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Encyclopedia > Antimatter
Antimatter
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There is considerable speculation both in science and science fiction as to why the observable universe is apparently almost entirely matter, whether other places are almost entirely antimatter instead, and what might be possible if antimatter could be harnessed, but at this time the apparent asymmetry of matter and antimatter in the visible universe is one of the greatest unsolved problems in physics. The process developing particles and antiparticles is called baryogenesis. A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Symmetry is a characteristic of geometrical shapes, equations and other objects; we say that such an object is symmetric with respect to a given operation if this operation, when applied to the object, does not appear to change it. ... This is a list of some of the unsolved problems in physics. ... Baryogenesis is the generic designation for the physical processes that generate matter (more specifically, a class of fundamental particle called baryon) from an otherwise matter-empty state (such as it is generally believed to be the state of the Universe at its onset, the so-called Big Bang). ...

## Notation

One way to denote an antiparticle is by adding a bar (or macron) over the particle's symbol. For example, the proton and antiproton are denoted as p and p, respectively. The same rule applies if you were to address a particle by its constituent components. A proton is made up of u u d quarks, so an antiproton must therefore be formed from u u d antiquarks. Another convention is to distinguish particles by their electric charge. Thus, the electron and positron are denoted simply as e and e+ respectively. A macron, from Greek (makros) meaning large, is a diacritic Â¯ placed over a vowel originally to indicate that the vowel is long. ... For other uses, see Quark (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Quark (disambiguation). ... This box:      Electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interaction. ...

## Artificial production

Antiparticles are also produced in any environment with a sufficiently high temperature (mean particle energy greater than the pair production threshold). The period of baryogenesis, when the universe was extremely hot and dense, matter and antimatter were continually produced and annihilated. The presence of remaining matter, and absence of detectable remaining antimatter,[3] also called baryon asymmetry, is attributed to violation of the CP-symmetry relating matter and antimatter. The exact mechanism of this violation during baryogenesis remains a mystery. Pair production refers to the creation of an elementary particle and its antiparticle, usually from a photon (or another neutral boson). ... Baryogenesis is the generic designation for the physical processes that generate matter (more specifically, a class of fundamental particle called baryon) from an otherwise matter-empty state (such as it is generally believed to be the state of the Universe at its onset, the so-called Big Bang). ... The baryon asymmetry problem in astrophysics refers to the apparent fact that the baryons in the universe which have been observed are overwhelmingly matter as opposed to anti-matter. ... CP-symmetry is a symmetry obtained by a combination of the C-symmetry and the P-symmetry. ... CP-symmetry is a symmetry obtained by a combination of the C-symmetry and the P-symmetry. ...

Positrons are also produced via the radioactive beta+ decay, but this mechanism can be considered as "natural" as well as "artificial". In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ...

### Antihydrogen

In 1995 CERN announced that it had successfully created nine antihydrogen atoms by implementing the SLAC/Fermilab concept during the PS210 experiment. The experiment was performed using the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR), and was led by Walter Oelert and Mario Macri. Fermilab soon confirmed the CERN findings by producing approximately 100 antihydrogen atoms at their facilities. CERN logo The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: ), commonly known as CERN (see Naming), pronounced (or in French), is the worlds largest particle physics laboratory, situated just northwest of Geneva on the border between France and Switzerland. ... Aerial view of the Fermilab site. ... The PS210 experiment was the first experiment that led to the observation of antihydrogen atoms produced at the Low Energy Antiproton Ring LEAR at CERN in 1995. ... CERN logo The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: ), commonly known as CERN (see Naming), pronounced (or in French), is the worlds largest particle physics laboratory, situated just northwest of Geneva on the border between France and Switzerland. ...

The antihydrogen atoms created during PS210, and subsequent experiments (at both CERN and Fermilab) were extremely energetic ("hot") and were not well suited to study. To resolve this hurdle, and to gain a better understanding of antihydrogen, two collaborations were formed in the late 1990s — ATHENA and ATRAP. In 2005, ATHENA disbanded and some of the former members (along with others) formed the ALPHA Collaboration, which is also situated at CERN. The primary goal of these collaborations is the creation of less energetic ("cold") antihydrogen, better suited to study. CERN logo The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: ), commonly known as CERN (see Naming), pronounced (or in French), is the worlds largest particle physics laboratory, situated just northwest of Geneva on the border between France and Switzerland. ... For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ... The ATRAP collaboration at CERN developed out of TRAP, a collaboration whose members pioneered cold antiprotons, cold positrons, and first made the ingredients of cold antihydrogen to interact. ... The ALPHA collaboration consists of scientists from a number scientific institutions whose goal it is to trap neutral antimatter in the form of antihydrogen in a magnetic trap and consecutively conduct experiments with the trapped antiatoms. ...

