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Encyclopedia > Antikythera mechanism
The Antikythera mechanism (main fragment).
The Antikythera mechanism (main fragment).

The Antikythera mechanism is an ancient mechanical calculator (also described as the first "mechanical computer"[1][2]) designed to calculate astronomical positions. It was discovered in the Antikythera wreck off the Greek island of Antikythera, between Kythera and Crete, in 1900. Subsequent investigation, particularly in 2006, dated it to about 150-100 BC, and hypothesised that it was on board a ship that sank en route from the Greek island of Rhodes to Rome, perhaps as part of an official loot. Technological artifacts of similar complexity did not reappear until a thousand years later.[3] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1036x924, 206 KB) Summary Principal fragment of the Antikythera mechanism. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1036x924, 206 KB) Summary Principal fragment of the Antikythera mechanism. ... For other uses, see Calculator (disambiguation). ... A page from the Bombardiers Information File (BIF) that describes the components and controls of the Norden bombsight. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... The Antikythera wreck is a ship wreck that was discovered by sponge divers off the coast of the Greek island, Antikythera. ... Antikythera (Αντικύθηρα) is a Greek island community with a land area of 20. ... Kythira, also seen as Kythera, Cythera or Tsirigo, is an island, one of the Ionian Islands. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Alexander Balas becomes ruler of the Seleucid Empire. ... The world in 100 BC. The eastern hemisphere in 100 BC. Consuls: Lucius Valerius Flaccus, Gaius Marius (Mariuss sixth consulship). ... This article is about the Greek island of Rhodes. ...

Contents

Discovery

Sometime before April of 1900, a Greek sponge diver named Elias Stadiatis discovered the wreck of an ancient large cargo ship off Antikythera island at a depth of 42 m (138 ft) to 60 m (200 ft). Sponge divers retrieved several statues (including the famous Antikythera Ephebe, and the Philosopher) and other artifacts from the site, known as the Antikythera wreck. The mechanism itself was discovered on 17 May 1901, when archaeologist Valerios Stais noticed that a piece of rock recovered from the site had a gear wheel embedded in it. Examination revealed that the "rock" was in fact a heavily encrusted and corroded mechanism that had survived the shipwreck in three main parts, and dozens of smaller fragments. The device itself was surprisingly thin, about 33 cm (13 in) high, 17 cm (6.7 in) wide, and 9 cm (3.5 in) thick, made of bronze and originally mounted in a wooden frame (a very small part of it is still in the museum). It was inscribed with a text of over 3,000 characters, most of which have only recently been deciphered. These characters were part of a manual, which describes how to set up the instrument and how to use it for observations, with references to the Sun, the motion of the planets (stationary points), Aphrodite (Venus), Hermes (Mercury), and eclipses. The bronze Antikythera Ephebe is a statue of a young man of langourous grace that was found by sponge-divers in the area of an ancient shipwreck[1] off the island of Antikythera[2] in 1900, the first of the series of Greek bronze sculptures that the Aegean and Mediterranean... The Antikythera wreck is a ship wreck that was discovered by sponge divers off the coast of the Greek island, Antikythera. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Valerios Stais (Βαλέριος Στάης, Kythira 1857 – Athens 1923) was a Greek archaeologist. ... Sol redirects here. ... For other uses, see Venus (disambiguation). ... This article is about the planet. ... This article is about astronomical eclipses. ...


Jacques-Yves Cousteau visited the wreck for the last time in 1978,[4] but found no more remains of the Antikythera Mechanism. Professor Michael Edmunds of Cardiff University who led the study of the mechanism said: "This device is just extraordinary, the only thing of its kind. The design is beautiful, the astronomy is exactly right. The way the mechanics are designed just makes your jaw drop. Whoever has done this has done it extremely carefully." and added: "in terms of historic and scarcity value, I have to regard this mechanism as being more valuable than the Mona Lisa."[5][6] Jacques-Yves Cousteau in 1976. ... For other uses, see Mona Lisa (disambiguation). ...


The device is displayed in the Bronze Collection of the National Archaeological Museum of Athens, accompanied by a reconstruction made and offered to the museum by Derek de Solla Price. Other reconstructions are on display at the American Computer Museum in Bozeman, Montana and the Children's Museum of Manhattan in New York. Façade of the National Archaeological museum of Athens. ... The American Computer Museum is a museum of the history of computing founded in May 1990 by Barbara and George Keremedjiev as a non-profit organization and originally intended to be located in Princeton, New Jersey; the museums location was changed to Bozeman, Montana when the museums founders... Bozeman is a city in southwestern Montana, USA. It is the county seat of Gallatin County. ... Article title is . ...


Origins

The mechanism is the oldest known complex scientific instrument. It has several accurate scales, and is essentially an analog computer made with gears. It is based on theories of astronomy and mathematics developed by Greek astronomers. Based on the shape of the Greek letters used in the manual of the instrument, it is estimated that it was constructed around 150 to 100 BC. The circumstances under which it came to be on the cargo ship are unclear. The ship is estimated to have sunk between 80 to 60 BC and was a Roman or Greek ship with cargo for Rome, perhaps part of official loot. It contained more than 100 statues similar to the ones the Romans took to Italy after their conquest of Greece. Consensus among scholars is that the mechanism itself was made in Greece.[6] All the instructions of the mechanism are written in Greek. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


One hypothesis is that the device was constructed at an academy founded by the ancient Stoic philosopher Posidonius on the Greek island of Rhodes, which at the time was known as a centre of astronomy and mechanical engineering. Investigators have suggested that the ship could have been carrying it to Rome, together with other treasure looted from the island to support a triumphal parade being staged by Julius Caesar.[7] Stoicism is a school of philosophy commonly associated with such Greek philosophers as Zeno of Citium, Cleanthes, or Chrysippus and with such later Romans as Cicero, Seneca, Marcus Aurelius, and Epictetus. ... The bust of Posidonius as an older man depicts his character as a Stoic philosopher. ... This article is about the Greek island of Rhodes. ... A Roman Triumph was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly honour the military commander (dux) of a notably successful foreign war or campaign and to display the glories of Roman victory. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ...


