that is thought to control psychotic experiences. The dopamine receptors are a class of metabotropic G-protein-coupled receptors with the neurotransmitter dopamine as their endogenous ligand. ... For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... The mesolimbic pathway is one of the neural pathways in the brain that link the ventral tegmentum in the midbrain to the nucleus accumbens in the limbic system. ...


Typical antipsychotics are not particularly selective and also block Dopamine receptors in the mesocortical pathway, tuberoinfundibular pathway, and the nigrostriatal pathway. Blocking D2 receptors in these other pathways is thought to produce some of the unwanted side effects that the typical antipsychotics can produce (see below). They were commonly classified on a spectrum of low potency to high potency, where potency referred to the ability of the drug to bind to dopamine receptors, and not to the effectiveness of the drug. High-potency antipsychotics such as haloperidol, in general, have doses of a few milligrams and cause less sleepiness and calming effects than low-potency antipsychotics such as chlorpromazine and thioridazine, which have dosages of several hundred milligrams. The latter have a greater degree of anticholinergic and antihistaminergic activity, which can counteract dopamine-related side effects. The mesocortical pathway is a neural pathway which connects the ventral tegmentum to the cortex, particularly the frontal lobes. ... The tuberoinfundibular pathway is a neural pathway which runs between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. ... The nigrostriatal pathway is a neural pathway which connects the substantia nigra with the striatum. ... Adverse effect, in medicine, is an abnormal, harmful, undesired and/or unintended side-effect, although not necessarily unexpected, which is obtained as the result of a therapy or other medical intervention, such as drug/chemotherapy, physical therapy, surgery, medical procedure, use of a medical device, etc. ... Haloperidol (sold under the tradenames Aloperidin, Bioperidolo, Brotopon, Dozic, Duraperidol (Germany), Einalon S, Eukystol, Haldol, Halosten, Keselan, Linton, Peluces, Serenace, Serenase, Sigaperidol) is a conventional, or typical, butyrophenone antipsychotic drug. ... Chlorpromazine was the first antipsychotic drug, used during the 1950s and 1960s. ... Thioridazine is a piperidine antipsychotic drug previously widely used in the treatment of schizophrenia and psychosis. ...


Atypical antipsychotic drugs have a similar blocking effect on D2 receptors. Some also block or partially block serotonin receptors (particularly 5HT2A, C and 5HT1A receptors):ranging from risperidone, which acts overwhelmingly on serotonin receptors, to amisulpride, which has no serotonergic activity. The additional effects on serotonin receptors may be why some of them can benefit the 'negative symptoms' of schizophrenia.[5] For the professional wrestling stable, see Ravens Nest#Serotonin. ...


Side effects

Antipsychotics are associated with a range of side effects. Around two-thirds of people in controlled drug trials discontinue antipsychotics, partly due to adverse effects.[citation needed] Extrapyramidal reactions include tardive psychosis, acute dystonias, akathisia, parkinsonism (rigidity and tremor), tardive dyskinesia, tachycardia, hypotension, impotence, lethargy, seizures, and hyperprolactinaemia. In human anatomy, the extrapyramidal system is a neural network located in the brain that is part of the motor system involved in the coordination of movement. ... Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder in which sustained muscle contractions cause twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal postures. ... Akathisia (or acathisia) is an often extremely unpleasant subjective sensation of inner restlessness that manifests itself with an inability to sit still or remain motionless, hence the origin of its name: Greek a (without) + kathesis (sitting). ... Parkinsonism (also known as Parkinsons syndrome, atypical Parkinsons, or secondary Parkinsons) is a neurological syndrome characterized by tremor, hypokinesia, rigidity, and postural instability. ... For the film, see Tremors (film). ... Tardive dyskinesia is a serious neurological disorder caused by the long-term and/or high-dose use of dopamine antagonists, usually antipsychotics and among them especially the typical antipsychotics. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In physiology and medicine, hypotension refers to an abnormally low blood pressure. ... Impotence or, more clinically, erectile dysfunction is the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis for satisfactory sexual intercourse regardless of the capability of ejaculation. ... This article is about epileptic seizures. ... Prolactin is a hormone secreted by lactotropes in the adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary gland) which is made up of 199 amino acids with a molecular weight of about 23,000 daltons. ...


