FACTOID # 16: In the 2000 Presidential Election, Texas gave Ralph Nader the 3rd highest popular vote count of any US state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Antimycotics

An antifungal drug is medication used to treat fungal infections such as athlete's foot, ringworm and candidiasis (thrush), as well as serious systemic infections like cryptococcal meningitis. Such drugs can be either prescription drugs or OTC drugs. An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Ringworm, also known as Tinea, is a contagious fungal infection of the skin. ... Cryptococcus is a genus of fungus. ... Meningitis is the inflammation (infection) of the meninges which are the membranes that cover the brain and spine. ... Over-the-counter substances, also abbreviated OTC, are drugs and other medical remedies that may be sold without a prescription and without a visit to a medical professional, in contrast to prescription only medicines (POM). ...

Contents

List of antifungal drugs

Antifungals work by exploiting differences between mammalian and fungal cells to kill off the fungal organism without significantly harming the host. Unlike bacteria, both fungi and humans are eukaryotes. The basic structure of fungal cells and human cells is nearly identical. This means it is more difficult to find a target for an antifungal medication to attack that does not also exist in the infected organism. Consequently, there are often side-effects to these drugs. Some of these side-effects can be life-threatening. Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Glomeromycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota Deuteromycota Fungi (singular fungus) are a kingdom of eukaryotic organisms. ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Protista Alternative Phylogeny Unikonta    Opisthokonta    Amoebozoa Bikonta    Apusozoa    Cabozoa       Rhizaria       Excavata    Corticata       Archaeplastida       Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms with a complex cell or cells, where the genetic material is organized into a membrane-bound nucleus or nuclei. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell. Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... Adverse effect, in medicine, is an abnormal, harmful, undesired and/or unintended side-effect, although not necessarily unexpected, which is obtained as the result of a therapy or other medical intervention, such as drug/chemotherapy, physical therapy, surgery, medical procedure, use of a medical device, etc. ...


There are several classes of antifungal drugs.


Polyene antimycotic

A polyene is a circular molecule consisting of a hydrophobic and hydrophilic region. This makes polyene an amphoteric molecule. The polyene antimycotics bind with sterols in the fungal cell membrane, principally ergosterol. This changes the transition temperature (Tm) of the cell membrane from a fluid to a more crystalline state. As a result, the cell's contents leak out (usually the hydrophilic contents) and the cell dies. Animal cells contain cholesterol instead of ergosterol and so they are much less susceptible. (Note: by reducing the hydrophobic chain on the polyene creates a more active sterol binding agent. Therefore, reducing the hydrophobic region too much results in binding to cholesterol, making it toxic to animals.) Sterols, or steroid alcohols are a subgroup of steroids with a hydroxyl group in the 3-position of the A-ring. ... The cell membrane (also called the plasma membrane or plasmalemma) is a semipermeable lipid bilayer common to all living cells. ... Ergosterol (ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β-ol), a sterol, is the biological precursor to Vitamin D2. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol) and a lipid found in the cell membranes of all body tissues, and transported in the blood plasma of all animals. ...

Natamycin, also known as pimaricin, is a polyene antifungal drug. ... Filipin was isolated by chemists at the Upjohn company in 1955 from the mycelium and culture filtrates of a previously unknown actinomycete, Streptomyces filipinensis, that was discovered in a soil sample collected in the Philippine Islands. ... Nystatin (Nystan®, Infestat®, Nystamont®) is an polyene antimycotic drug Nystatin is considered one of the clean drugs as it has no proven side effects. ... Amphotericin B (Fungilin®, Fungizone®, Abelcet®, AmBisome®, Fungisome®, Amphocil®, Amphotec®) is a polyene antimycotic drug, used intravenously in systemic fungal infections. ...

Imidazole and triazole

The imidazole and triazole groups of antifungal drugs inhibit the enzyme cytochrome P450 14α-demethylase. This enzyme converts lanosterol to ergosterol, and is required in fungal cell wall synthesis. These drugs also block steroid synthesis in humans. Imidazole is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound. ... Triazole refers to either one of a pair of isomeric chemical compounds with molecular formula C2H3N3, having a five-membered ring of two carbon atoms and three nitrogen atoms. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Lanosterol is a tetracyclic triterpenoid which is the compound from which all steroids are derived. ... Steroid skeleton of lanosterol. ...


Imidazoles:

The triazoles are newer, and are less toxic and more effective: Miconazole is an imidazole antifungal agent commonly applied topically (to the skin) or mucus membranes to cure fungal infections. ... Nizoral® logo Ketoconazole is a synthetic antifungal drug used to prevent and treat skin and fungal infections, especially in immunocompromised patients such as those with AIDS. Due to its side-effect profile, it has been superseded by newer antifungals, such as fluconazole and itraconazole. ... Clotrimazole is a potent, specific inhibitor of p450 enzymes. ... Econazole nitrate is an antifungal medication of the imidazole class. ... Oxiconazole nitrate (US: Oxistat®, Canada: Oxizole®) is an antifungal medication typically used as a cream or lotion to treat skin infections such as athletes foot. ... Sertaconazole nitrate (Ertaczo®) is an antifungal medication of the imidazole class. ... Sulconazole nitrate (Exelderm®) is an antifungal medication of the imidazole class. ... Tioconazole is an antifungal medication used to treat infections caused by a fungus or yeast. ...