As the new finds of the Antikythera Mechanism Research Project suggest that it was made around 150 to 100 BC, well before the time of Posidonius, it is possible that the great astronomer Hipparchus is behind the genius engineer who constructed it. Hipparchus was at that time the most important astronomer and worked for a long period in Rhodes, Greece. The Mechanism contains a lunar mechanism which uses Hipparchus' theory for the motion of the Moon and this also suggests strong ties of the Mechanism to Hipparchus. The Antikythera mechanism (main fragment). ... The bust of Posidonius as an older man depicts his character as a Stoic philosopher. ... For the Athenian tyrant, see Hipparchus (son of Pisistratus). ... This article is about the Greek island of Rhodes. ...


Function

Schematic of the artifact's mechanism
Schematic of the artifact's mechanism

The device is remarkable for the level of miniaturization and complexity of its parts, which is comparable to that of 18th century clocks. It has over 30 gears, although some have suggested as many as 70 gears, with teeth formed through equilateral triangles. When a date was entered via a crank (now lost), the mechanism calculated the position of the Sun, Moon or other astronomical information such as the location of other planets. It is possible that the mechanism is based on heliocentric principles, rather than the then-dominant geocentric view espoused by Aristotle and others. The heliocentric view proposed by Aristarchus of Samos (310 BC - c. 230 BC) did not receive widespread recognition, but provides for the possibility of the existence of such a system at this time. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... For alternate meanings, such as the musical instrument, see triangle (disambiguation). ... Sol redirects here. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... In astronomy, heliocentrism is the theory that the Sun is at the center of the Universe and/or the Solar System. ... The geocentric model (in Greek: geo = earth and centron = centre) of the universe is a paradigm which places the Earth at its center. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... For other uses of this name, including the grammarian Aristarchus of Samothrace, see Aristarchus Statue of Aristarchus at Aristotle University in Thessalonica, Greece Aristarchus (Greek: Ἀρίσταρχος; 310 BC - ca. ...


The mechanism has three main dials, one on the front, and two on the back.


The front dial is marked with the divisions of the Egyptian calendar, or the Sothic year, based on the Sothic cycle. Inside this there is a second dial marked with the Greek signs of the Zodiac. This second dial can be moved to adjust, with respect to the Sothic dial, to compensate for leap years. Note that the Julian calendar, the first calendar of the region to contain leap years, was not invented until about 50 B.C., up to a century after the device was said to have been built. The Sothic cycle or Canicular period is a period of 1461 ancient Egyptian years (of 365 days) or 1460 Julian years (averaging 365. ... For other uses, see Zodiac (disambiguation). ... A leap year (or intercalary year) is a year containing an extra day or month in order to keep the calendar year in sync with an astronomical or seasonal year. ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ...


The front dial probably carried at least three hands, one showing the date, and two others showing the positions of the Sun and the Moon. The Moon indicator is ingeniously adjusted to show the first anomaly of the Moon's orbit. It is reasonable to suppose the Sun indicator had a similar adjustment, but any gearing for this mechanism (if it existed) has been lost. The front dial also includes a second mechanism with a spherical model of the Moon that displays the Lunar phase. Moon phase redirects here. ...


There is reference in the inscriptions for the planets Mars and Venus, and it would have certainly been within the capabilities of the maker of this mechanism to include gearing to show their positions. There is some speculation that the mechanism may have had indicators for all the five planets known to the Greeks. None of the gearing, except for one unaccounted gear, for such planetary mechanisms survives. Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... For other uses, see Venus (disambiguation). ...


Finally, the front dial includes a parapegma, a precursor to the modern day Almanac, which was used to mark the rising and setting of specific stars. Each star is thought to be identified by Greek characters which cross reference details inscribed on the mechanism. An almanac (also spelled almanack, especially in Commonwealth English) is an annual publication containing tabular information in a particular field or fields often arranged according to the calendar. ...


The upper back dial is in the form of a spiral, with 47 divisions per turn, displaying the 235 months of the 19 year Metonic cycle. This dial contains a smaller subsidiary dial which displays the 76 year Callippic cycle. (There are 4 Metonic cycles within 1 Callippic cycle.) Both of these cycles are important in fixing calendars. The Metonic cycle or Enneadecaeteris in astronomy and calendar studies is a particular approximate common multiple of the year (specifically, the seasonal tropical year) and the synodic month. ... Eclipses may occur repeatedly, separated by some specific interval of time: this interval is called an eclipse cycle. ... A calendar is a system for assigning calendar dates to days. ...


The lower back dial is also in the form of a spiral, with 223 divisions showing the Saros cycle; it also has a smaller subsidiary dial which displays the 54 year "Triple Saros" or "Exeligmos" cycle. (The Saros cycle, discovered by the Chaldeans, is a period of approximately 18 years 11 days 8 hours -- the length of time between occurrences of a particular eclipse.) A Saros cycle is a period of 6585 + 1/3 days (approximately 18 years 10 days and 8 hours) which can be used to predict eclipses of the sun and the moon. ... A Saros cycle is a period of 6585 + 1/3 days (approximately 18 years 10 days and 8 hours) which can be used to predict eclipses of the sun and the moon. ... For other uses, see Chaldean. ... This article is about astronomical eclipses. ...


Speculation about its purpose

While a century of research is finally answering the question of what the mechanism did, we are actually no nearer to answering the question what it was for. There are numerous suggestions, any of which could be right. In order to understand the significance of this device at the period of its manufacture (c. 150 B.C.) one should be aware of the known scientific and cultural status at that period and take into account that:

  1. The law of gravity was not discovered, so the reason why the heavenly bodies moved was not understood.
  2. The theory of planetary motion was not complete.
  3. The only means to transmit knowledge was either speech or hand written manuscripts.

There was a huge scientific and cultural gap between the very few educated elite that understood basic rules of solar, lunar and planetary motion and the common people who were ignorant about those things. Many ancient references from Cicero, Pliny, Plato, Seneca, Ptolemy and Aristotle et al indicate that common people viewed solar and lunar eclipses as superstitious events, linked with fear: ".. easy for the ignorant to imagine that all has become confusion and doom"[8] .


Practical uses of this device have been said also to include the following:

  • Astrology was commonly practiced in the ancient world. In order to create an astrological chart, the configuration of the heavens at a particular point of time is needed. It can be very difficult and time-consuming to work this out by hand, and a mechanism such as this would have made an astrologer's work much easier.
  • Setting the dates of religious festivals connected with astronomical events.
  • Adjusting calendars, which were based on lunar cycles as well as the solar year.