From a subjective perspective, antipsychotics heavily influence one's perceptions of pleasurable sensations, causing a severe reduction in feelings of desire, motivation, pensive thought, and awe. This does not coincide with the apathy and lack of motivation experienced by the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Detrimental effects on short term memory, which affect the way one figures and calculates (although this also may be purely subjective), may also be observed on high enough dosages. These are all the reasons why they are thought to affect "creativity". Also, for some schizophrenics, too much stress will cause them to "relapse". However, in general, too much stress will also put the patient into a deep drowsy state, even to the point of sleep, while on antipsychotic medications.


Following are details concerning some of the side effects of antipsychotics:

  • The atypical antipsychotics (especially olanzapine) seem to cause weight gain more commonly than the typical antipsychotics. The well-documented metabolic side effects associated with weight gain include diabetes, which can be life-threatening.
  • Clozapine also has a risk of inducing agranulocytosis, a potentially dangerous reduction in the number of white blood cells in the body. Because of this risk, patients prescribed clozapine may need to have regular blood checks to catch the condition early if it does occur, so the patient is in no danger.[citation needed]
  • One of the more serious of these side effects is tardive dyskinesia, in which the sufferer may show repetitive, involuntary, purposeless movements often of the lips, face, legs, or torso. It is believed that there is a greater risk of developing tardive dyskinesia with the older, typical antipsychotic drugs, although the newer antipsychotics are now also known to cause this disorder.
  • A potentially serious side effect of many antipsychotics is that they tend to lower an individual's seizure threshold. Chlorpromazine and clozapine, in particular, have a relatively high seizurogenic potential. Fluphenazine, haloperidol, pimozide and risperidone exhibit a relatively low risk. Caution should be exercised in individuals that have a history of seizurogenic conditions such as epilepsy, or brain damage.
  • Another antipsychotic side effect is deterioration of teeth due to a lack of saliva.[citation needed]
  • Another serious side effect is neuroleptic malignant syndrome, in which the drugs appear to cause the temperature regulation centers to fail, resulting in a medical emergency, as the patient's temperature suddenly increases to dangerous levels.
  • Another problematic side effect of antipsychotics is dysphoria.
  • Loss of glial cells was observed in monkeys[6] and signs of neuron death were detected in women[7].

Some people suffer few apparent side effects from taking antipsychotic medication, whereas others may have serious adverse effects. Some side effects, such as subtle cognitive problems, may go unnoticed. Olanzapine (oh-LAN-za-peen, sold as Zyprexa®, Zyprexa Zydis®, or in combination with fluoxetine, as Symbyax®) was the third atypical antipsychotic to gain approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and has become one of the most commonly used atypical antipsychotics. ... Clozapine (sold as Clozaril®, Leponex®, Fazaclo®) was the first of the atypical antipsychotics to be developed. ... Tardive dyskinesia is a serious neurological disorder caused by the long-term and/or high-dose use of dopamine antagonists, usually antipsychotics and among them especially the typical antipsychotics. ... For other uses, see Brain damage (disambiguation). ... Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life-threatening, neurological disorder most often caused by an adverse reaction to neuroleptic or antipsychotic drugs. ... Look up dysphoria in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


There is a possibility that the risk of tardive dyskinesia can be reduced by combining the anti-psychotics with diphenhydramine or benztropine, although this remains to be established. Central nervous system damage is also associated with irreversible tardive akathisia and/or tardive dysphrenia. Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (trade name Benadryl as produced by Johnson & Johnson, or Dimedrol outside the U.S. & Canada. ... Benztropine (Cogentin®) is an anticholinergic drug principally used for the treatment of: Drug-induced parkinsonism, akathisia and acute dystonia; Parkinson disease; and Idiopathic or secondary dystonia. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... Akathisia (or acathisia) is an often extremely unpleasant subjective sensation of inner restlessness that manifests itself with an inability to sit still or remain motionless, hence the origin of its name: Greek a (without) + kathesis (sitting). ... The medical expression Tardive Dysphrenia, was proposed by the American neurologist Stanley Fahn, the head of the Division of Movements Disorders of the Neurological Institute of New York, in collaboration with the psychiatrist David V Forrest in the 1970s. ...


