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An antipope is a person who makes a widely accepted claim to be the lawful Pope, in opposition to the Pope recognized by the Roman Catholic Church. Antipopes are typically those supported by a fairly significant faction of cardinals. Persons who claim to be the Pope but have few followers, such as the modern Sedevacantist antipopes, are not generally counted as antipopes (though they technically are), and therefore ignored for regnal numbering. Roman Catholic image of Jesus Christ as the Sacred Heart - no copyright This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Antipope is a comic fantasy novel by the British author Robert Rankin. ... The current Pope is Benedict XVI (born Joseph Alois Ratzinger), who was elected at the age of 78 on 19 April 2005. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official, usually a bishop, of the Roman Catholic Church, a member of the College of Cardinals which as a body elects a new pope. ... Sedevacantist antipopes (more specifically but less commonly, conclavist antipopes), are religous leaders of breakaway Catholics, called sedevacantists. ... Ordinal numbers or regnal numbers are used to distinguish between persons with the same name who held the same office. ...


In several cases it is hard to tell which was, in fact, the lawful Pope and which the antipope.

Antipope Felix V, the last historically significant Antipope.
Antipope Felix V, the last historically significant Antipope.

In its list of the Popes, the Holy See's annual directory, Annuario Pontificio, attaches to the name of Pope Leo VIII (963-965) the following note: "At this point, as again in the mid-eleventh century, we come across elections in which problems of harmonizing historical criteria and those of theology and canon law make it impossible to decide clearly which side possessed the legitimacy whose factual existence guarantees the unbroken lawful succession of the Successors of Saint Peter. The uncertainty that in some cases results has made it advisable to abandon the assignation of successive numbers in the list of the Popes." In all cases it is clear that whichever was the Pope, the other was an antipope, since the claim of each was in fact widely accepted. Image File history File links Felix V (Amadeus VIII of Savoy) was the last historical Antipope. ... Image File history File links Felix V (Amadeus VIII of Savoy) was the last historical Antipope. ... Amadeus VIII (1383 - November 7, 1451), surnamed the Peaceful was the Count of Savoy from 1391 to 1416 and the Duke of Savoy from 1416 to 1440. ... The Annuario Pontificio or Pontifical Yearbook is the annual directory of the Holy See of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Leo VIII (died 965), Pope from 963 to 964, a Roman by birth, held the lay office of protoserinus when he was elected to the papal chair at the instance of Otto the Great, by the Roman synod which deposed John XII in December 963. ... Theology (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογια, logia, words, sayings, or discourse) is reasoned discourse concerning religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Canon law is the term used for the internal ecclesiastical law which governs various churches, most notably the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Churches and the Anglican Communion of churches. ...

Contents

History

Hippolytus (d. 235) is commonly recognized as the earliest antipope, as he protested against Pope Callixtus I and headed a separate group within the Roman Church. Hippolytus was later reconciled to Callixtus's second successor Pope Pontian, when both were condemned to the mines on the island of Sardinia. He has been canonized by the Church. Whether two or more persons have been confused in this account of Hippolytus,[1] and whether Hippolytus actually declared himself to be the Bishop of Rome, remains unclear, especially since no such claim is found in the extant writings attributed to him. Statue of Hippolytus, 3rd century. ... Callixtus I (also Callistus I) was pope from about 217 to 222, during the reigns of the Roman Emperors Elagabalus and Alexander Severus. ... Pontian (or Pontianus), was pope from July 21, 230 to September 28, 235. ... Sardinia (pronounced ; Italian: Sardegna; Sardinian: Sardigna or Sardinna) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily). ... Canonization is the process of declaring someone a saint and involves proving that a candidate has lived in such a way that he or she qualifies for this. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban...


The Catholic Encyclopedia also mentions a Natalius[2], before Hippolytus, as first antipope, who, according to Eusebius's EH5.28.8-12, quoting the Little Labyrinth of Hippolytus, after being "scourged all night by the holy angels", covered in ash, dressed in sackcloth, and "after some difficulty", tearfully submitted to Pope Zephyrinus. The Catholic Encyclopedia, also referred to today as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in 1913 by The Encyclopedia Press. ... A scourge (from the Italian scoriada, ultimately from the Latin excoriare = to flay and corium = skin) is a whip or lash, especially a multi-tong type used in order to inflict severe corporal punishment or self-mortification on the back. ... Hairshirt is also a 1998 movie. ... Pope Zephyrinus was pope from about 199 to 217. ...