Price suggested that it might have been on public display, possibly in a museum or public hall in Rhodes. The island was known for its displays of mechanical engineering, particularly automata, which apparently were a specialty of the Rhodians. Pindar, one of the nine lyric poets of ancient Greece, said this of Rhodes in his seventh Olympic Ode: The Canard Digérateur of Jacques de Vaucanson, hailed in 1739 as the first automaton capable of digestion. ... For the PINDAR military bunker in London, please see the PINDAR section of Military citadels under London Pindar (or Pindarus, Greek: ) (probably born 522 BC in Cynoscephalae, a village in Boeotia; died 443 BC in Argos), was a Greek lyric poet. ... The nine lyric poets (nine melic poets) were a canon of archaic Greek composers esteemed by the scholars of Hellenistic Alexandria as worthy of critical study. ...

"The animated figures stand
Adorning every public street
And seem to breathe in stone, or
move their marble feet."

Arguments against it being on public display include:

a) The device is rather small, indicating that the designer was aiming for compactness (it has been compared to a modern laptop computer) and, as a result, the size of the front and back dials is unsuitable for public display. A simple comparison with size of the Tower of the Winds in Athens could give us a hint to suggest that the aim of the Antikythera mechanism manufacturer was rather the mobility of this device, than the public display of it in a fixed place (such as a university, a temple, a museum or public hall).
b) The mechanism had door plates attached to it that contain at least 2000 characters, forming what members of the Antikythera mechanism research project often refer to as an instruction manual of the mechanism. The neat attachment of this manual on the mechanism itself implies ease of transport and personal use.
c) The existence of this "instruction manual" implies that the device was constructed by an expert scientist and mechanic in order to be used by a non-expert traveller (the text gives a lot of information associated with well known geographical locations of the mediterranean area[citation needed]).

The device is unlikely to have been intended for navigation use because: The frieze of the tower showing the Greek wind gods Boreas (north wind, on the left) and Skiron (northwesterly wind, on the right). ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...

a) Some data, such as eclipse predictions, are unnecessary for navigation.
b) The harsh environment of the sea would corrode the gears in a short period of time, rendering it useless.

Similar devices in ancient literature

Cicero's De re publica, a 1st century BC philosophical dialogue, mentions two machines that function as a planetarium or orrery, predicting the movements of the Sun, the Moon, and the five planets. The first device was built by Archimedes and brought to Rome by the Roman general Marcus Claudius Marcellus after the death of Archimedes at the siege of Syracuse in 212 BC. Marcellus had a high respect for Archimedes and this was the only item he kept from the siege. The device was kept as a family heirloom, and Cicero was shown it by Gallus about 150 years later. Gallus gave a 'learned explanation' of it and demonstrated it for Cicero. For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... De re publica is a work by Cicero, written in six books 54-51 BC, in the format of a Socratic dialogue, that is to say: Scipio Africanus Minor (who had died a few decades before Cicero was born) takes the role of wise old man, that is an obligatory... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 1st century BC started on January 1, 100 BC and ended on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero. ... For the song by Ai Otsuka, see Planetarium (song) // A planetarium is a theatre built primarily for presenting educational and entertaining shows about astronomy and the night sky, or for training in celestial navigation. ... A small orrery showing earth and the inner planets An orrery is a mechanical device that illustrates the relative positions and motions of the planets and moons in the solar system in heliocentric model. ... Sol redirects here. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... For other uses, see Archimedes (disambiguation). ... Marcus Claudius Marcellus (ca. ... Combatants Roman Republic Carthage Commanders Publius Cornelius Scipio†, Tiberius Sempronius Longus Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, Gaius Flaminius†, Fabius Maximus, Claudius Marcellus†, Lucius Aemilius Paullus†, Gaius Terentius Varro, Marcus Livius Salinator, Gaius Claudius Nero, Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus†, Masinissa, Minucius†, Servilius Geminus† Hannibal Barca, Hasdrubal Barca†, Mago Barca†, Hasdrubal Gisco†, Syphax...

hanc sphaeram Gallus cum moveret, fiebat ut soli luna totidem conversionibus in aere illo quot diebus in ipso caelo succederet, ex quo et in [caelo] sphaera solis fieret eadem illa defectio, et incideret luna tum in eam metam quae esset umbra terrae, cum sol e regione
When Gallus moved the globe, it happened that the Moon followed the Sun by as many turns on that bronze [contrivance] as in the Earth itself, from which also in the sky the Sun's globe became [to have] that same eclipse, and the Moon came then to that position which was [its] shadow [on] the Earth, when the Sun was in line.[9]

Pappus of Alexandria stated that Archimedes had written a now lost manuscript on the construction of these devices entitled On Sphere-Making.[10][11] The surviving texts from the Library of Alexandria describe many of his creations, some even containing simple blueprints. One such device is his odometer, the exact model later used by the Romans to place their mile markers (described by Heron of Alexandria and in the time of Emperor Commodus).[12] The blueprints in the text appeared functional, but attempts to build them as pictured had failed. When the gears pictured, which had square teeth, were replaced with gears of the type in the Antikythera mechanism, which were angled, the device was perfectly functional.[citation needed] Whether this is an example of a device created by Archimedes and described by texts lost in the burning of the Library of Alexandria, or if it is a device based on his discoveries, or if it has anything to do with him at all, is debatable. Pappus of Alexandria is one of the most important mathematicians of ancient Greek time, known for his work Synagoge or Collection (c. ... On Sphere-Making is the title of a lost work by Archimedes, mentioned by Pappus of Alexandria. ... Inscription regarding Tiberius Claudius Balbilus of Rome (d. ... A modern non-digital odometer A Smiths speedometer from the 1920s showing odometer and trip meter An odometer is a device used for indicating distance traveled by an automobile or other vehicle. ... Heros aeolipile Hero (or Heron) of Alexandria (c. ... Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus (August 31, 161 – December 31, 192) was a Roman Emperor who ruled from 180 to 192. ...


If Cicero's account is correct (and there is reason to doubt it)[citation needed] then this technology existed as early as the 3rd century BC. Archimedes' device is also mentioned by later Roman era writers such as Lactantius (Divinarum Institutionum Libri VII), Claudian (In sphaeram Archimedes), and Proclus (Commentary on the first book of Euclid's Elements of Geometry) in the 4th and 5th centuries. Lucius Caelius (or Caecilius?) Firmianus Lactantius was an early Christian author who wrote in Latin (c. ... Claudius Claudianus, Anglicized as Claudian, was the court poet to the Emperor Honorius and Stilicho. ... This article is about Proclus Diadochus, the Neoplatonist philosopher. ...


