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Encyclopedia > Antipodes
This map shows the antipodes of each point on the Earth's surface – the points where the blue and pink overlap are land antipodes. Notice that most land has an antipode in the ocean. This map uses the Lambert azimuthal equal-area projection.

In geography, the antipodes (from Greek anti- "opposed" and pous "foot"; pronounced [ænˈtɪpəˌdiːz]) of any place on Earth is its antipodal point; that is, the region on the Earth's surface which is diametrically opposite to it. Two points which are antipodal [ænˈtɪpədəl] to one another are connected by a straight line through the centre of the Earth. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1890 × 1890 pixel, file size: 258 KB, MIME type: image/png) Map of antipodes of the Earth, in Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1890 × 1890 pixel, file size: 258 KB, MIME type: image/png) Map of antipodes of the Earth, in Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Map of the Earth using a Lambert azimuthal equal-area projection The Lambert azimuthal equal-area projection, or Lambert azimuthal projection, is an equal-area map projection. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... In mathematics, the antipodal point of a point on the surface of a sphere is the point which is diametrically opposite it — so situated that a line drawn from the one to the other passes through the centre of the sphere and forms a true diameter. ...


In the United Kingdom and Ireland, "the Antipodes" is often used to refer to Australia and New Zealand[2] (and "Antipodeans" for their inhabitants), despite the fact that neither Australia nor New Zealand actually overlap the antipodal points of the British Isles. However, New Zealand (or more precisely the North Island and the northern tip of the South island) is antipodal to Spain and Northern Portugal, as shown on the map. They also sometimes broaden the term to refer to South Africa and Oceania as well, so in their view it basically any former British territory 'south of the equator' though as shown before this is geographically incorrect. The British Isles in relation to mainland Europe The British Isles (French: , Irish: [1] or Oileáin Iarthair Eorpa,[2] Manx: Ellanyn Goaldagh, Scottish Gaelic: , Welsh: ), are a group of islands off the northwest coast of continental Europe comprising Great Britain, Ireland and a number of smaller islands. ... World map exhibiting a common interpretation of Oceania; other interpretations may vary. ...

Contents

Geography

The antipodes of any place on the Earth is the place which is diametrically opposite it — so situated that a line drawn from the one to the other passes through the centre of the Earth and forms a true diameter. For example, the antipodes of New Zealand's north island lies in Spain. Most of the earth's land surfaces have ocean at its antipodes, this being a consequence of most land being in the northern hemisphere. DIAMETER is a computer networking protocol for AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting). ... DIAMETER is a computer networking protocol for AAA (Authentication, Authorization and Accounting). ...


An antipodal point is sometimes called an antipode, a back-formation from the Greek plural antipodes, whose singular in Greek is antipous. In etymology, the process of back-formation is the creation of a neologism by reinterpreting an earlier word as a compound and removing the spuriously supposed affixes. ...


The antipodes of any place on Earth must be distant from it by 180° of longitude, and must be as many degrees to the north of the equator as the original is to the south; in other words, the latitudes are numerically equal, but one is north and the other south. The map shown above is based on this relationship; it shows a mercator projection map of the Earth, in red, overlaid on which is another map, in yellow, shifted horizontally by 180° of longitude and inverted about the equator with respect to latitude. This map allows the antipodes of any point on the Earth to be easily located. Longitude is the east-west geographic coordinate measurement most commonly utilized in cartography and global navigation. ... World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ... Latitude,usually denoted symbolically by the Greek letter phi, , gives the location of a place on Earth north or south of the equator. ... Mercator world map Nova et Aucta Orbis Terrae Descriptio ad Usum Navigatium Emendate (1569) The Mercator projection is a cylindrical map projection presented by the Flemish geographer and cartographer Gerardus Mercator, in 1569. ...