Novatian (d. 258), another third-century figure, certainly claimed the See of Rome in opposition to Pope Cornelius, and is thus reckoned as the first unequivocal antipope. Novatian (2XX - 258) was a scholar and antipope who held the title between 251 and 258. ... Cornelius was elected pope on either March 6 or March 13, 251 during the lull in the persecution of the Roman Emperor Decius. ...


The period when antipopes were most numerous was during the struggles between the Popes and the Holy Roman Emperors of the 11th and 12th centuries. The emperors frequently imposed their own nominees, in order to further their cause. (The popes, likewise, sometimes sponsored rival imperial claimants in Germany in order to overcome a particular emperor.) The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ...


The Great Western Schism, which, on the grounds of the allegedly invalid election of Pope Urban VI, began in 1378 with the election of Clement VII, who took up residence in Avignon, France, led to two, and eventually three, rival lines of claimants to papacy: the Roman line, the Avignon line, and the Pisan line. The last-mentioned line was named after the town of Pisa, Italy, where the council that elected Alexander V as a third claimant was held. To end the schism, the Council of Constance deposed, in May 1415, John XXIII of the Pisan line, whose claim to legitimacy was based on a council's choice. Pope Gregory XII of the Roman line resigned in July 1415. The Council formally deposed Benedict XIII of the Avignon line, who refused to resign, in July 1417. Afterwards, Pope Martin V was elected and was accepted everywhere, except in the small and rapidly diminishing area that remained faithful to Benedict XIII. The scandal of the Great Schism created anti-papal sentiment and fed into the Protestant Reformation at the turn of the 16th century. Historical map of the Western Schism. ... Pope Urban VI (Naples c. ... For the other Clement VII who was Pope from 1523 to 1534, see Pope Clement VII. Robert of Geneva (1342-16 September 1394) was elected to the papacy by the French cardinals who opposed Urban VI, thereby becoming the first antipope of the Western Schism, as Pope Clement VII. He... City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Département Vaucluse (préfecture) Arrondissement Avignon Canton Chief town of 4 cantons Intercommunality Communauté dagglomération du Grand Avignon Mayor Marie-Josée Roig... This article discusses the Italian city. ... Alexander V (also Peter of Candia or Peter Philarges, c. ... The Council of Constance was an ecumenical council of the Catholic Church, called by the Emperor Sigismund, a supporter of Antipope John XXIII, the pope recently elected at Pisa. ... Antipope John XXIII Baldassare Cossa, (about 1370 – November 22, 1419), also known as John XXIII,was Pope or antipope during the Western Schism (1410–1415) and is now officially regarded by the Catholic Church as an antipope. ... Gregory XII, né Angelo Correr or Corraro (died October 18, 1417), Pope from 1406 to 1415, succeeded Pope Innocent VII (1404–06) on November 30, 1406, having been chosen at Rome by a conclave consisting of only fifteen cardinals, under the express condition that, should antipope Benedict XIII (1394–1423... Antipope Benedict XIII, born Pedro Martínez de Luna, (b. ... The Papal palace in Avignon In the history of the Roman Catholic Church, the Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1377 during which seven popes, all French, resided in Avignon: Pope Clement V: 1305–1314 Pope John XXII: 1316–1334 Pope Benedict XII: 1334–1342 Pope Clement VI... Events Antipope Benedict XIII is deposed, and Pope Martin V is elected. ... Martin V, né Oddone Colonna or Odo Colonna (1368 – February 20, 1431), Pope from 1417 to 1431, was elected on St. ... Benedict XIII, born Pedro Martínez de Luna, (b. ... Reformation redirects here. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ...