Cicero also says that another such device was built 'recently' by his friend Posidonius, "... each one of the revolutions of which brings about the same movement in the Sun and Moon and five wandering stars [planets] as is brought about each day and night in the heavens..."[13] The bust of Posidonius as an older man depicts his character as a Stoic philosopher. ...


It is unlikely that either of these machines were the Antikythera mechanism found in the shipwreck, because both the devices mentioned by Cicero were located in Rome at least 50 years later than the estimated date of the shipwreck. So we know of three such devices. The modern scientists who have reconstructed the Antikythera mechanism also agree that it was too sophisticated to have been a one-off device.


It is probable that the Antikythera mechanism was not unique, as shown by Cicero's references to such mechanisms. This adds support to the idea that there was an ancient Greek tradition of complex mechanical technology that was later transmitted to the Islamic world, where similarly complex mechanical devices were built by Muslim engineers and astronomers during the Middle Ages. In the early 9th century, the Banū Mūsā's Kitab al-Hiyal (Book of Ingenious Devices), commissioned by the Caliph of Baghdad, describes over a hundred mechanical devices, some of which may date back to ancient Greek texts preserved in monasteries. Similarly complex astronomical instruments were constructed by al-Biruni and other Muslim astronomers from the 11th century.[14] Such knowledge could have yielded to or been integrated with European clockmaking and medieval cranes.[citation needed] During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... A significant number of inventions were produced in the Muslim world, many of them with direct implications for Fiqh related issues. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic science and astronomy. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... It has been suggested that Ahmad ibn MÅ«sā ibn Shākir be merged into this article or section. ... The Book of Ingenious Devices ( كتاب الحيل Kitab al-Hiyal) was a large illustrated work on mechanical devices including automata published in 850 by the three Persian brothers Ahmad, Muhammad and Hasan bin Musa ibn Shakir (the three together known as Banu Musa), working in the House of Wisdom (Bayt al-Hikma... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid (Arabic: العبّاسيّون AbbāsÄ«yÅ«n) was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Islamic empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs. ... This article concerns the buildings occupied by monastics. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic science and astronomy. ... A statue of Biruni adorns the southwest entrance of Laleh Park in Tehran. ... Ulugh Beg, founder of a large Islamic observatory, honoured on this Soviet stamp. ... A clockmaker is an artisan who makes and repairs clocks. ... A modern crawler type derrick crane with outriggers. ...


Investigations and reconstructions

Reconstruction of the Antikythera mechanism in the National Archaeological Museum, Athens (made by Robert J. Deroski, based on Derek J. de Solla Price model).
Reconstruction of the Antikythera mechanism in the National Archaeological Museum, Athens (made by Robert J. Deroski, based on Derek J. de Solla Price model).

The Antikythera mechanism is one of the world's oldest known geared devices. It has puzzled and intrigued historians of science and technology since its discovery. A number of individuals and groups have been instrumental in advancing the knowledge and understanding of the mechanism including: Derek J. de Solla Price (with Charalampos Karakalos); Allan George Bromley (with Frank Percival, Michael Wright and Bernard Gardner); Michael Wright; The Antikythera Mechanism Research Project and Dionysios Kriaris, a mathematician from Greece. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x1802, 206 KB) Summary Reconstruction de la machine dAnticythère : elle est le résultat des recherches du Pr. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x1802, 206 KB) Summary Reconstruction de la machine dAnticythère : elle est le résultat des recherches du Pr. ... Derek John de Solla Price (January 22, 1922 – September 03, 1983) was a science historian and information scientist, credited as the father of scientometrics. ... Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by a global community of researchers making use of a body of techniques known as scientific methods, emphasizing the observation, experimentation and scientific explanation of real world phenomena. ... The wheel was invented circa 4000 BC, and has become one of the worlds most famous, and most useful technologies. ...


Derek J. de Solla Price

Following decades of work cleaning the device, in 1951 British science historian Derek J. de Solla Price undertook systematic investigation of the mechanism. Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Derek John de Solla Price (January 22, 1922 – September 03, 1983) was a science historian and information scientist, credited as the father of scientometrics. ...


Price published several papers on "Clockwork before the Clock".[15][16] and "On the Origin of Clockwork",[17] before the first major publication in June 1959 on the mechanism: "An Ancient Greek Computer".[18] This was the lead article in Scientific American and appears to have been initially published at the prompting of Arthur C. Clarke, according to the book Arthur C. Clarke's Mysterious World (see end of chapter 3). In "An Ancient Greek Computer" Price advanced the theory that the Antikythera mechanism was a device for calculating the motions of stars and planets, which would make the device the first known analog computer. Until that time, the Antikythera mechanism's function was largely unknown, though it had been correctly identified as an astronomical device, perhaps being an astrolabe. Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Scientific American is a popular-science magazine, published (first weekly and later monthly) since August 28, 1845, making it the oldest continuously published magazine in the United States. ... Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE, Sri Lankabhimanya (16 December 1917 – 19 March 2008) was a British (lived in Sri Lanka since 1956) science fiction author, inventor, and futurist, most famous for the novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, written in collaboration with director Stanley Kubrick, a collaboration which led also to... Arthur C. Clarkes Mysterious World was a popular thirteen part television series looking at unexplained phenomena from around the world. ... A page from the Bombardiers Information File (BIF) that describes the components and controls of the Norden bombsight. ... A 16th century astrolabe. ...


In 1971, Price, by then the first Avalon Professor of the History of Science at Yale University, teamed up with Charalampos Karakalos, professor of nuclear physics at the Greek National Centre of Scientific Research "DEMOKRITOS". Karakalos took both gamma- and X-ray radiographs of the mechanism, which revealed critical information about the device's interior configuration. Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... Yale redirects here. ... Nuclear physics is the branch of physics concerned with the nucleus of the atom. ... Demokritos is a scientific research centre in Greece, officially known as the National Centre of Scientific Research DEMOKRITOS (NCSR). ... This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz...


