FACTOID # 24: Looking for table makers? Head to Mississippi, with an overwhlemingly large number of employees in furniture manufacturing.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Antihypertensive" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Antihypertensive

Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used in medicine and pharmacology to treat hypertension (high blood pressure). There are many classes of antihypertensives, which—by varying means—act by lowering blood pressure. Evidence suggests that reduction of the blood pressure by 5-6 mmHg can decrease the risk of stroke by 40%, of coronary heart disease by 15-20%, and reduces the likelihood of dementia, heart failure, and mortality from cardiovascular disease. Oral medication A medication is a licenced drug taken to cure or reduce symptoms of an illness or medical condition. ... Medicine is the branch of health science and the sector of public life concerned with maintaining or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, treatment and possible prevention of disease and injury. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and logos (λόγος) meaning science) is the study of how chemical substances interact with living systems. ... For other forms of hypertension see hypertension (disambiguation). ... Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by the blood on the walls of the blood vessels. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Cardiovascular disease. ... For other senses of this word, see dementia (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Coronary heart disease. ...


Which type of medication to use initially for hypertension has been the subject of several large studies and resulting national guidelines.The fundamental goal of treatment should be the prevention of the important "endpoints" of hypertension such as heart attack, stroke and heart failure. Several classes of medications are effective in reducing blood pressure. However, these classes differ in side effect profiles, ability to prevent endpoints, and cost. The choice of more expensive agents, where cheaper ones would be equally effective, may have negative impacts on national healthcare budgets.[1] For other forms of hypertension see hypertension (disambiguation). ...


In the United States, the JNC7 (The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention of Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure) recommends starting with a thiazide diuretic if single therapy is being initiated and another medication is not indicated.[2] This is based on a slightly better outcome for chlortalidone in the ALLHAT study versus other anti-hypertensives and because thiazide diuretics are relatively cheap.[3] A subsequent smaller study (ANBP2) published after the JNC7 did not show this small difference in outcome and actually showed a slightly better outcome for ACE-inhibitors in older male patients.[4] Thiazides are a class of drug that promote water loss from the body ((diuretics)). They inhibit Na+/Cl- reabsorption from the distal convoluted tubules in the kidneys. ... Chlortalidone (formerly spelt chlorthalidone in the UK) is a thiazide diuretic, used to treat hypertension. ...


Despite thiazides being cheap, effective, and recommended as the best first-line drug for hypertension by many experts, they are not prescribed as often as some newer drugs. Arguably, this is because they are off-patent and thus rarely promoted by the drug industry.[5]


In the United Kingdom, the June 2006 "Hypertension: management of hypertension in adults in primary care"[6] guideline of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, downgraded the role of beta-blockers due to their risk of provoking type 2 diabetes.[7] The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence or NICE is an agency of the National Health Service in the United Kingdom. ... See diabetes mellitus for further general information on diabetes. ...

Contents

Available drugs

Diuretics

Diuretics help the kidneys eliminate excess salt and water from the body's tissues and blood. A diuretic (colloquially called a water pill) is any drug or herb that elevates the rate of bodily urine excretion (diuresis). ...

Although the above is a thorough list of diuretic agents, only the thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics have good evidence of beneficial effects on important endpoints of hypertension. Loop diuretics are diuretics that act on the ascending loop of Henle in the kidney. ... Bumetanide is an antihypertensive, a loop diuretic of the sulfamyl category to treat hypertension. ... Ethacrynic acid (Edecrin®) is a loop diuretic medication used to treat high blood pressure and the swelling caused by diseases like congestive heart failure, liver failure, and kidney failure. ... Furosemide (INN) or frusemide (former BAN) is a loop diuretic used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and edema. ... torsemide is a novel loop diuretic belonging to pridine sulphonyl urea ... Thiazides are a class of drug that promote water loss from the body ((diuretics)). They inhibit Na+/Cl- reabsorption from the distal convoluted tubules in the kidneys. ... Chlortalidone (formerly spelt chlorthalidone in the UK) is a thiazide diuretic, used to treat hypertension. ... Hydrochlorothiazide (Apo-Hydro®, Aquazide H®, Microzide®, Oretic®), sometimes abbreviated HCT, HCTZ, or HZT is a popular diuretic drug that acts by inhibiting the kidneys ability to retain water. ... Chlorothiazide sodium (Diuril®) is a diuretic used within the hospital setting or for personal use to manage excess fluid associated with congestive heart failure. ... Indapamide is a diuretic drug, usually used in the treatment of hypertension. ... Metolazone is an oral diuretic drug, commonly classified with the thiazide diuretics, and marketed under the brand names Zaroxolyn and Mykrox. ... Potassium-sparing diuretics are diuretic drugs that do not promote the secretion of potassium into the urine. ... Amiloride is an antihypertensive, a potassium-sparing diuretic that was first approved for use in 1967 and helps to treat hypertension and congestive heart failure. ... Triamterene is a potassium-sparing diuretic used in combination with thiazide diuretics for the treatment of hypertension. ... Thiazides are a class of drug that promote water loss from the body ((diuretics)). They inhibit Na+/Cl- reabsorption from the distal convoluted tubules in the kidneys. ... For other forms of hypertension see hypertension (disambiguation). ...