In 1999 CERN activated the Antiproton Decelerator, a device capable of decelerating antiprotons from 3.5 GeV to 5.3 MeV — still too "hot" to produce study-effective antihydrogen, but a huge leap forward. In late 2002 the ATHENA project announced that they had created the world's first "cold" antihydrogen. The antiprotons used in the experiment were cooled sufficiently by decelerating them (using the Antiproton Decelerator), passing them through a thin sheet of foil, and finally capturing them in a Penning trap. The antiprotons also underwent stochastic cooling at several stages during the process. CERN logo The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: ), commonly known as CERN (see Naming), pronounced (or in French), is the worlds largest particle physics laboratory, situated just northwest of Geneva on the border between France and Switzerland. ... The Antiproton Decelerator (AD) is a particle accelerator at the CERN laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland. ... A GEV (or Ground Effect Vehicle) is vehicle that takes advantage of the aerodynamic principle of ground effect (or Wing-in-ground). ... An electronvolt (symbol: eV) is the amount of energy gained by a single unbound electron when it falls through an electrostatic potential difference of one volt. ... Penning traps are devices for the storage of charged particles using a constant magnetic field and a constant electric field. ... In a storage ring the charged particles travel in bunches in potential hollows. ...

The ATHENA team's antiproton cooling process is effective, but highly inefficient. Approximately 25 million antiprotons leave the Antiproton Decelerator; roughly 10 thousand make it to the Penning trap. In early 2004 ATHENA researchers released data on a new method of creating low-energy antihydrogen. The technique involves slowing antiprotons using the Antiproton Decelerator, and injecting them into a Penning trap (specifically a Penning-Malmberg trap[citation needed]). Once trapped the antiprotons are mixed with electrons that have been cooled to an energy potential significantly less than the antiprotons; the resulting Coulomb collisions cool the antiprotons while warming the electrons until the particles reach an equilibrium of approximately 4 K. Penning traps are devices for the storage of charged particles using a constant magnetic field and a constant electric field. ... Electric potential is the potential energy per unit of charge associated with a static (time-invariant) electric field, also called the electrostatic potential, typically measured in volts. ...

While the antiprotons are being cooled in the first trap, a small cloud of positron plasma is injected into a second trap (the mixing trap). Exciting the resonance of the mixing trap’s confinement fields can control the temperature of the positron plasma; but the procedure is more effective when the plasma is in thermal equilibrium with the trap’s environment. The positron plasma cloud is generated in a positron accumulator prior to injection; the source of the positrons is usually radioactive sodium. For other uses, see Plasma. ... This article is about resonance in physics. ...

Once the antiprotons are sufficiently cooled, the antiproton-electron mixture is transferred into the mixing trap (containing the positrons). The electrons are subsequently removed by a series of fast pulses in the mixing trap's electrical field. When the antiprotons reach the positron plasma further Coulomb collisions occur, resulting in further cooling of the antiprotons. When the positrons and antiprotons approach thermal equilibrium antihydrogen atoms begin to form. Being electrically neutral the antihydrogen atoms are not affected by the trap and can leave the confinement fields.

Using this method ATHENA researchers predict they will be able to create up to 100 antihydrogen atoms per operational second. ATHENA and ATRAP are now seeking to further cool the antihydrogen atoms by subjecting them to an inhomogeneous field. While antihydrogen atoms are electrically neutral, their spin produces magnetic moments. These magnetic moments vary depending on the spin direction of the atom, and can be deflected by inhomogeneous fields regardless of electrical charge. A bar magnet. ...

The biggest limiting factor in the production of antimatter is the availability of antiprotons. Recent data released by CERN states that when fully operational their facilities are capable of producing 107 antiprotons per second.[citation needed] Assuming an optimal conversion of antiprotons to antihydrogen, it would take two billion years to produce 1 gram of antihydrogen (approximately 6.02×1023 atoms of antihydrogen.) Another limiting factor to antimatter production is storage. As stated above there is no known way to effectively store antihydrogen. The ATHENA project has managed to keep antihydrogen atoms from annihilation for tens of seconds — just enough time to briefly study their behaviour. CERN logo The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: ), commonly known as CERN (see Naming), pronounced (or in French), is the worlds largest particle physics laboratory, situated just northwest of Geneva on the border between France and Switzerland. ...