In 1974, Price wrote "Gears from the Greeks: the Antikythera mechanism — a calendar computer from ca. 80 B.C.",[19] where he presented a model of how the mechanism could have functioned. Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ...


Price's model, as presented in his "Gears from the Greeks", was the first theoretical attempt at reconstructing the device. According to that model, the front dial shows the annual progress of the Sun and Moon through the zodiac against the Egyptian calendar. The upper rear dial displays a four-year period and has associated dials showing the Metonic cycle of 235 synodic months, which approximately equals 19 solar years. The lower rear dial plots the cycle of a single synodic month, with a secondary dial showing the lunar year of 12 synodic months. For other uses, see Zodiac (disambiguation). ... The ancient civil Egyptian Calendar, known as the Annus Vagus or Wandering Year, had a year that was 365 days long, consisting of 12 months of 30 days each, plus 5 extra days at the end of the year. ... The Metonic cycle or Enneadecaeteris in astronomy and calendar studies is a particular approximate common multiple of the year (specifically, the seasonal tropical year) and the synodic month. ... In Egyptian mythology, Month is an alternate spelling for Menthu. ... A year (from Old English gēr) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ...


One of the remarkable proposals made by Price was that the mechanism employed differential gears, which enabled the mechanism to add or subtract angular velocities. The differential was used to compute the synodic lunar cycle by subtracting the effects of the Sun's movement from those of the sidereal lunar movement. In an automobile and other four-wheeled vehicles, a differential is a device, usually consisting of gears, for allowing each of the driving wheels to rotate at different speeds, while supplying equal torque to each of them. ... Angular velocity describes the speed of rotation and the orientation of the instantaneous axis about which the rotation occurs. ... The orbital period is the time it takes a planet (or another object) to make one full orbit. ... In astronomy, a phase of the Moon is any of the aspects or appearances presented by the Moon as seen from Earth, determined by the portion of the Moon that is visibly illuminated by the Sun. ... The orbital period is the time it takes a planet (or another object) to make one full orbit. ...


Allan George Bromley

An ingenious variant on Price's reconstruction was built by Australian computer scientist Allan George Bromley of the University of Sydney and Sydney clockmaker Frank Percival. Bromley went on to make new, more accurate X-ray images in collaboration with Michael Wright. Some of these were studied by Bromley's student, Bernard Gardner, in 1993. Allan Bromley (died 2002) was an Australian historian of computing. ... The University of Sydney, established in Sydney in 1850, is the oldest university in Australia. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ...


Michael Wright

Michael Wright, formerly Curator of Mechanical Engineering at The London Science Museum, and now of Imperial College, London, made a completely new study of the original fragments together with Allan George Bromley. They used a technique called linear X-Ray tomography which was suggested by retired consultant radiologist, Alan Partridge. For this, Wright designed and made an apparatus for linear tomography, allowing the generation of sectional 2D radiographic images.[20] Early results of this survey were presented in 1997, which showed that Price's reconstruction was fundamentally flawed.[21] However, at the time Bromley was already suffering from Hodgkin's disease and died in 2002. Science Museum The Science Museum on Exhibition Road, Kensington, London, is part of the National Museum of Science and Industry. ... Royal School of Mines Entrance Imperial College London is a college of the University of London which focuses on science and technology, and is located in South Kensington in London. ... Allan Bromley (died 2002) was an Australian historian of computing. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... Tomography is imaging by sections or sectioning. ... Radiography is the creation of radiographs, photographs made by exposing a photographic film or other image receptor to X-rays. ... Hodgkins disease is a type of lymphoma described by Thomas Hodgkin in 1832, and characterized by the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells. ...


Further study of the new imagery allowed Wright to advance a number of proposals. Firstly he developed the idea, suggested by Price in "Gears from the Greeks", that the mechanism could have served as a planetarium. Wright's planetarium not only modelled the motion of the Sun and Moon, but also the Inferior Planets; Mercury and Venus, and the Superior Planets; Mars, Jupiter and Saturn[22][23] For the song by Ai Otsuka, see Planetarium (song) // A planetarium is a theatre built primarily for presenting educational and entertaining shows about astronomy and the night sky, or for training in celestial navigation. ... Sol redirects here. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... The terms inferior planet and superior planet were coined by Copernicus to distinguish a planets orbits size in relation to the Earths. ... This article is about the planet. ... For other uses, see Venus (disambiguation). ... The terms inferior planet and superior planet were coined by Copernicus to distinguish a planets orbits size in relation to the Earths. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... For other uses, see Jupiter (disambiguation). ... This article is about the planet. ...


Wright proposed that the Sun and Moon could have moved in accordance with the theories of Hipparchus, and the five known planets moved according to the simple epicyclic theory suggested by the theorem of Apollonios. In order to prove that this was possible using the level of technology apparent in the mechanism, Wright produced a working model of such a planetarium.[24][25] For the Athenian tyrant, see Hipparchus (son of Pisistratus). ... Apollonius of Rhodes, also known as Apollonius Rhodius (Latin; Greek Apollōnios Rhodios), early 3rd century BCE - after 246 BCE, was an epic poet, scholar, and director of the Library of Alexandria. ...


Wright also increased upon Price's gear count of 27 to 31[23] including 1 in Fragment C that was eventually identified as part of a Moon phase display.[26] He suggested that this is a mechanism that shows the phase of the Moon by means of a rotating semi-silvered ball, realized by the differential rotation of the sidereal cycle of the Moon and the Sun's yearly cycle. This precedes previously known mechanism of this sort by a millennium and a half. In astronomy, a phase of the Moon is any of the aspects or appearances presented by the Moon as seen from Earth, determined by the portion of the Moon that is visibly illuminated by the Sun. ...


More accurate tooth counts were also obtained,[27] allowing a new gearing scheme to be advanced[28] This more accurate information allowed Wright to confirm Price's perceptive suggestion that the upper back dial displays the Metonic cycle with 235 lunar months divisions over a five-turn scale. In addition to this Wright proposed the remarkable idea that the main back dials are in the form of spirals, with the upper back dial out as a five-turn spiral containing 47 divisions in each turn. It therefore presented a visual display of the 235 months of the Metonic cycle (19 years ≈ 235 Synodic Months). Wright also observed that fragmentary inscriptions suggested that the pointer on the subsidiary dial showed a count of four cycles of the 19-year period, equal to the 76-year Callippic cycle.[29] The Metonic cycle or Enneadecaeteris in astronomy and calendar studies is a particular approximate common multiple of the year (specifically, the seasonal tropical year) and the synodic month. ... Look up Month in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Eclipses may occur repeatedly, separated by some specific interval of time: this interval is called an eclipse cycle. ...