Antiadrenergics

Adrenergic receptor antagonists: The adrenergic receptors (or adrenoceptors) are a class of G-protein coupled receptors that is the target of catecholamines. ...

Although beta blockers lower blood pressure, they do not have as positive a benefit on endpoints as some other antihypertensives.[8] In particular, atenolol seems to be less useful in hypertension than several other agents.[9] However, beta blockers have an important role in the prevention of heart attack in people who have already had a heart attack.[10] Beta blockers or beta-adrenergic blocking agents are a class of drugs used to treat a variety of cardiovascular conditions and some other diseases. ... Atenolol is a drug belonging to the group of beta blockers, a class of drugs used primarily in cardiovascular diseases. ... Metoprolol is a beta blocker drug used in treatment of several diseases of the cardiovascular system. ... Nadolol (Corgard) is a non-selective beta-blocker used in the treatment of high blood pressure and chest pain. ... Pindolol is a beta blocker drug. ... Propranolol (INN) (IPA: ) is a non-selective beta blocker mainly used in the treatment of hypertension. ... Timolol maleate is a non-selective beta-adrenergic receptor blocker. ... Alpha blockers (also called alpha-adrenergic blocking agents) constitute a variety of drugs which block alpha-adrenergic receptors in arteries and smooth muscles. ... Doxazosin mesylate, a quinazoline compound sold by Pfizer under the brand name Cardura, is used to treat high blood pressure and benign prostatic hyperplasia. ... Phentolamine is a competitive nonselective alpha adrenergic receptor antagonist. ... Indoramin is a piperidine antiadrenergic agent. ... Phenoxybenzamine is an irreversible alpha blocker used in the treatment of hypertension. ... Prazosin, brand name Minipress®, is a medication used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). ... Terazosin (Hytrin) is an alpha blocker used for treatment of symptoms of prostate enlargement (BPH). ... Tolazoline is a competitive alpha adrenergic receptor antagonist. ... Carvedilol is a non-selective beta blocker indicated in the treatment of mild to moderate congestive heart failure (CHF). ... The examples and perspective in this article do not represent a worldwide view. ... Beta blockers or beta-adrenergic blocking agents are a class of drugs used to treat a variety of cardiovascular conditions and some other diseases. ... Atenolol is a drug belonging to the group of beta blockers, a class of drugs used primarily in cardiovascular diseases. ... Beta blockers or beta-adrenergic blocking agents are a class of drugs used to treat a variety of cardiovascular conditions and some other diseases. ...


Despite lowering blood pressure, alpha blockers have significantly poorer endpoint outcomes than other antihypertensives, and are no longer recommended as a first-line choice in the treatment of hypertension.[11] However, they may be useful for some men with symptoms of prostate disease. Alpha blockers (also called alpha-adrenergic blocking agents) constitute a variety of drugs which block alpha-adrenergic receptors in arteries and smooth muscles. ... For other uses of the acronym BPH, see BPH (disambiguation). ...


Calcium channel blockers

Calcium channel blockers block the entry of calcium into muscle cells in artery walls. Calcium channel blockers are a class of drugs with effects on the muscle of the heart and the muscles of the rest of the body. ...

Pyridinium cation of pyridine. ... Amlodipine (as besylate or malleate) is a long-acting calcium channel blocker used as an anti-hypertensive and in the treatment of angina. ... Felodipine is a calcium channel blocker (calcium antagonist), a drug used to control hypertension (high blood pressure). ... Isradipine is a calcium channel blocker of the dihydropyridine class. ... Nifedipine (brand name Adalat and Procardia) is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. ... Nimodipine (marketed by Bayer as Nimotop®) is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker originally developed for the treatment of high blood pressure. ... Nitrendipine is a pyridine calcium channel blocker. ... Diltiazem is a member of the group of drugs known as calcium channel blockers, used in the treatment of hypertension or angina. ... Verapamil (brand names: Isoptin®, Verelan®, Calan®) is a medical drug that acts as an L-type calcium channel blocker. ...