A list of significant antipopes

  1. Natalius, around 200, later reconciled (see above)
  2. Hippolytus 217–235, later reconciled with Pope Pontian (see above)
  3. Novatian, 251–258
  4. Felix II, 355–365
  5. Ursicinus (Ursinus), 366–367
  6. Eulalius, 418–419
  7. Laurentius, 498–499, 501–506
  8. Dioscorus, 530
  9. Theodore (II), 687
  10. Paschal (I), 687
  11. Constantine II, 767–768
  12. Philip, 768
  13. John VIII, 844
  14. Anastasius III Bibliothecarius, 855
  15. Christopher, 903–904
  16. Boniface VII, 974, 984–985
  17. John XVI (John Filagatto), 997–998
  18. Gregory VI, 1012
  19. Benedict X (John Mincius), 1058–1059
  20. Honorius II (Pietro Cadalus), 1061–1064
  21. Clement III (Guibert of Ravenna), 1080, 1084–1100
  22. Theodoric, 1100–1101
  23. Adalbert or Albert, 1101
  24. Sylvester IV (Maginulf), 1105–1111
  25. Gregory VIII (Maurice Burdanus), 1118–1121
  26. Celestine II (Thebaldus Buccapecus) 1124
  27. Anacletus II (Pietro Pierleoni), 1130–1138
  28. Victor IV (Gregorio Conti), 1138
  29. Victor IV (Ottavio di Montecelio), 1159–1164
  30. Paschal III (Guido di Crema), 1164–1168
  31. Callixtus III (Giovanni of Struma), 1168–1178
  32. Innocent III (Lanzo of Sezza), 1179–1180
  33. Nicholas V (Pietro Rainalducci), 1328–1330
  34. Clement VII (Robert of Geneva), 1378–1394 (Avignon obedience)
  35. Benedict XIII (Pedro de Luna), 1394–1423 (Avignon obedience)
  36. Alexander V (Pietro Philarghi), 1409–1410 (Pisan obedience)
  37. John XXIII (Baldassare Cossa), 1410–1415 (Pisan obedience)
  38. Clement VIII (Gil Sánchez Muñoz), 1423–1429(Avignon obedience)
  39. Benedict XIV (Bernard Garnier), 1424–1429(Avignon obedience)
  40. Benedict XIV (Jean Carrier), 1430–1437(Avignon obedience)
  41. Felix V (Duke Amadeus VIII of Savoy), 5 November 14397 April 1449 (elected by the Council of Basel)