Based on more tentative observations, Wright also came to the conclusion that the lower back dial counted Draconic Months and could perhaps been used for eclipse prediction.[30] This article is about astronomical eclipses. ...


All these findings have been incorporated into Wright's working model,[29] demonstrating that a single mechanism with all these functions could not only be built, but would also work.


Despite the improved imagery provided by the linear tomography Wright could not reconcile all the known gears into a single coherent mechanism, and this led him to advance the theory that the mechanism had been altered, or modified, with some astronomical functions removed, and others added.[29]


Finally, as an outcome of his considerable research,[31][32][33][34][35][20][29] Wright also conclusively demonstrated that Price's assumption of the existence of a differential gearing arrangement was incorrect.[29][26]


Michael Wright's research on the Mechanism is continuing in parallel with the efforts of the Antikythera Mechanism Research Project. Recently Wright modified slightly his model of the mechanism to incorporate the latest findings of the Antikythera Mechanism Research Project regarding the function of the pin and slot engaged gears that brilliantly simulate the anomaly in the Moon's angular velocity. On the 6th of March 2007 he presented his model in the National Hellenic Research Foundation in Athens, Greece.


The Antikythera Mechanism Research Project

The Antikythera mechanism is now being studied by the Antikythera Mechanism Research Project,[36] a joint program between Cardiff University (M. Edmunds, T. Freeth), the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (X. Moussas, Y. Bitsakis), the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (J.H. Seiradakis), the National Archaeological Museum of Athens, X-Tek Systems UK[37] and Hewlett-Packard USA, funded by the Leverhulme Trust and supported by the Cultural Foundation of the National Bank of Greece.[38] The main building of Cardiff University Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Cardiff University Cardiff University (Welsh: Prifysgol Caerdydd) is a leading university located in the civic centre of Cardiff, Wales. ... The National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (Greek: Εθνικόν και Καποδιστριακόν Πανεπιστήμιον Αθηνών), usually referred to simply as the University of Athens, is the oldest university in the region of the eastern Mediterranean and has been in continuous operation since its establishment in 1837. ... The Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (often referred to in English as Aristotelian University), named after the philosopher Aristotle, is the largest university of Greece. ... Façade of the National Archaeological museum of Athens. ... The Hewlett-Packard Company (NYSE: HPQ), commonly known as HP, is a very large, global company headquartered in Palo Alto, California, United States. ... The Leverhulme Trust is a British research and educational charity. ... The National Bank of Greece (NBG; Greek: Εθνική Τράπεζα της Ελλάδος) (NYSE: NBG) (LSE: NBGA) is the oldest and, today, the largest commercial bank in Greece and heads the strongest financial group in the country. ...


The mechanism's fragility precluded its removal from the museum, so the Hewlett-Packard research team[39] and X-Tek systems had to bring their devices to Greece. HP built a 3-D surface imaging device, known as the "PTM Dome," that surrounds the object under examination. X-Tek systems developed especially for the Antikythera Mechanism a 12 ton 450 kV microfocus computerised tomographer. The space we live in is three-dimensional space. ...


It was announced in Athens on 21 October 2005 that new pieces of the Antikythera mechanism had been found. There are now 82 fragments. Most of the new pieces had been stabilized but were awaiting conservation. This article is about the capital of Greece. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On 30 May 2006, it was announced that the imaging system had enabled much more of the Greek inscription to be viewed and translated, from about 1,000 characters that were visible previously, to almost 3,000 characters, representing about 95% of the extant text. The team's findings shed new light concerning the function and purpose of the Antikythera mechanism. Research is ongoing. The first results were announced at an international conference in Athens (Greece), November 30 and December 1, 2006.[40] is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


New discoveries

On 30 November 2006, the science journal Nature published a new reconstruction of the mechanism based on the high resolution X-ray tomography described above.[41] This work doubled the amount of readable text, corrected prior transcriptions, and provided a new translation. The inscriptions lead to a dating of the Mechanism around 100 BC. It is evident that they contain a manual with an astronomical, mechanical and geographical section. The name ISPANIA (ΙΣΠΑΝΙΑ, Spain in Greek) in these texts is the oldest reference to this country under this form, as opposed to Iberia. is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ...


The new discoveries confirm that the mechanism is an astronomical analog computer or orrery used to predict the positions of heavenly bodies in the sky. This work proposes that the mechanism possessed 37 gears, of which 30 survive, and was used for prediction of the position of the Sun and the Moon. Based on the inscriptions, which mention the stationary points of the planets, the authors speculate that planetary motions may also have been indicated. A small orrery showing earth and the inner planets An orrery is a mechanical device that illustrates the relative positions and motions of the planets and moons in the solar system in heliocentric model. ... Stationary points (red pluses) and inflection points (green circles). ...


On the front face were graduations for the solar scale and the zodiac together with pointers that indicated the position of the Sun, the Moon, the lunar phase, and possibly the planetary motions. For other uses, see Zodiac (disambiguation). ... This article is about Earths moon. ...


On the back, two spiral scales (simple Archimedean spirals, with two centers) with sliding pointers indicated the state of two further important astronomical cycles: the Saros cycle, the period of approximately 18 years separating the return of the Sun, Moon and Earth to the same relative positions and the more accurate exeligmos cycle of 54 years and one day (essential in eclipse prediction, see Eclipse cycle). It also contains another spiral scale for the Metonic cycle (19 years, equal to 235 lunar months) and the Callippic cycle that proposed a more accurate periodicity of 940 lunar months in approximately 76 years. An Archimedean spiral is a curve which in polar coordinates (r, θ) can be described by the equation with real numbers a and b. ... A Saros cycle is a period of 6585 + 1/3 days (approximately 18 years 10 days and 8 hours) which can be used to predict eclipses of the sun and the moon. ... Time-lapse series of photos of the lunar eclipse of October 2004 as seen from Northern California. ... The Metonic cycle or Enneadecaeteris in astronomy and calendar studies is a particular approximate common multiple of the year (specifically, the seasonal tropical year) and the synodic month. ... Eclipses may occur repeatedly, separated by some specific interval of time: this interval is called an eclipse cycle. ...