Hydrogen atoms are simplest objects, that can be considered as "matter" rather than as just particles. Simultaneous trapping of antiprotons and antielectrons was reported[4] and the cooling is achieved;[5] there are patents on the way of production of antihydrogen.[6] In spite of this progress, the confinment time is not yet long, and the antimatter is not yet available at the market.

### Antihelium

A small number of nuclei of the antihelium isotope, $overline{mathrm{^3He}}$ have been created in collision experiments.[7]

### Preservation

Antimatter cannot be stored in a container made of ordinary matter because antimatter reacts with any matter it touches, annihilating itself and the container. Antimatter that is composed of charged particles can be contained by a combination of an electric field and a magnetic field in a device known as a Penning trap. This device cannot, however, contain antimatter that consists of uncharged particles, and atomic traps are used. In particular, such a trap may use the dipole moment (electrical or magnetic) of the trapped particles; at high vacuum, the matter or anti-matter particles can be trapped (suspended) and cooled with slightly off-resonant laser radiation (see, for, example, magneto-optical trap and Magnetic trap). Small particles can be also suspended by just intensive optical beam in the optical tweezers. In physics, a charged particle is a particle with an electric charge. ... In physics, the space surrounding an electric charge or in the presence of a time-varying magnetic field has a property called an electric field. ... For the indie-pop band, see The Magnetic Fields. ... Penning traps are devices for the storage of charged particles using a constant magnetic field and a constant electric field. ... The Earths magnetic field, which is approximately a dipole. ... This article is about the electromagnetic phenomenon. ... A bar magnet. ... experimental setup of the MOT A magneto-optical trap (abbreviated MOT) is a device that cools down atoms to temperatures near absolute zero and traps them at a certain place using magnetic fields and circularly polarised laser light. ... A magnetic trap uses a magnetic gradient in order to trap neutral particles with a magnetic moment. ... An optical tweezer is a scientific instrument that uses a focused laser beam to provide an attractive or repulsive force, depending on the index mismatch (typically on the order of piconewtons) to physically hold and move microscopic dielectric objects. ...

### Cost

Antimatter is said to be the most expensive substance in existence, with an estimated cost of \$300 billion per milligram. This is because production is difficult (only a few atoms are produced in reactions in particle accelerators), and because there is higher demand for the other uses of particle accelerators. According to CERN, it has cost a few hundred million Swiss Francs to produce about 1 billionth of a gram.[8]

Several NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts-funded studies are exploring whether it might be possible to use magnetic scoops to collect the antimatter that occurs naturally in the Van Allen belts of Earth, and ultimately, the belts of gas giants like Jupiter, hopefully at a lower cost per gram.[9] NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts is apparently an organisation within NASA that funds research on advanced concepts, that is, not some boring present day concepts, but exciting future technologies. ... Van Allen belts The Van Allen radiation belt is a torus of energetic charged particles around Earth, trapped by Earths magnetic field. ... For other uses, see Jupiter (disambiguation). ...

## Uses

### Medical

Antimatter-matter reactions have practical applications in medical imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET). In positive beta decay, a nuclide loses surplus positive charge by emitting a positron (in the same event, a proton becomes a neutron, and neutrinos are also given off). Nuclides with surplus positive charge are easily made in a cyclotron and are widely generated for medical use. Image of a typical positron emission tomography (PET) facility Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine medical imaging technique which produces a three-dimensional image or map of functional processes in the body. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... A nuclide (from lat. ... For other uses, see Neutrino (disambiguation). ... A modern Cyclotron for radiation therapy For other uses, see Cyclotron (disambiguation). ...

### Fuel

Not all of that energy can be utilized by any realistic technology, because as much as 50% of energy produced in reactions between nucleons and antinucleons is carried away by neutrinos, so, for all intents and purposes, it can be considered lost.[10] For other uses, see Neutrino (disambiguation). ...