Efficacy

There have been a large number of studies of the efficacy of typical antipsychotics, and an increasing number on the more recent atypical antipsychotics.


The American Psychiatric Association and the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence recommend antipsychotics for managing acute psychotic episodes and for preventing relapse.[8][9] They state that response to any given antipsychotic can be variable so that trials may be necessary, and that lower doses are to be preferred where possible. Due to the epidemic of medical errors, readers are cautioned to be aware that the American Psychiatric Association isnt immune to this. ... The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence or NICE is an agency of the National Health Service in the United Kingdom. ...


Antipsychotic polypharmacy—prescribing two or more antipsychotics at the same time for an individual—is said to be a frequent practice but not necessarily evidence-based.[10] The term polypharmacy generally refers to the use of multiple-medications by a patient. ...


Some doubts have been raised about the long-term effectiveness of antipsychotics because two large international World Health Organization studies found individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia tend to have better long-term outcomes in developing countries (where there is lower availability and use of antipsychotics) than in developed countries.[11][12] The reasons for the differences are not clear, however, and various explanations have been suggested. WHO redirects here. ...


Some argue that the evidence for antipsychotics from withdrawal-relapse studies may be flawed, because they do not take into account that antipsychotics may sensitize the brain and provoke psychosis if discontinued.[13] Evidence from comparison studies indicates that at least some individuals recover from psychosis without taking antipsychotics, and may do better than those that do take antipsychotics.[14] Some argue that, overall, the evidence suggests that antipsychotics only help if they are used selectively and are gradually withdrawn as soon as possible.[15]


A dose response effect has been found in one study from 1971 between increasing neuroleptic dose and increasing number of psychotic breaks.[16][verification needed]


Typical versus atypical

While the atypical, second-generation medications were marketed as offering greater efficacy in reducing psychotic symptoms while reducting side effects (and extra-pyramidal symptoms in particular) than typical medications, the results showing these effects often lack robustness. To remediate this problem, the NIMH conducted a recent multi-site, double-blind study (the CATIE project), which was published in 2005.[17] This study compared several atypical antipsychotics to an older typical antipsychotic, perphenazine, among 1493 persons with schizophrenia. Perphenazine was chosen because of its lower potency and moderate side effect profile. The study found that only olanzapine outperformed perphenazine in the researchers' principal outcome, the discontinuation rate. The authors also noted the apparent superior efficacy of olanzapine to the other drugs for greater reduction in psychopathology, longer duration of successful treatment, and lower rate of hospitalizations for an exacerbation of schizophrenia. In contrast, no other atypical studied (risperidone, quetiapine, and ziprasidone) did better than the typical perphenazine on those measures. Olanzapine, however, was associated with relatively severe metabolic effects: Subjects with olanzapine showed a major weight gain problem and increases in glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides. The average weight gain (1.1 kg/month, or 44 pounds for the 18 months that lasted the study) casts serious doubt on the potentiality of long-term use of this drug. Perphenazine did not create more extrapyramidal side effect as measured by rating scales (a result supported by a meta-analysis by Dr. Leucht published in Lancet), although more patients discontinued perphenazine owing to extrapyramidal effects compared to the atypical agents (8 percent vs. 2 percent to 4 percent, P=0.002). NIMH or NiMH may refer to: National Institute of Mental Health, a part of the United States National Institutes of Health. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Olanzapine (oh-LAN-za-peen, sold as Zyprexa®, Zyprexa Zydis®, or in combination with fluoxetine, as Symbyax®) was the third atypical antipsychotic to gain approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and has become one of the most commonly used atypical antipsychotics. ... Risperdal tablets Risperidone (pronounced Ris-PER-ǐ-dōn and sold under the trade name Risperdal in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Portugal and several other countries, Risperdal or Ridal in New Zealand, Rispolept in Eastern Europe, and Belivon, or Rispen elsewhere) is an atypical antipsychotic medication developed by... Quetiapine (IPA: , kwe-TYE-a-peen), marketed by AstraZeneca with the brand name Seroquel, belongs to a series of neuroleptics known as atypical antipsychotics, which have, over the last two decades, become increasingly popular alternatives to typical antipsychotics, such as haloperidol. ... Ziprasidone (marketed as Geodon, Zeldox) was the fifth atypical antipsychotic to gain FDA approval (February 2001). ...