The Moon mechanism, using an ingenious train of gears, two of them linked with a slightly offset axis and pin in a slot, shows the position and phase of the Moon during the month. The velocity of the Moon varies according to the theory of Hipparchus, and to a good approximation follows Kepler's second law for the angular velocity, being faster near the perigee and slower at the apogee (see Kepler's laws of planetary motion). Johannes Kepler Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630), a key figure in the scientific revolution, was a German astronomer, mathematician and astrologer. ... Illustration of Keplers three laws with two planetary orbits. ...


See also

An astrarium, also called a planetarium, is the mechanical representation of the cyclic nature of astronomical objects in one timepiece. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Naked eye planets. ...

References

  1. ^ "The Antikythera Mechanism Research Project", The Antikythera Mechanism Research Project. Retrieved 2007-07-01
  2. ^ Washington Post Quote: Imagine tossing a top-notch laptop into the sea, leaving scientists from a foreign culture to scratch their heads over its corroded remains centuries later. A Roman shipmaster inadvertently did something just like it 2,000 years ago off southern Greece, experts said late Thursday.
  3. ^ "Planetary gears", Nature 444 (7119).
  4. ^ Lazos, Christos (1994). The Antikythera Computer (Ο ΥΠΟΛΟΓΙΣΤΗΣ ΤΩΝ ΑΝΤΙΚΥΘΗΡΩΝ),. ΑΙΟΛΟΣ PUBLICATIONS GR. 
  5. ^ Johnston, Ian. "Device that let Greeks decode solar system", The Scotsman, 2006-11-30. Retrieved on 2007-06-26. 
  6. ^ a b The Guardian Mysteries of computer from 65BC are solved Quote: This device is extraordinary, the only thing of its kind," said Professor Edmunds. "The astronomy is exactly right ... in terms of historic and scarcity value, I have to regard this mechanism as being more valuable than the Mona Lisa." and One of the remaining mysteries is why the Greek technology invented for the machine seemed to disappear.
  7. ^ Ancient 'computer' starts to yield secrets. Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
  8. ^ Richard C. Carrier. Cultural History of the Lunar and Solar Eclipse in the Early Roman Empire. Retrieved on 2007-10-08.
  9. ^ M. TVLLI CICERONIS DE RE PVBLICA LIBER PRIMVS. Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
  10. ^ Spheres and Planetaria (Introduction)
  11. ^ BBC NEWS | Science/Nature | Ancient Moon 'computer' revisited
  12. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 285.
  13. ^ Cicero, De Natura Deorum II.88 (or 33-34). Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
  14. ^ "In search of lost time" and "Archaeology: High tech from Ancient Greece", Nature 444 (7119).
  15. ^ James, Peter; Thorpe, Nick (1995). Ancient Inventions. New York: Ballantine. ISBN 0-345-40102-6. 
  16. ^ Marchant, Jo (2006). "In search of lost time". Nature 444: 534-538. doi:10.1038/444534a. 
  17. ^ Price, D. de S. (1955). "Clockwork before the Clock (a)". Horological Journal 97: 811-813. 
  18. ^ Price, D. de S. (1956). "Clockwork before the Clock (b)". Horological Journal 98: 31-34. 
  19. ^ Price, D. de S. (1959). "On the Origin if Clockwork, Perpetual Motion Devices, and the Compass". United States National Museum Bulletin 218: 31-34. 
  20. ^ a b Wright, M T.; Bromley, A. G., & Magkou, E (1995). "Simple X-ray Tomography and the Antikythera Mechanism". PACT (Revue du groupe européen d'études pour les techniques physiques, chimiques, biologiques et mathématiques appliquées à l'archéologie or Journal of the European Study Group on Physical, Chemical, Biological and Mathematical Techniques Applied to Archaeology) 45: 531-543. 
  21. ^ Wright, M T.; Bromley, A. G. (4 – 7 September 1997). "Current Work on the Antikythera Mechanism". Proc. Conf. Αρχαία Ελληνική Τεχνολογία (Ancient Greek Technology): 19–25. 
  22. ^ Wright, M T.; Bromley, A. G. (August 2001). "Towards a New Reconstruction of the Antikythera Mechanism". Proc. Conf. Extraordinary Machines and Structures in Antiquity: 81-94.  ed. S.A. Paipetis, Peri Technon, Patras 2003.
  23. ^ a b Wright, M T. (July 2002). "In the Steps of the Master Mechanic". Proc. Conf. Η Αρχαία Ελλάδα και ο Σύγχρονος Κόσμος (Ancient Greece and the Modern World): 86-97.  University of Patras 2003.
  24. ^ Wright, M T. (2002). "A Planetarium Display for the Antikythera Mechanism (a)". Horological Journal 144 (5 (May 2002)): 169-173. 
  25. ^ Wright, M T. (2002). "A Planetarium Display for the Antikythera Mechanism (b)". Horological Journal 144 (6 (June 2002)): 193. 
  26. ^ a b Wright, M T. (2005). "The Antikythera Mechanism and the early history of the Moon Phase Display". Antiquarian Horology 29 (3 (March 2006)): 319 – 329. 
  27. ^ Wright, M T. (2004). "The Scholar, the Mechanic and the Antikythera Mechanism". Bulletin of the Scientific Instrument Society 80 (March 2004): 4–11. 
  28. ^ Wright, M T. (2005). "The Antikythera Mechanism: a New Gearing Scheme". Bulletin of the Scientific Instrument Society 85 (June 2005): 2-7. 
  29. ^ a b c d e Wright, M T. (2005). "Counting Months and Years: the Upper Back Dial of the Antikythera Mechanism". Bulletin of the Scientific Instrument Society 87 (December 2005) (1 (September 2005)): 8-13. 
  30. ^ Wright, M T. (October 2005). "Understanding the Antikythera Mechanism". Proc. Conf. Αρχαία Ελληνική Τεχνολογία (Ancient Greek Technology).  in preparation (Preprint)
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  32. ^ Wright, M T., "Il meccanismo di Anticitera: l'antica tradizione dei meccanismi ad ingranaggio" (The Antikythera Mechanism: evidence for an ancient tradition of the making of geared instruments), in: E. Lo Sardo (ed.), Eureka! Il genio degli antichi, Naples, July 2005 – January 2006), Electa Napoli 2005, pp. 241 – 244.
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  37. ^ X-Tek Systems. Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
  38. ^ National Bank of Greece, Cultural Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
  39. ^ Interactive Relighting of the Antikythera Mechanism. Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
  40. ^ The Antikythera Mechanism Research Project. Retrieved on 2007-03-23.
  41. ^ Freeth, Tony; Y. Bitsakis, X. Moussas..., and M.G. Edmunds (November 30, 2006). "Decoding the ancient Greek astronomical calculator known as the Antikythera Mechanism". Nature 444: 587-591. doi:10.1038/nature05357. 