Noon at the one place is midnight at the other (although daylight saving and irregularly-shaped time zones affect this in most places); seasonally, the longest day at one point corresponds to the shortest day at the other, and midwinter at one point is contemporaneous with midsummer at the other. Noon is the time exactly halfway through the day, written 12:00 in the 24-hour clock and 12:00 noon in the 12-hour clock. ... For other uses, see Midnight (disambiguation) Midnight, literally the middle of the night, is a time arbitrarily designated to determine the end of a day and the beginning of the next in some, mainly Western, cultures. ... Daylight saving time (also called DST, or Summer Time) is the local time a region is designated for a portion of the year, usually an hour forward from its standard official time. ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of the northern winter solstice In astronomy, the winter solstice is the moment when the earth is at a point in its orbit where one hemisphere is most inclined away from the sun. ... Midsummer may refer to the period of time centered upon the summer solstice and the diverse celebrations of it around the world, but more often refers to European celebrations that accompany the summer solstice, or to Western festivals that take place in June and are usually related to Saint John...


In the calculation of days and nights, midnight on the one side may be regarded as corresponding to the noon either of the previous or of the following day. If a voyager sails eastward, and thus anticipates the sun, his dating will be twelve hours in advance, while the reckoning of another who has been sailing westward will be as much in arrears. There will thus be a difference of twenty-four hours between the two when they meet. To avoid the confusion of dates which would thus arise, it is necessary to determine a meridian at which dates should be brought into agreement, known as the International Date Line. On the earth, a meridian is a north-south line between the North Pole and the South Pole. ... The International Date Line around 180° This article is about the line dividing time zones; see Dateline (disambiguation) for other meanings, including the television program. ...


Mathematical description

If the coordinates (longitude and latitude) of a point on the Earth’s surface are (θ, φ), then the coordinates of the antipodal point can be written as (θ ± 180°,−φ). This relation holds true whether the Earth is approximated as a perfect sphere or as a reference ellipsoid. See Cartesian coordinate system or Coordinates (elementary mathematics) for a more elementary introduction to this topic. ... Longitude is the east-west geographic coordinate measurement most commonly utilized in cartography and global navigation. ... Latitude,usually denoted symbolically by the Greek letter phi, , gives the location of a place on Earth north or south of the equator. ... A sphere is a perfectly symmetrical geometrical object. ... In geodesy, a reference ellipsoid is a mathematically-defined surface that approximates the geoid, the truer figure of the Earth, or other planetary body. ...


Etymology

The Greek word is attested in Plato's dialogue Timaeus, already referring to a spherical Earth, explaining the relativity of the terms "above" and "below": PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... Timaeus is a theoretical treatise of Plato in the form of a Socratic dialogue, written circa 360 BC. The work puts forward speculation on the nature of the physical world. ...

For if there were any solid body in equipoise at the centre of the universe, there would be nothing to draw it to this extreme rather than to that, for they are all perfectly similar; and if a person were to go round the world in a circle, he would often, when standing at the antipodes of his former position, speak of the same point as above and below; for, as I was saying just now, to speak of the whole which is in the form of a globe as having one part above and another below is not like a sensible man.

Plato[1]

The term is taken up by Aristotle (De caelo 308a.20), Strabo, Plutarch and Diogenes Laertius, and was adopted into Latin as antipodes. The Latin word changed its sense from the original "under the feet, opposite side" to "those with the feet opposite", i.e. a bahuvrihi referring to hypothetical people living on the opposite side of the Earth. Medieval illustrations imagine them in some way "inverted", with their feet growing out of their heads, pointing upward. Aristotle (Greek: AristotélÄ“s) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Diogenes Laërtius, the biographer of the Greek philosophers, is supposed by some to have received his surname from the town of Laerte in Cilicia, and by others from the Roman family of the Laërtii. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... A bahuvrihi (बहुवृहि), or bahuvrihi compound, is a particular kind of compound word that refers to something that is not specified by any of its parts by themselves (i. ...


In this sense, Antipodes first entered English in 1398 in a translation of the 13th century De Proprietatibus Rerum by Bartholomeus Anglicus, translated by John of Trevisa: The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Events Glendalough monastery, Wicklow Ireland destroyed. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Bartholomeus Anglicus (Bartholomew of England) was an early 13th century scholastic scholar of Paris, a member of the Franciscan order. ... John Trevisa (1326 - 1412), translator, was a Cornishman, educated at Oxford, was Vicar of Berkeley, Gloucestershire, and chaplain to the 4th Lord Berkeley, and Canon of Westbury. ...