A phase 2 part of this study roughly replicated these findings.[18] This phase consisted on a second randomization of the patients that discontinuated the taking of medication in the first phase. Olanzapine was again the only medication to stand out in the outcome measures, although the results did not always reach statistical significance, in part to the decrease of power. Perphenazine again did not create more extrapyramidal effects.


A subsequent phase was conducted. [19] This phase innovated in allowing clinicians to offer clozapine. Clozapine indeed proved to be more effective at reducing medication drop-outs than other neuroleptic agents. Researchers also observed a trend showing clozapine with a greater reduction of symptoms. However, the potential of clozapine to cause toxic side effects, including agranulocytosis, limits the prescription to persons with schizophrenia. Clozapine (sold as Clozaril®, Leponex®, Fazaclo®) was the first of the atypical antipsychotics to be developed. ...


See also

For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ... The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia or the dopamine hypothesis of psychosis is a theory that argues that the unusual behaviour and experiences associated with schizophrenia (sometimes extended to psychosis in general) can be fully or largely explained by changes in dopamine function in the brain. ... For other uses, see Psychosis (disambiguation). ... The medical expression Tardive Dysphrenia, was proposed by the American neurologist Stanley Fahn, the head of the Division of Movements Disorders of the Neurological Institute of New York, in collaboration with the psychiatrist David V Forrest in the 1970s. ...