Fluconazole (INN) (IPA: ) is a triazole antifungal drug used in the treatment and prevention of superficial and systemic fungal infections. ... Itraconazole (marketed as Sporanox® by Janssen Pharmaceutica) is an antifungal agent that is prescribed to patients with fungal infections. ... Posaconazole is a triazole antifungal drug that is used to treat invasive infections by Candida species and Aspergillus species in severely immunocompromised patients. ... Voriconazole Voriconazole (Vfend®, Pfizer) is a triazole antifungal medication used to treat serious fungal infections. ... Terconazole is an anti-fungal medication, primarily used to treat vaginal fungal infections. ...

Allylamines

Allylamines inhibit the enzyme squalene epoxidase, another enzyme required for ergosterol synthesis: Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ...

Terbinafine hydrochloride tablets, sold as Lamisil in the U.S., are indicated for the treatment of onychomycosis of the toenail or fingernail due to dermatophytes (Tinea unguium). ... Terbinafine hydrochloride tablets, sold as Lamisil in the U.S., are indicated for the treatment of onychomycosis of the toenail or fingernail due to dermatophytes (Tinea unguium). ... Butenafine hydrochloride a synthetic benzylamine antifungal, marketed under the trade name Mentax and is the active ingredient in Schering-Ploughs Lotrimin® Ultra. ...

Echinocandin

Echinocandins inhibit the synthesis of glucan in the cell wall, probably via the enzyme 1,3-β glucan synthase: A glucan molecule is a polysaccharide of D-glucose monomers linked by glycosidic bonds. ... A cell wall is a fairly rigid layer surrounding a cell, located external to the cell membrane, that provides the cell with structural support, protection, and a filtering mechanism. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ...

Anidulafungin or Eraxis is an anti-fungal drug manufactured by Pfizer that gained approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in February 21, 2006 [1]; it was previously known as LY303366. ... Caspofungin is an antifungal drug, the first of a new class termed the echinocandins. ...

Others

Others:

Alternatives: Ciclopirox (also called Loprox) is a synthetic antifungal agent for topical dermatologic use. ... Flucytosine, a fluorinated pyrimidine analogue, is a synthetic antimycotic drug. ... An antimetabolite is a chemical with a similar structural to a substance (a metabolite) required for normal biochemical reactions, yet different enough to interfere with the normal functions of cells, including cell division. ... Griseofulvin is an antifungal drug. ... A polymer is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass consisting of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... Microtubules are one of the components of the cytoskeleton. ... Mitosis divides genetic information during cell division. ... Methyl Violet 10B Gentian violet (crystal violet, Methyl Violet 10B, hexamethyl pararosaniline chloride) is an antifungal agent. ... Haloprogin is an antifungal drug used to treat athletes foot and other fungal infections. ... Tolnaftate is a synthetic over the counter anti-fungal agent. ... Undecylenic Acid is an organic fatty acid derived from natural Castor oil (ricinoleic acid). ...

  • Tea tree oil -- ISO 4730 ("Oil of Melaleuca, Terpinen-4-ol type")
  • Neem Seed Oil
  • Coconut Oil
  • Zinc dietary supplements or natural food sources, including pumpkin seeds and chick peas
  • Selenium dietary supplements or natural food sources, particularly brazil nuts

Tea tree oil Tea tree oil is a yellowish green-tinged essential oil with a fresh camphoraceous odour. ...

Dandruff shampoos

Antifungal drugs are often found in dandruff shampoos. Among the most common are pyrithione zinc and selenium sulfide. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Zinc pyrithione (abbreviated ZnP and also known as pyrithione zinc) is an antifungal agent best known for its use in treating dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis. ... Selenium sulfide is an antifungal agent often used in shampoos for the treatment of dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Nail lacquer with antimycotic activity, and a process for the preparation thereof - Patent 5264206 (2150 words)
A nail lacquer as claimed in claim 1, wherein the substance having antimycotic activity is tioconazole, econazole or a mixture of tioconazole and econazole.
The antimycotic substances present in the nail lacquer according to the invention are known compounds whose antimycotic properties are likewise known.
These antimycotic agents are intended to be applied as a water-soluble film, to have a depot action and to permit short-duration therapy.
Broad Spectrum antimycotic (2456 words)
The oil in the form of ointment broad spectrum antimycotic drug (BSAD) was subjected to topical testing on patients attending out patient department of M.L.N. Medical College, Allahabad.
The disease is predominant in tropical and subtropical countries due to their prevailing moisture and temperature regimes, and poses a therapeutic problem despite several antimycotic drugs available in the market.
citriodora, owing to its strong antifungal activity, inhibiting heavy doses of inocula, with long shelf life, having fungicidal properties, and with no irritation on human skin, can be used successfully in the form of broad spectrum antimycotic drug for the control of fungal infection in human beings.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m