Yonde in Ethiopia ben the Antipodes, men that haue theyr fete ayenst our fete.

(Translation: Yonder in Ethiopia are the Antipodes, men that have their feet against our feet.)

Historical significance

The term plays a certain role in the discussion about the shape of the Earth. The antipodes being an attribute of a spherical Earth, some authors used their perceived absurdity as an argument for a flat Earth. However, knowledge of the spherical Earth being widespread even during the Dark Ages, only occasionally disputed on theological grounds, the medieval dispute surrounding the antipodes mainly concerned the question whether they were inhabitable: since the torrid clime was considered impassable, it would have been impossible to evangelize them, posing a dilemma between two equally unacceptable possibilities that either Christ had appeared a second time in the antipodes, or that the inhabitants of the antipodes were irredeemably damned. Such an argument was forwarded by the Spanish theologian Tostatus as late as the 15th century. Image File history File links Climatic_zones_and_antipodes. ... Medieval artistic representation of a spherical Earth - with compartments representing earth, air, and water (c. ... For the record label, see Flat Earth Records. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The seven climes (klima, plural klimata, meaning inclination, referring to the angle between the axis of the celestial sphere and the horizon) was a notion of dividing the Earth into zones in Classical Antiquity. ... Evangelism is the proclaiming of the Christian Gospel. ... Christ is the English term for the Greek word (Christós), which literally means The Anointed One. ... Alonso Tostado Abulensis (ca. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ...


Saint Augustine (354–430) argued against people inhabiting the antipodes: “Augustinus” redirects here. ...

But as to the fable that there are Antipodes, that is to say, men on the opposite side of the earth, where the sun rises when it sets to us, men who walk with their feet opposite ours, that is on no ground credible. And, indeed, it is not affirmed that this has been learned by historical knowledge, but by scientific conjecture, on the ground that the earth is suspended within the concavity of the sky, and that it has as much room on the one side of it as on the other: hence they say that the part which is beneath must also be inhabited. But they do not remark that, although it be supposed or scientifically demonstrated that the world is of a round and spherical form, yet it does not follow that the other side of the earth is bare of water; nor even, though it be bare, does it immediately follow that it is peopled.

Saint Augustine[2]

Since these people would have to be descended from Adam, they would have had to travel to the other side of the Earth at some point; Augustine continues: Michelangelos The Creation of Adam, a fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, shows God creating Adam, with Eve in His arm. ...

... it is too absurd to say, that some men might have taken ship and traversed the whole wide ocean, and crossed from this side of the world to the other, and that thus even the inhabitants of that distant region are descended from that one first man.

The author of the Norwegian book Konungs Skuggsjá, from around 1250, discusses the existence of antipodes. He notes that they (if they exist) will see the Sun in the north in the middle of the day - and that they will have opposite seasons of the people living in the Northern Hemisphere. A page from Konungs skuggsjá. Konungs skuggsjá (Old Norse for Kings mirror; Latin: Speculum regale, modern Norwegian: Kongespeilet) is a Norwegian educational scripture from around 1250, dealing with politics and moral. ...


The first European who actually visited the Southern Hemisphere was Marco Polo (on his way home, sailing south of the Malay Peninsula in 1292). He noted that it was impossible to see the star Polaris from there. Marco Polo (September 15, 1254 – January 8, 1324) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ... The Malay Peninsula (Malay: Semenanjung Tanah Melayu) is a major peninsula located in Southeast Asia. ... Polaris (α UMi / α Ursae Minoris / Alpha Ursae Minoris), more commonly known as The North Star or simply North Star, is the brightest star in the constellation Ursa Minor. ...


The idea of dry land, inhabited or not, in the Southern climes, the Terra Australis was introduced by Ptolemy, and appears on European maps as an imaginary continent from the 15th century. In spite of having been discovered relatively late by European explorers, Australia was inhabited very early in human history, the ancestors of the Indigenous Australians having reached it at least 50,000 years ago. Terra Australis is the large continent on the bottom of the map Terra Australis (also: Terra Australis Incognita, Latin for the unknown land of the South) was an imaginary continent, appearing on European maps from the 15th to the 18th century. ... A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; ca. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Indigenous Australians are descendants of the first known human inhabitants of the Australian continent and its nearby islands. ...