The scarcity of antimatter means that it is not readily available to be used as fuel, although it could be used in antimatter catalyzed nuclear pulse propulsion. Generating a single antiproton is immensely difficult and requires particle accelerators and vast amounts of energy—millions of times more than is released after it is annihilated with ordinary matter, due to inefficiencies in the process. Known methods of producing antimatter from energy also produce an equal amount of normal matter, so the theoretical limit is that half of the input energy is converted to antimatter. Counterbalancing this, when antimatter annihilates with ordinary matter, energy equal to twice the mass of the antimatter is liberated—so energy storage in the form of antimatter could (in theory) be 100% efficient. Antimatter production is currently very limited, but has been growing at a nearly geometric rate since the discovery of the first antiproton in 1955.[citation needed] The current antimatter production rate is between 1 and 10 nanograms per year, and this is expected to increase to between 3 and 30 nanograms per year by 2015 or 2020 with new superconducting linear accelerator facilities at CERN and Fermilab. Some researchers claim that with current technology, it is possible to obtain antimatter for US\$25 million per gram by optimizing the collision and collection parameters (given current electricity generation costs). Antimatter production costs, in mass production, are almost linearly tied in with electricity costs, so economical pure-antimatter thrust applications are unlikely to come online without the advent of such technologies as deuterium-tritium fusion power (assuming that such a power source actually would prove to be cheap). Many experts, however, dispute these claims as being far too optimistic by many orders of magnitude. They point out that in 2004; the annual production of antiprotons at CERN was several picograms at a cost of \$20 million. This means to produce 1 gram of antimatter, CERN would need to spend 100 quadrillion dollars and run the antimatter factory for 100 billion years. Storage is another problem, as antiprotons are negatively charged and repel against each other, so that they cannot be concentrated in a small volume. Plasma oscillations in the charged cloud of antiprotons can cause instabilities that drive antiprotons out of the storage trap. For these reasons, to date only a few million antiprotons have been stored simultaneously in a magnetic trap, which corresponds to much less than a femtogram. Antihydrogen atoms or molecules are neutral so in principle they do not suffer the plasma problems of antiprotons described above. But cold antihydrogen is far more difficult to produce than antiprotons, and so far not a single antihydrogen atom has been trapped in a magnetic field. Antimatter catalysed nuclear pulse propulsion is a variation of nuclear pulse propulsion based upon the injection of antimatter into a mass of nuclear fuel which normally would not be useful in propulsion. ... CERN logo The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: ), commonly known as CERN (see Naming), pronounced (or in French), is the worlds largest particle physics laboratory, situated just northwest of Geneva on the border between France and Switzerland. ... Aerial view of the Fermilab site. ... USD redirects here. ... Deuterium, also called heavy hydrogen, is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance in the oceans of Earth of approximately one atom in 6500 of hydrogen (~154 PPM). ... Internal view of the JET tokamak superimposed with an image of a plasma taken with a visible spectrum video camera. ... CERN logo The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: ), commonly known as CERN (see Naming), pronounced (or in French), is the worlds largest particle physics laboratory, situated just northwest of Geneva on the border between France and Switzerland. ... CERN logo The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: ), commonly known as CERN (see Naming), pronounced (or in French), is the worlds largest particle physics laboratory, situated just northwest of Geneva on the border between France and Switzerland. ... In plasma physics, plasma oscillations, also known as Langmuir waves (after Irving Langmuir) and plasma waves, are periodic oscillations of charge density in conducting media such as plasmas or metals. ...

Since the energy density is vastly higher than these other forms, the thrust to weight equation used in antimatter rocketry and spacecraft would be very different. In fact, the energy in a few grams of antimatter is enough to transport an unmanned spacecraft to Mars in a few minutes, the Mars Global Surveyor took eleven months to reach Mars. It is hoped that antimatter could be used as fuel for interplanetary travel or possibly interstellar travel, but it is also feared that, as a side-effect of antimatter propulsion, the design of antimatter weapons might become an equal reality. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Space Shuttle Discovery as seen from the International Space Station. ... This article is about the planet. ... The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) was a US spacecraft developed by NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and launched November 1996. ... For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ... By definition, interplanetary travel is travel between bodies in a given star system; especially the solar system. ... Artists depiction of a hypothetical Wormhole Induction Propelled Spacecraft, based loosely on the 1994 warp drive paper of Miguel Alcubierre. ... An antimatter weapon is a hypothetical device using antimatter as a power source, a propellant, or an explosive for a weapon. ...