References

  1. ^ Swainston, Harrison T.; Perry, C.M. (2004). "Aripiprazole: a review of its use in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.". Drugs 64 (15): 1715–1736. PMID 15257633
  2. ^ Zuardi, A.W; J.A.S. Crippa, J.E.C. Hallak, F.A. Moreira, F.S. Guimarães (2006). "Cannabidiol as an antipsychotic drug". Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 39: 421–429. ISSN 0100-879X ISSN 0100-879X. 
  3. ^ PMID 17526600 PMID 18424625 PMID 18297054
  4. ^ BBC NEWS, Schizophrenia trials 'promising'
  5. ^ Murphy, B.P.; Chung YC, Park TW, McGorry PD (12 2006). "Pharmacological treatment of primary negative symptoms in schizophrenia: a systematic review". Schizophrenia Research 88 (1-3): 5–25. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2006.07.002. PMID 16930948
  6. ^ Effect of Chronic Exposure to Antipsychotic Medication on Cell Numbers in the Parietal Cortex of Macaque Monkeys, by Glenn T Konopaske, Karl-Anton Dorph-Petersen, Joseph N Pierri, Qiang Wu, Allan R Sampson and David A Lewis, Neuropsychopharmacology, 2006, 1-8.
  7. ^ The influence of psychotropic drugs on cerebral cell female neurovulnerability to antipsychotics, by Raphael M. Bonelli, Peter Hofmann, Andreas Aschoff, Gerald Niederwieser, Clemens Heuberger, Gustaf Jirikowski and Hans-Peter Kapfhammer, International Clinical Psychopharmacology 2005, 20:145-149
  8. ^ American Psychiatric Association (2004) Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients With Schizophrenia. Second Edition.
  9. ^ The Royal College of Psychiatrists & The British Psychological Society (2003). Schizophrenia. Full national clinical guideline on core interventions in primary and secondary care (PDF). London: Gaskell and the British Psychological Society.
  10. ^ Patrick V, Levin E, Schleifer S. (2005) Antipsychotic polypharmacy: is there evidence for its use? J Psychiatr Pract. 2005 Jul;11(4):248-57. PMID 16041235
  11. ^ Jablensky A, Sartorius N, Ernberg G, Anker M, Korten A, Cooper J, Day R, Bertelsen A. "Schizophrenia: manifestations, incidence and course in different cultures. A World Health Organization ten-country study". Psychol Med Monogr Suppl 20: 1–97. PMID 1565705. 
  12. ^ Hopper K, Wanderling J (2000). Revisiting the developed versus developing country distinction in course and outcome in schizophrenia: results from ISoS, the WHO collaborative followup project. International Study of Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 26 (4), 835–46. PMID 11087016
  13. ^ Moncrieff J. (2006) Does antipsychotic withdrawal provoke psychosis? Review of the literature on rapid onset psychosis (supersensitivity psychosis) and withdrawal-related relapse. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Jul;114(1):3-13. PMID 16774655
  14. ^ Harrow M, Jobe TH. (2007) Factors involved in outcome and recovery in schizophrenia patients not on antipsychotic medications: a 15-year multifollow-up study. J Nerv Ment Dis. May;195(5):406-14. PMID 17502806
  15. ^ Whitaker R. (2004) The case against antipsychotic drugs: a 50-year record of doing more harm than good. Med Hypotheses. 2004;62(1):5-13. PMID 14728997
  16. ^ Prien R, Levine J, Switalski R (1971). "Discontinuation of chemotherapy for chronic schizophrenics". Hosp Community Psychiatry 22 (1): 4–7. PMID 4992967. 
  17. ^ Lieberman J et al (2005). "Effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs in patients with chronic schizophrenia". N Engl J Med 353 (12): 1209–23. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa051688. PMID 16172203. 
  18. ^ Stroup T et al (2006). "Effectiveness of olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone in patients with chronic schizophrenia following discontinuation of a previous atypical antipsychotic". Am J Psychiatry 163 (4): 611–22. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.163.4.611. PMID 16585435. 
  19. ^ McEvoy J et al (2006). "Effectiveness of clozapine versus olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone in patients with chronic schizophrenia that did not respond to prior atypical antipsychotic treatment". Am J Psychiatry 163 (4): 600–10. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.163.4.600. PMID 16585434. 

ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

  • Bipolar Meds - The Antipsychotics
  • FDA Public Health Advisory - Public Health Advisory for Antipsychotic Drugs used for Treatment of Behavioral Disorders in Elderly Patients
  • FROTA LH. Partial Agonists in the Schizophrenia Armamentarium. Tardive Dysphrenia: The newest challenge to the last generation atypical antipsychotics drugs? J Bras Psiquiatr 2003; Vol 52 Supl 1;14-24. Free full-text in Portuguese with Abstracts in English available here
  • FROTA LH. Fifty Years of Antipsychotic Drugs in Psychiatry. "Cinqüenta Anos de Medicamentos Antipsicóticos em Psiquiatria." 1st ed; Ebook: CD-Rom/On-Line Portuguese, ISBN 85-903827-1-0, File .pdf (Adobe Acrobat) 6Mb, Informática, Rio de Janeiro, august 2003, 486pp. Free full-text on Portuguese available online here
In pharmacology, a psycholeptic is a medication which produces a calming effect upon the patient. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Phenothiazines are the largest of the 5 main classes of antipsychotic drugs. ... Typical antipsychotics (sometimes referred to as conventional antipsychotics or conventional neuroleptics) are a class of antipsychotic drugs first developed in the 1950s and used to treat psychosis (in particular, schizophrenia), and are generally being replaced by atypical antipsychotic drugs. ... Chlorpromazine was the first antipsychotic drug, used during the 1950s and 1960s. ... Fluphenazineis a typical antipsychoticdrug. ... Serentil® (mesoridazine besylate) is a neuroleptic drug that is used in the treatment of schizophrenia, organic brain disorders, psychoneuroses, and alcoholism. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Prochlorperazine is a highly potent neuroleptic, which is 10 to 20-times more potent than chlorpromazine. ... Promazine is an antipsychotic medication. ... Thioridazine is a piperidine antipsychotic drug previously widely used in the treatment of schizophrenia and psychosis. ... Sulforidazine a typical antipsychotic and a metabolite of thioridazine; it is more potent than the parent compound. ... Trifluoperazine (sold as Eskazinyl, Eskazine, Jatroneural, Modalina, Stelazine, Terfluzine, Trifluoperaz) is a typical antipsychotic drug of the phenothiazine group. ... Triflupromazine is an antipsychotic medication. ... Typical antipsychotics (sometimes referred to as conventional antipsychotics or conventional neuroleptics) are a class of antipsychotic drugs first developed in the 1950s and used to treat psychosis (in particular, schizophrenia), and are generally being replaced by atypical antipsychotic drugs. ... Molindone is a therapeutic antipsychotic, used in the treatment of Schizophrenia. ... Azaperone (Stresnil, Fluoperidol) is a butyrophenone neuroleptic drug with sedative and anti-emetic effects, which is used mainly as a tranquilizer in veterinary medicine. ... Benperidol is a drug which is a butyrophenone derivative. ... Bromperidol (4-[4-(4-bromophenyl)-4-hydroxy-1-piperidyl]-1-(4-fluorophenyl)butan-1-one MW: 420. ... Droperidol (Dropletan®, Dridol® or Inapsine®) is an antidopaminergic drug used as an antiemetic and antipsychotic. ... Haloperidol (sold under the tradenames Aloperidin, Bioperidolo, Brotopon, Dozic, Duraperidol (Germany), Einalon S, Eukystol, Haldol, Halosten, Keselan, Linton, Peluces, Serenace, Serenase, Sigaperidol) is a conventional, or typical, butyrophenone antipsychotic drug. ... Trifluperidol (1-(4-fluorophenyl)-4-[4-hydroxy-4-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-1-piperidyl]butan-1-one , C22H23F4NO2) is a butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of Haloperidol. ... Flupentixol (marketed as Depixol and Fluanxol) is a typical antipsychotic neuroleptic drug. ... Chlorprothixene is a typical antipsychotic drug of the thioxanthine class. ... Thiothixene is an antipsychotic drug of the conventional or typical antipsychotics class. ... Zuclopenthixol (marketed as Clopixol or Acuphase) is a typical antipsychotic neuroleptic drug of the thioxanthene group. ... Fluspirilene is a diphenylbutylpiperidine antipsychotic, used for the treatment of schizophrenia, it is administered intramuscularly. ... Penfluridol is a piperidine antipsychotic. ... Pimozide (sold as Orap®) is an antipsychotic drug. ... Categories: Stub | Typical antipsychotics ... Skeletal formula of clozapine, the first atypical antipsychotic The atypical antipsychotics (also known as second generation antipsychotics) are a class of prescription medications used to treat psychiatric conditions. ... Melperone is sold under the tradenames Buronil, Burnil, and Eunerpan and is a conventional butyrophenone antipsychotic drug. ... Sertindole (brand names: Serlect®, Serdolect®) is one of the newer antipsychotic medications to hit the market. ... Ziprasidone (marketed as Geodon, Zeldox) was the fifth atypical antipsychotic to gain FDA approval (February 2001). ... Sulpiride (sold as Meresa®, Sulpirid Ratiopharm®, Sulpirid Neuraxpharm®,Bosnyl, Dogmatil®) is an anti-psychotic drug used mainly in the treatment of psychosis (e. ... Remoxipride is a substituted benzamide which was a promising antipsychotic during clinical trials in the 1990s, but was removed