The list of Popes and Antipopes in the Annuario Pontificio does not include Natalius (perhaps because of the uncertainty of the evidence) nor Antipope Clement VIII. It may be that the following of the latter was considered insufficiently significant, like that of "Benedict XIV", who is mentioned along with him in the Catholic Encyclopedia article on Pope Martin V. Statue of Hippolytus, 3rd century. ... Pontian (or Pontianus), was pope from July 21, 230 to September 28, 235. ... Novatian (2XX - 258) was a scholar and antipope who held the title between 251 and 258. ... Felix II is generally considered an antipope rather than a pope. ... Ursicinus, also known as Ursinus was elected pope in a violently contested election in 366 as a rival to Pope Damasus I, ruled in Rome for several months in 366 – 367, was afterwards declared the antipope, and died after 381. ... Antipope Eulalius (died 423) was an antipope who reigned from December 418 to April 419, although elected the day before Pope Boniface I. Honorius, the Emperor, called a Synod — the first intervention by the Emperor in a Papal election — to decide upon the matter. ... Laurentius (Laurence) was an antipope of the Roman Catholic church, from 498 to 499 and from 501 to 506. ... Discorus, Antipope from 22 September 530 – 14 October 530. ... Theodore was an antipope of the Roman Catholic church, during the year of 687. ... Paschal was an antipope of the Roman Catholic church, during the year of 687. ... Antipope Constantine II was an antipope from 767 to 768, during the reign of Pope Stephen IV. He was killed by the Lombards, when prisoner in the monastery of San Saba. ... Antipope Philip was pope for only one day (July 31, 768). ... John was an antipope of the Roman Catholic church, during the year of 433. ... Anastasius III Bibliothecarius (circa 810- 879) was an antipope of the Roman Catholic Church, during the year 855. ... Christopher was an antipope from October 903 to January 904, probably dying that year. ... Boniface VII (died July 20, 985), who attained the papal chair in 974, is sometimes styled an antipope. ... John XVI (originally John Piligato or Philagathus) (died 1013?) was an Italian antipope between 997 and 998. ... Gregory VI, né Johannes Gratianus, pope from 1045 to 1046, had earned a high reputation for learning and probity. ... Pope Benedict X (reigned 1058-1059; died ca. ... Honorius II (d. ... Guibert or Wibert of Ravenna (c. ... Theodoric was an antipope in 1100 and 1101. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Sylvester IV was a claimant to the papacy from 1105 to 1111. ... Gregory VIII (d. ... Celestine II (born Teobaldo Boccapecci or Boccapeconai, Latin Thebaldus Buccapecuc) was an antipope from December 15 or 16, 1124 to 1125 or 1126. ... Anacletus II, born Pietro Pierloni, (d. ... Victor IV, born Gregorio Conti was chosen by a party in succession to the antipope Anacletus II (1130–38) on March 13, 1138, but through the influence of Bernard of Clairvaux was induced two months afterwards to make his submission to Pope Innocent II (1130–43). ... This article is about the former Cardinal Octavianus, antipope from 1159 to 1164. ... Antipope Paschal III (or Paschal III) was Antipope from 1164 to September 20, 1168. ... Antipope Callixtus III (or Callistus III) was Antipope from September 1168 to 29 August 1178. ... Innocent III (Lanzo of Sezza) was an antipope during 1179 to 1180. ... Nicholas V, born Pietro Rainalducci (died October 16, 1333) was an antipope in Italy from May 12, 1328 to July 25, 1330 during the pontificate of Pope John XXII (1316–34) at Avignon. ... For the other Clement VII who was Pope from 1523 to 1534, see Pope Clement VII. Robert of Geneva (1342-16 September 1394) was elected to the papacy by the French cardinals who opposed Urban VI, thereby becoming the first antipope of the Western Schism, as Pope Clement VII. He... The Papal palace in Avignon In the history of the Roman Catholic Church, the Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1377 during which seven popes, all French, resided in Avignon: Pope Clement V: 1305–1314 Pope John XXII: 1316–1334 Pope Benedict XII: 1334–1342 Pope Clement VI... Antipope Benedict XIII, born Pedro Martínez de Luna, (b. ... The Papal palace in Avignon In the history of the Roman Catholic Church, the Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1377 during which seven popes, all French, resided in Avignon: Pope Clement V: 1305–1314 Pope John XXII: 1316–1334 Pope Benedict XII: 1334–1342 Pope Clement VI... Alexander V (also Peter of Candia or Peter Philarges, c. ... This article incorporates text from the public domain Catholic Encyclopedia Preliminaries The Great Schism of the West had lasted thirty years (since 1378), and none of the means employed to bring it to an end had been successful. ... Antipope John XXIII Baldassare Cossa, (about 1370 – November 22, 1419), also known as John XXIII,was Pope or antipope during the Western Schism (1410–1415) and is now officially regarded by the Catholic Church as an antipope. ... This article incorporates text from the public domain Catholic Encyclopedia Preliminaries The Great Schism of the West had lasted thirty years (since 1378), and none of the means employed to bring it to an end had been successful. ... Clement VIII is one of the antipopes of the Avignon line, reigning from 10 June 1423 to 26 July 1429. ... The Papal palace in Avignon In the history of the Roman Catholic Church, the Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1377 during which seven popes, all French, resided in Avignon: Pope Clement V: 1305–1314 Pope John XXII: 1316–1334 Pope Benedict XII: 1334–1342 Pope Clement VI... Benedict XIV (died circa 1433) was Counter-Antipope from 1425 to 1433. ... The Papal palace in Avignon In the history of the Roman Catholic Church, the Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1377 during which seven popes, all French, resided in Avignon: Pope Clement V: 1305–1314 Pope John XXII: 1316–1334 Pope Benedict XII: 1334–1342 Pope Clement VI... Benedict XIV (died circa 1433) was Counter-Antipope from 1425 to 1433. ... The Papal palace in Avignon In the history of the Roman Catholic Church, the Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1377 during which seven popes, all French, resided in Avignon: Pope Clement V: 1305–1314 Pope John XXII: 1316–1334 Pope Benedict XII: 1334–1342 Pope Clement VI... Amadeus VIII (1383 - November 7, 1451), surnamed the Peaceful was the Count of Savoy from 1391 to 1416 and the Duke of Savoy from 1416 to 1440. ... November 5 is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 56 days remaining. ... Events Battle of Grotnik, which ended the hussite movement in Poland Eric of Pomerania, King of Sweden, Denmark and Norway is declared deposed in Sweden. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Events January 6 - Constantine XI is crowned Byzantine Emperor. ... A decree of the Council of Constance (9 October 1417), sanctioned by Pope Martin V obliged the papacy to summon general councils periodically. ... The Annuario Pontificio or Pontifical Yearbook is the annual directory of the Holy See of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Clement VIII is one of the antipopes of the Avignon line, reigning from 10 June 1423 to 26 July 1429. ...