One researcher of the CERN laboratories, which produces antimatter on a regular basis, said: CERN logo The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: ), commonly known as CERN (see Naming), pronounced (or in French), is the worlds largest particle physics laboratory, situated just northwest of Geneva on the border between France and Switzerland. ...

 “ If we could assemble all of the antimatter we've ever made at CERN and annihilate it with matter, we would have enough energy to light a single electric light bulb for a few minutes.[11] ”

Until now, the use of anti-matter as a source of energy is mentioned more often in fiction, than in technological projects. CERN logo The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: ), commonly known as CERN (see Naming), pronounced (or in French), is the worlds largest particle physics laboratory, situated just northwest of Geneva on the border between France and Switzerland. ...

## Antimatter in fiction

Existence of anti-particles is more "sci-" than "fiction" .[12] However, until now, the anti-world, or even macroscopic amounts of antimatter exist rather in jokes and sci-fi novels, than in laboratories. One of these novels being Dan Brown's "Angels and Demons" in which the whole story centers around production of antimatter at the CERN facility and its possible use in terrorism because of the awesome power of an annihilation.

### Pop culture

The 1960s hit television show The Man from U.N.C.L.E. dealt with the potential of antimatter in an episode called The Suburbia Affair. Pianist and comedian Victor Borge played a pianist and scientist who had come up with a formula for antimatter and, fearing its destructive potential, hid in a bizarre suburban development populated by single adults and couples who hate children. Borge's character, Dr. Rutter, disguised his formula in a dissonant piece of music until forced to reveal it to the evil organization, THRUSH (Technological Hierarchy for the Removal of Undesirables and Subjugation of Humanity). The good guys, Illya Kuryakin and Napoleon Solo, arrive to save the day and, after a plea from the wounded Rutter, destroy the computer where the antimatter formula has been stored. In another 20 years, Rutter warns, someone else will come up with the formula. The Man from U.N.C.L.E. was an American television series that ran on NBC from September 22, 1964, to January 15, 1968, for 105 episodes (see 1964 in television and 1968 in television). ... This article is about the Danish humorist and musician. ...

### Military

Because of its potential to release immense amounts of energy in contact with normal matter, there has been interest in various weapon uses, potentially enabling miniature warheads of pinhead-size to be more destructive than modern-day nuclear weapons. An antimatter particle colliding with a matter particle releases 100% of the energy contained within the particles, while a hydrogen bomb only releases about 0.7% of this energy. This gives a clue to how effective and powerful this force is. However, this development is still in early planning stages, though antimatter weapons are popular in science fiction such as in Peter F. Hamilton's Night's Dawn Trilogy , Dan Brown's Angels and Demons and Star Trek where the production of antimatter leads to the possibility of use as both a fuel and highly effective weapon. At the moment, the traps are not very efficient, and it is more constructive to just create all the antimatter at the moment it would be used. An antimatter weapon is a hypothetical device using antimatter as a power source, a propellant, or an explosive for a weapon. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Peter F. Hamilton Peter F. Hamilton Peter F. Hamilton (born 1960, Rutland, England), is a British science fiction author. ... Author Peter F. Hamiltons The Nights Dawn Trilogy consists of three epic science fiction novels: The Reality Dysfunction (1996), The Neutronium Alchemist (1997), and The Naked God (1999). ... Dan Brown (born June 22, 1964) is an American author of thriller fiction, best known for the 2003 bestselling novel, The Da Vinci Code. ... Wikibooks has a book on the topic of Angels and Demons Angels and Demons (Angels & Demons) is a bestselling mystery novel by Dan Brown. ... This article is about the entire Star Trek franchise. ...

### Stanisław Lem

Stanisław Lem

In the novel The Cyberiad, Stanisław Lem describes the building up the antimatter in the following way:[13] StanisÅ‚aw Lem ( , September 12, 1921 â€“ March 27, 2006) was a Polish science fiction, philosophical and satirical writer. ... The Cyberiad is a series of short stories by StanisÅ‚aw Lem. ... StanisÅ‚aw Lem ( , September 12, 1921 â€“ March 27, 2006) was a Polish science fiction, philosophical and satirical writer. ...

• The machine, however, had already begun. First it manufactured antiprotons, then antielectrons, antineutrons, antineutrinos, and labored on, until from out of all this antimatter an antiworld took shape, ..