due to possible side effects. ... Amisulpride (brand name Solian®) is an antipsychotic drug sold by Sanofi laboratories. ... Clozapine (sold as Clozaril®, Leponex®, Fazaclo®) was the first of the atypical antipsychotics to be developed. ... Olanzapine (oh-LAN-za-peen, sold as Zyprexa®, Zyprexa Zydis®, or in combination with fluoxetine, as Symbyax®) was the third atypical antipsychotic to gain approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and has become one of the most commonly used atypical antipsychotics. ... Quetiapine (IPA: , kwe-TYE-a-peen), marketed by AstraZeneca with the brand name Seroquel, belongs to a series of neuroleptics known as atypical antipsychotics, which have, over the last two decades, become increasingly popular alternatives to typical antipsychotics, such as haloperidol. ... Aripiprazole (produced by Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co,. Ltd. ... Risperdal tablets Risperidone (pronounced Ris-PER-ǐ-dōn and sold under the trade name Risperdal in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Portugal and several other countries, Risperdal or Ridal in New Zealand, Rispolept in Eastern Europe, and Belivon, or Rispen elsewhere) is an atypical antipsychotic medication developed by... Paliperidone is an atypical antipsychotic being developed by Janssen. ... Zotepine (Nipolept) is an atypical antipsychotic indicated for acute and chronic schizophrenia. ... The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... Gut redirects here. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Look up antacid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An H2-receptor antagonist, often shortened to H2-antagonist, is a drug used to block the action of histamine on parietal cells in the stomach, decreasing acid production by these cells. ... Proton pump inhibitors (or PPIs) are a group of drugs whose main action is pronounced and long-lasting reduction of gastric acid production. ... An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea. ... Laxatives (or purgatives) are foods, compounds, or drugs taken to induce bowel movements or to loosen the stool, most often taken to treat constipation. ... An antidiarrhoeal drug is any medication which provides symptomatic relief for diarrhoea. ... An antipropulsive is a drug which is used in the treatment of diarrhea. ... Anti-obesity drugs include all pharmacological treatments intended to reduce or control weight. ... An anti-diabetic drug or oral hypoglycemic agent is used to treat diabetes mellitus. ... Retinol (one vitamer of Vitamin A) A vitamin is an organic compound required as a nutrient in tiny amounts by an organism. ... mccall is cooool Dietary minerals are the chemical elements required by living organisms, other than the four elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen which are present in common organic molecules. ... For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... An anticoagulant is a substance that prevents coagulation; that is, it stops blood from clotting. ... An antiplatelet drug is a member of a class of pharmaceuticals that decreases platelet aggregation and inhibits thrombus formation. ... Thrombolytic drugs are used in medicine to dissolve blood clots in a procedure termed thrombolysis. ... The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Antiarrhythmic agents are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used to suppress fast rhythms of the heart (cardiac arrhythmias), such as atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation. ... Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used in medicine and pharmacology to treat hypertension (high blood pressure). ... This illustration shows where some types of diuretics act, and what they do. ... A vasodilator is a drug or chemical that relaxes the smooth muscle in blood vessels, which causes them to dilate. ... An antianginal is any drug used in the treatment of angina pectoris, a symptom of ischaemic heart disease. ... Beta blockers or beta-adrenergic blocking agents are a class of drugs used to treat a variety of cardiovascular conditions and some other diseases. ... Captopril, the first ACE inhibitor ACE inhibitors, or inhibitors of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme, are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used primarily in treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure, in some cases as the drugs of first choice. ... Hypolipidemic agents, or antihyperlipidemic agents, are a diverse group of pharmaceuticals that are used in the treatment of hyperlipidemias. ... This article is about the organ. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Emollients soften skin (and moisturisers add moisture). ... Antipruritics, also known as anti-itch drugs, are medications that inhibit the itching (Latin: pruritus) that is often associated with sunburns, allergic reactions, eczema, psoriasis, chickenpox, fungal infections, insect bites and stings like those from mosquitoes, fleas, and mites, and contact dermatitis and urticaria caused by plants such as poison... -1... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Hormonal contraception refers to birth control methods that act on the hormonal system. ... Fertility medication may in a larger sense include any medication that enhances fertility, but in a specific sense consists of agents that stimulate follicle development of the ovary. ... Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) is a class of medication that acts on the estrogen receptor. ... Sex hormones are hormones that affect the reproductive system. ... The endocrine system is an integrated system of small organs that involve the release of extracellular signaling molecules known as hormones. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. ... Sex hormones are hormones that affect the reproductive system. ... thyroxine (T4) triiodothyronine (T3) Thyroxine, T4 Triiodothyronine, T3 The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... An antifungal drug is medication used to treat fungal infections such as athletes foot, ringworm, candidiasis (thrush), serious systemic infections such as cryptococcal meningitis, and others. ... Antiparasitics are a class of medications which are indicated for the treatment of infection by parasites such as nematodes, cestodes, trematodes, infectious protozoa, and amoebas. ... Antiprotozoal agents (ATC code: ATC P01) is a class of pharmaceuticals used in treatment of protozoal infections. ... Anthelmintics (in the U.S., antihelminthics) are drugs that expel parasitic worms (helminthes) from the body or kill them. ... In medicine, malignant is a clinical term that means to be severe and become progressively worse, as in malignant hypertension. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Chemotherapy, in its most general sense, refers to treatment of disease by chemicals that kill cells, specifically those of micro-organisms or cancer. ... Immunostimulators are substances (drugs and nutrients) that stimulate the immune system by inducing activation or increasing activity of any of its components. ... For a list of immunosuppressive drugs, see the transplant rejection page. ... For other uses of Muscle, see Muscle (disambiguation). ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... For other uses, see Joint (disambiguation). ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Crystal structure of human sex hormone-binding globulin, transporting 5α-dihydrotestosterone. ... Anti-inflammatory refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation. ... Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs is a category of drugs used in many autoimmune diseases to slow down disease progression. ... In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. ... A muscle relaxant is a drug which decreases the tone of a muscle. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... The nervous system is a highly specialized network whose principal components are nerves called neurons. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the condition of having the perception of pain and other sensations blocked. ... An analgesic (colloquially known as a painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia). ... The anticonvulsants, sometimes also called antiepileptics, belong to a diverse group of pharmaceuticals used in prevention of the occurrence of epileptic seizures. ... A mood stabilizer is a psychiatric medication used to treat mood disorders characterized by rapid and unstable mood shifts. ... In pharmacology, a psycholeptic is a medication which produces a calming effect upon the patient. ... An anxiolytic is a drug prescribed for the treatment of symptoms of anxiety. ... Hypnotic drugs are a class of drugs that induce sleep, used in the treatment of severe insomnia. ... A sedative is a substance that depresses the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in calmness, relaxation, reduction of anxiety, sleepiness, and slowed breathing, as well as slurred speech, staggering gait, poor judgment, and slow, uncertain reflexes. ... In pharmacology, a psychoanaleptic is a medication which produces an arousing effect upon the patient. ... Prozac, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Venlafaxine An antidepressant is a psychiatric medication or other substance (nutrient or herb) used for alleviating depression or dysthymia (milder depression). ... Sustained-Release 15mg Dexedrine Spansules. ... A psychostimulant is a substance that enhances locomotor behavior. ... Among quadrupeds, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... A bronchodilator is a medication intended to improve bronchial airflow. ... A decongestant is a broad class of drugs designed to symptomatically treat ailments affecting the respiratory system. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Antipsychotic drug - nuvunow.ca (203 words)
The term antipsychotic is applied to a group of drugs commonly but not exclusively used to treat psychosis.
Antipsychotic drugs are the best treatment now available, but they do not cure schizophrenia or ensure that there will be no further psychotic episodes.
The atypical antipsychotic agents, sometimes called the "novel" antipsychotic agents are a group of drugs which are different chemically from the older drugs used to...
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