As for Silvester III, sometimes listed as an Antipope, the Holy See's Annuario Pontificio classifies him as a Pope, not an Antipope. In line with its above-quoted remark on the obscurities about the canon law of the time and the historical facts, especially in the mid-eleventh century (see the second paragraph of this article), it makes no judgement on the legitimacy of his takeover of the position of Pope in 1045. The Catholic Encyclopedia places him in its List of Popes, though with the annotation: "Considered by some to be an antipope". Silvester III, né John of Crescenzi – Ottaviani family (born in Rome; probably died in 1062 or 1063); was Pope in 1045. ...


Current antipopes

Manuel Corral known as "Pope Peter II" is the head of The Palmarian Catholic Church (One Holy Catholic Apostolic and Palmarian Church) Palmarian Pope Peter II Manuel Alonso Corral, known by his supporters as Pope Peter II, is the current leader of the Palmarian Catholic Church. ... The cathedral of Palmar de Troya The Palmarian Catholic Church (One Holy Catholic Apostolic and Palmarian Church) is a schismatic Catholic sect with its own pope, Peter II. He is a rival pope, or antipope, to Pope Benedict XVI. Pope Benedict XVI is the leader of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


David Bawden known as "Pope Michael I" considers himself as a head of overall Catholic church The Conclavist Antipope Michael I (David Bawden). ...


Lucian Pulvermacher known as "Pope Pius XIII" is a Roman Catholic priest who was elected in October 1998 by the True Catholic Church Conclavist Pope Pius XIII Father Earl Lucian Pulvermacher, OFM Cap (born April 20, 1918) was elected Pope Pius XIII of the true Catholic Church, a small conclavist group regarded as schismatic by orthodox Roman Catholics, in October 1998. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... The true Catholic Church (tCC) is a small Roman Catholic Conclavist (see sedevacantism) group based in Kalispell, Montana, United States. ...


Jean-Gaston Tremblay known as "John-Gregory XVII" considers himself as a head of overall Catholic church Jean Grégoire de La Trinité, alias Jean-Gaston Tremblay, from Canada proclaimed himself Pope Gregory XVII in 1968; however, it must be noted that Tremblay usually styles himself Pope John-Gregory XVII. He is the self syled successor of an ultra-modernist, reformist French antipope, Michel Collin, founder of...


George Abraham Toth, known as King Bill Tath, considers himself to be the Pope of all Popes. He is the spiritual leader of the Tathian Church.


See also

Antipopes have appeared as fictional characters. ... Sedevacantist antipopes (more specifically but less commonly, conclavist antipopes), are religous leaders of breakaway Catholics, called sedevacantists. ... Popes buried in St. ...

References


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    CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Guibert of Ravenna (1165 words)
    election of the antipope, Cadalous of Parma (Honorius II), and became an opponent of Pope Alexander II.
    The antipope failed to secure recognition outside of Henry's dominions; he was in fact but a tool in the hands of the latter, and quite devoid of personal initiative.
    In June, 1089, at a pseudo-synod held in Rome, the antipope declared invalid the decree of excommunication launched against Henry, and various charges were made against the supporters of the legitimate pope.
    Antipope - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (897 words)
    An antipope is one who, in opposition to the generally recognized Pope, makes a widely accepted claim to be the lawful Pope.
    The period when antipopes were most numerous was during the struggles between the Popes and the Holy Roman Emperors of the 11th and 12th centuries.
    The classification of Silvester III as an Antipope (as above) is doubtful.
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