In another novel, The Invincible ,[14] the researchers fail to fight the self-organizing microrobots, even though they use antimatter as a weapon.
In the novel Eden ,[15] humans use the antimatter as weapon, but it does not help them to understand anything about the civilization they met. The Invincible is a science fiction novel written by Stanisław Lem and published in Polish in 1964. ... Eden is a 1959 science fiction novel by StanisÅ‚aw Lem. ...

### Isaac Asimov

In stories by Isaac Asimov (1940s), mankind creates a new generation of robots with "positronic brains" as complex as those of humans. .[16] Isaac Asimov (January 2?, 1920?[1] â€“ April 6, 1992), pronounced , originally Ð˜ÑÐ°Ð°Ðº ÐžÐ·Ð¸Ð¼Ð¾Ð² but now transcribed into Russian as ÐÐ¹Ð·ÐµÐº ÐÐ·Ð¸Ð¼Ð¾Ð² [1], was a Russian-born American author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful writer, best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ...

In the history of cosmology an ambiplasma is a hypothetical plasma containing a mixture of both matter and antimatter. ... Atom Smasher redirects here. ... Corresponding to most kinds of particle, there is an associated antiparticle with the same mass and opposite charges. ... Antihydrogen is the antimatter counterpart of hydrogen. ...

## References

1. ^ Integral discovers the galaxy’s antimatter cloud is lopsided. European Space Agency. Retrieved on 2008-05-24.
2. ^ Weidenspointner, Georg (2008). "An asymmetric distribution of positrons in the Galactic disk revealed by γ-rays". Nature 451: 159–162. doi:10.1038/nature06490.
3. ^ What's the Matter with Antimatter?. NASA. Retrieved on 2008-05-24.
4. ^ Gabrielse, G.; Hall, D. S.; Roach, T.; Yesley, P.; Khabbaz, A.; Estrada, J.; Heimann, C.; Kalinowsky, H. (1999). "The ingredients of cold antihydrogen: Simultaneous confinement of antiprotons and positrons at 4 K". Physics Letters B 455 (1–4): 311–315. doi:10.1016/S0370-2693(99)00453-0.
5. ^ Andresen, G. (2007). "Antimatter Plasmas in a Multipole Trap for Antihydrogen". PRL 98: 023402. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.023402.
6. ^ Arthur, Hessels Eric (December 2000). "Process for the production of antihydrogen". United States Patent and Trademark Office 6163587.
7. ^ Arsenescu, R. (2003). "Antihelium-3 production in lead-lead collisions at 158 A GeV/c". New Journal of Physics 5: 1. doi:10.1088/1367–2630/5/1/301.
8. ^ Questions & Answers. CERN. Retrieved on 2008-05-24.
9. ^ Extraction of Antiparticles Concentrated in Planetary Magnetic Fields. NASA. Retrieved on 2008-05-24.
10. ^ Comparison of Fusion/Antiproton Propulsion systems. NASA. Retrieved on 2008-05-24.
11. ^ Angels and Demons. CERN. Retrieved on 2008-05-24.
12. ^ Overbye, D. (2008-05-07). "Physicists' Antimatter Recipe Is More Sci- Than Fi". The New York Times.
13. ^ How The World Was Saved. The Cyberiad. Retrieved on 2008-05-24.
14. ^ Lem, Stanisław (1976). Invincible. Penguin Books. ISBN 0140038531.
15. ^ Lem, Stanisław (1959). Eden. Kraków: Wydawn. Literackie. ISBN 8308029973.
16. ^ A Catalogue of Isaac Asimov's Books. Asimov Online. Retrieved on 2008-05-24.

Results from FactBites:

 SPACE.com -- The Reality of Antimatter (989 words) Antimatter was first theorized based on work done in 1928 by the physicist Paul Dirac. Antimatter has tremendous energy potential, if it could ever be harnessed. The fleeting particles of antimatter are also created by the decay of radioactive material, which can be injected into a patient in order to perform Positron Emission Tomography, or PET scan of the brain.
 Antimatter - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3473 words) Antimatter is not found naturally on Earth, except very briefly and in vanishingly small quantities (as the result of radioactive decay or cosmic rays). Counterbalancing this, when antimatter annihilates with ordinary matter, energy equal to twice the mass of the antimatter is liberated—so energy storage in the form of antimatter could (in theory) be 100% efficient. The current antimatter production rate is between 1 and 10 nanograms per year, and this is expected to increase to between 3 and 30 nanograms per year by 2015 or 2020 with new superconducting linear accelerator facilities at CERN and Fermilab.
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