List of antipodes

On Earth

City Hall in Hamilton. ... The Perth skyline viewed from the Swan River This article is about the metropolitan area of Perth, Western Australia. ... Motto: (Spanish for From Madrid to Heaven) Location Coordinates: , Country Spain Autonomous Community Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid Province Madrid Administrative Divisions 21 Neighborhoods 127 Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón Jimémez (PP) Area  - Land 607 km² (234. ... Taumata sign, March 2007 Taumatawhakatangihangakoauauotamateapokaiwhenuakitanatahu is the Māori name for an otherwise unremarkable hill, 305 metres high, close to Porangahau, south of Waipukurau in southern Hawkes Bay, New Zealand. ... District or region Bragança Mayor   - Party António Machado PSD Area 760. ... // The City of Nelson is situated very close to the centre of New Zealand. ... Coat of arms Foz is a town and municipality in Lugo in Galicia province in north-west Spain. ... Christchurch (Māori: ) is the regional capital of Canterbury, New Zealand. ... See also: Kingdom of Great Britain Satellite Image of Great Britain Great Britain is the largest island of the British Isles. ... Schematic map of Auckland. ... Buenos Aires (BWEH-naus EYE-ress, literally Good Winds in Spanish, but more akin to Fair Winds, as in navigation) is the capital of Argentina and its largest city and port, as well as one of the largest in South America. ... Shanghai (Chinese: ; pinyin:  ; Wu (Long-short): ZÃ¥nhae; Shanghainese (IPA): ), situated on the banks of the Yangtze River Delta in East China, is the largest city of the Peoples Republic of China and the seventh largest in the world. ... Formosa is the capital city of Formosa Department, Formosa Province, Argentina. ... The Krâvanh Mountains, or literally Cardamom Mountains (Khmer regular script: , Chuor Phnom Krâvanh; Thai: เขาบรรทัด, Khao Banthat), is a mountain range in the south-west area of Cambodia, near the border with Thailand. ... Nickname: Motto: Hoc signum vere regum est Lima Province and Lima within Peru Coordinates: , Country  Peru Region Lima Region Province Lima Province Settled January 18, 1535 Government  - Mayor Luis Castañeda Lossio Area  - City 804. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Moruroa Moruroa Moruroa (Mururura, Mururoa) (21°50′S 138°55′W.) is an atoll which forms part of the Tuamoto archipelago in French Polynesia in the southern Pacific Ocean. ... Location of Santiago commune in Greater Santiago Coordinates: , Region Santiago Metropolitan Region Province Santiago Province Foundation February 12, 1541 Government  - Mayor Raúl Alcaíno Lihn Area 1  - City 22. ... Yuncheng (Simplified Chinese: 运城; Traditional Chinese: 运城; pinyin: ) is the southernmost prefecture-level city in Shanxi province, China. ... Linares is a city located in the VII Region (Maule) in central Chile and lies 303 km south of Santiago. ... Chiclayo is a city on the northern coastal plain in Peru. ... Satun (Thai: สตูล) is a town in southern Thailand, capital of the Satun province. ... Haikou (Chinese: 海口; pinyin: ), situated at the north of Hainan island, is the capital of Hainan Province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Arica, Chile 2005 Arica is a port city in northern Chile, located only 18 km (11 miles) south of the border with Peru. ... Ulan-Ude (Ула́н-Удэ́, Buryat: Улаан-Удэ), formerly Verkhneudinsk (Верхнеу́динск), the capital of Buryatia, Russia, is located at the foot of the mountains and is... The Buryat Republic (Russian: Респу́блика Буря́тия; Buryat: Буряад Республика) is a Russian Federation (a republic). ... Founded 1911 Original Name Puerto Natales Region Magallanes y la Antártica Chilena Region Area 49,924 km² Population 19,116 Inhabitants Time zone Santiago Time Zone, UTC- 4 Telephone Prefix (56)-61 Gentilic Puerto Natalinos Mayor Mario Margoni Gadler (Independent) (2004-2008) Map of Natales in red, in the... A true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite image, the entire Strait is visible A map of the Strait of Magellan The Strait of Magellan is a navigable sea route immediately south of mainland Chile, South America and north of Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego. ... Chita may refer to one of the following. ... Lake Baikal (Russian: , pronounced ; Buryat and Mongol: Dalai-Nor) lies in Southern Siberia in Russia between Irkutsk Oblast to the northwest and Buryatia to the southeast near the city of Irkutsk. ... “Siberian” redirects here. ... Map of the Hawaiian Islands, a chain of islands that stretches 2,400 km in a northwesterly direction from the southern tip of the Island of Hawai‘i. ... Official language(s) English[1] Spoken language(s) English 85. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...