The Scotsmans offices in Edinburgh The Scotsman is a Scottish national newspaper, published in Edinburgh. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

Further reading

  • October 2007alouris, N. (1990). "Ceramic and Iconographic Studies in Honour of Alexander Cambitoglou". Eumousia: 135. *Zeeman, E. C., (1986). "Gears From The Ancient Greeks". Proc. Roy. Inst. GB 58: 137-156.  (See also the slides from a lecture here [1], slide 22 is a view of how the mechanism for a model comes to replace actual reality).
  • Weinberg, G. D.; Grace, V. R., Edwards, G. R., Robinson, H. S;, Throckmorton, P., & Ralph, E. K. (1965). "The Antikythera Shipwreck Reconsidered". Trans Am Philos. Soc. 55 (New Series) (3): 3-48. 
  • Toomer, G. J. (1998). Ptolemy's Almagest (trans. Toomer, G. J.). Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton Univ. Press. 
  • Steele, J. M. (2000). "Eclipse prediction in Mesopotamia". Arch. Hist. Exact Sci. 54: 421-454. 
  • Steele, J. M. (2000). Observations and Predictions of Eclipse Times by Early Astronomers. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic. 
  • Stephenson, F. R. (1997). Historical Eclipses and the Earth's Rotation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. 
  • Charette, François (2006). "High tech from Ancient Greece". Nature 444: 551-552. doi:10.1038/444551a. 
  • Britton. (1985). "The Design of Astronomical Gear Trains". Horological Journal 128 (6): 19-23. 
  • Bromley, J. P. (1993). in Die Rolle der Astronomie in den Kulturen Mesopotamiens (ed. Galter, H. D.). Graz: rm-Druck & Vergansgesellschaft, 61-67. 
  • Price, D. de S. (1959). "An Ancient Greek Computer". Scientific American 200 (6): 60-67.  see "An Ancient Greek Computer
  • Price, D. de S. (1975). "Gears from the Greeks: The Antkythera Mechanism – A Calendar Computer from ca 80BC". Trans Am Philos. Soc., New Series 64 (7). 
  • Price, Derek J. de Solla (1975). Gears from the Greeks: The Antikythera Mechanism — A Calendar Computer from ca. 80 BC. New York: Science History Publications. ISBN 0-87169-647-9. 
  • Rice R. S. (4 – 7 September 1997). "Physical and Intellectual Salvage from the 1st Century BC". USNA Eleventh Naval History Symposium: 19–25.  see The Antikythera Mechanism
  • Rosheim, Mark E. (1994). Robot Evolution: The Development of Anthrobotics. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-02622-0.. 
  • Steele (1994). Robot Evolution: The Development of Anthrobotics. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-02622-0.. 
  • Russell, Rupert, The Antikythera Mechanism
  • Jones, A. (1991). "The adaptation of Babylonian methods in Greek numerical astronomy". Isis 82: 440-453. 
  • Jacques Cousteau. The Cousteau Odyssey: Diving for Roman Plunder [Tape]. Warner Home Video/KCET, Los Angeles.
  • Edmunds, Mike & Morgan, Philip (2000). "The Antikythera Mechanism: Still a Mystery of Greek Astronomy". Astronomy & Geophysics 41: 6-10. doi:10.1046/j.1468-4004.2000.41610.x.  (The authors mention that an "extended account" of their researches titled "Computing Aphrodite" is forthcoming in 2001, but it does not seem to have appeared as of yet.)
  • Freeth, T. (2002). "The Antikythera Mechanism: 1. Challenging the Classic Research". Mediterranean Archeology and Archeaometry 2 (1): 21-35. 
  • Freeth, T. (2002). "The Antikyhera Mechanism: 2. Is it Posidonius’ Orrery?". Mediterranean Archeology and Archeaometry 2 (2). 
  • Freeth, T.; Bitsakis, Y., Moussas, X., Seiradakis, J. H., Tselikas, A., Mankou, E., Zafeiropulou, M., Hadland, R., Bate, D., Ramsey, A., Allen, M., Crawley, A., Hockley, P., Malzbender, T., Gelb, D., Ambrisco, W., & Edmunds, M. G. (2006). "Decoding the ancient Greek astronomical calculator known as the Antikythera Mechanism". Nature 444: 587-591. doi:10.1038/nature05357. 
  • James, Peter; Thorpe, Nick (1995). Ancient Inventions. New York: Ballantine. ISBN 0-345-40102-6. 
  • Bromley, A. G. (1986). "The Design of Astronomical Gear Trains (b)". Horological Journal 128 (9): 10-11. 
  • Bromley, A. G. (1986). "Notes on the Antikythera Mechanism". Centaurus 29: 5. 
  • Bromley, A. G. (1990). "The Antikythera Mechanism". Horological Journal 132: 412-415. 
  • Bromley, A. G. (1990). "The Antikythera Mechanism: A Reconstruction". Horological Journal 133 (1): 28-31. 
  • Bromley, A. G. (1990). "Observations of the Antikythera Mechanism". Antiquarian Horology 18 (6): 641-652. 
  • Cary, M. A. (1970). History of Rome. London: Macmillan, 334. 

Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Derek John de Solla Price (January 22, 1922 – September 03, 1983) was a science historian and information scientist, credited as the father of scientometrics. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
World Mysteries - Strange Artifacts - Antikythera Mechanism (4752 words)
From the inscriptions and the dials the mechanism was correctly identified as an astronomical device.
The Antikythera mechanism must therefore be an arithmetical counterpart of the much more familiar geometrical models of the solar system which were known to Plato and Archimedes and evolved into the orrery and the planetarium.
The Antikythera mechanism, as it is now known, was originally housed in a wooden box about the size of a shoebox, with dials on the outside and a complex assembly of bronze gear wheels within.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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