Other bodies

The Caloris Basin, also called Caloris Planitia, is an impact crater, on Mercury, which is ~1350km in diameter. ... This article is about the planet. ... 1967 photograph made by NASAs Lunar Orbiter 4 Like a target ring bulls-eye, the lunar mare Mare Orientale (the eastern sea) is one of the most striking large scale lunar features. ... Mare Marginis (sea of the eagle) is a lunar mare that lies on the very edge of the lunar nearside. ... For other moons in the solar system see natural satellite. ... Oblique view of Mare Imbrium looking south towards Copernicus crater. ... Located on the Moons southern hemisphere, Mare Ingenii (sea of cleverness) is one of the few lunar mare features on the far side of the Moon. ... For other moons in the solar system see natural satellite. ... Argyre Planitia is a plain located in the Argyre impact basin in the southern highlands of Mars between -35 and -61 deg S and 27 and 62 deg W. The basin is approximately 1120 miles (1800 kilometers) wide, the second-largest impact basin on Mars after Hellas Planitia, and drops... PIA00571: Ice on Mars Utopia Planitia Again (NASA/JPL) Utopia Planitia is the Martian location where the Viking 2 Mars lander arrived and first explored on September 3, 1976. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ...

See also

In mathematics, the antipodal point of a point on the surface of a sphere is the point which is diametrically opposite it — so situated that a line drawn from the one to the other passes through the centre of the sphere and forms a true diameter. ... The seven climes (klima, plural klimata, meaning inclination, referring to the angle between the axis of the celestial sphere and the horizon) was a notion of dividing the Earth into zones in Classical Antiquity. ... Medieval artistic representation of a spherical Earth - with compartments representing earth, air, and water (c. ... The position of the Antipodes Islands relative to New Zealand, and other outlying islands. ... Antichthones, in geography, are those peoples who inhabit countries on opposite sides of the Earth. ...

References

  1. ^ Plato, Timaeus 63a, translated by Benjamin Jowett, (Indianapolis: Bobbs Merrill, 1949).[1]
  2. ^ De Civitate Dei, Book XVI, Chapter 9 — Whether We are to Believe in the Antipodes, translated by Rev. Marcus Dods, D.D.; from the Christian Classics Ethereal Library at Calvin College

Marcus Dods (April 11, 1834 - April 26, 1909) was a Scottish divine and biblical scholar. ...

External links

  • Earth Sandwich Map dual-image map to locate the antipodes of any location on Earth.
  • Antipodes map dual-image map to locate the antipodes of any location on Earth.
  • Latitude and Longitude converter and Antipodal calculator Includes an antipodes location point calculator and tells the antipodal location distance. Also provides a latitude and longitude converter which can convert latitude and longitude from degree, decimal form to degree, minutes, seconds form and vice versa.
  • Antipodes map Interactive maps to locate antipodal map locations

  Results from FactBites:
 
Antipodes - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1173 words)
In geography, the antipodes (from Greek anti- "opposed" and pous "foot") of any place on Earth is its antipodal point; that is, the region on the Earth's surface which is diametrically opposite to it.
The antipodes of any place on the Earth is the place which is diametrically opposite it — so situated that a line drawn from the one to the other passes through the centre of the Earth and forms a true diameter.
The antipodes of any place on Earth must be distant from it by 180° of longitude, and must be as many degrees to the north of the equator as the original is to the south; in other words, the latitudes are numerically equal, but one is north and the other south.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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