ACE inhibitors

ACE inhibitors inhibit the activity of Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), an enzyme responsible for the conversion of angiotensin I into angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor. Captopril, the first ACE inhibitor ACE inhibitors, or inhibitors of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme, are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used primarily in treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure, in most cases as the drugs of first choice. ... Angiotensin converting enzyme Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE, EC 3. ... Angiotensin is an oligopeptide in the blood that causes vasoconstriction, increased blood pressure, and release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex. ... Vasoconstriction is the constriction of blood vessels, in other words, when the lumen narrows. ...

Captopril is an Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) used for the treatment of hypertension and some types of chronic heart failure. ... Enalapril is an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor used in the treatment of hypertension and some types of chronic heart failure. ... Fosinopril is an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor used for the treatment of hypertension and some types of chronic heart failure. ... Lisinopril (lye-SIH-no-pril, is a drug of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor class that is primarily used in treatment of hypertension, congestive heart failure, heart attacks and also in preventing renal and retinal complications of diabetes. ... Perindopril erbumine (Aceon®, Coversyl®) is an ACE inhibitor used to control blood pressure. ... Quinapril (or Accupril ®) is an ACE inhibitor used to control blood pressure. ... Ramipril (marketed as Tritace® or Altace®) is an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, used to treat high blood pressure and congestive heart failure. ...

Angiotensin II receptor antagonists

Angiotensin II receptor antagonists work by antagonizing the activation of angiotensin receptors. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists, also known as angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) or AT1-receptor antagonists, are a group of pharmaceuticals which modulate the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. ... Antagonists In medicine and biology, a receptor antagonist is a ligand that inhibits the function of an agonist and inverse agonist for a specific receptor. ... The angiotensin receptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors with angiotensins as ligands. ...

Candesartan (kan-de-SAR-tan) belongs to the class of medicines called angiotensin II inhibitors. ... Irbesartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist used mainly for the treatment of hypertension. ... Losartan (rINN) (IPA: ) is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist drug used mainly to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). ... Chemical structure of telmisartan Telmisartan is an antihypertensive drug categorized as an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB). ... Valsartan (Diovan®) is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, acting on the AT1 subtype. ...

Aldosterone antagonists

Aldosterone antagonists: Aldosterone is a steroid hormone synthesized from cholesterol by the enzyme aldosterone synthase. ...

Aldosterone antagonists are not recommended as first-line agents for blood pressure,[2] but spironolactone is useful in the treatment of heart failure. Spironolactone (marketed as Aldactone or Spiritone) is a synthetic 17-lactone steroid which is a renal competitive aldosterone antagonist in a class of pharmaceuticals called potassium-sparing diuretics, used primarily to treat low-renin hypertension, hypokalemia, and Conns syndrome. ... Aldosterone is a steroid hormone synthesized from cholesterol by the enzyme aldosterone synthase. ... Spironolactone (marketed as Aldactone or Spiritone) is a synthetic 17-lactone steroid which is a renal competitive aldosterone antagonist in a class of pharmaceuticals called potassium-sparing diuretics, used primarily to treat low-renin hypertension, hypokalemia, and Conns syndrome. ...


Vasodilators

Vasodilators act directly on arteries to relax their walls so blood can move more easily through them; they are only used in medical emergencies. A vasodilator is a substance that causes blood vessels in the body to become wider by relaxing the smooth muscle in the vessel wall, or vasodilation. ... A medical emergency is an injury or illness that poses an immediate threat to a persons health or life which requires help from a doctor or hospital. ...

Sodium nitroprusside (Na3Fe(CN)5NO) is a potent peripheral vasodilator which affects both arterioles and venules. ...

Centrally acting adrenergic drugs

Central alpha agonists lower blood pressure by stimulating alpha-receptors in the brain which open peripheral arteries easing blood flow. Central alpha agonists, like Clonidine, are usually prescribed when all other anti-hypertensive medications have failed.

Clonidine is a centrally acting antihypertensive (to lower high blood pressure) agent, used mainly for this purpose in the past. ... Guanabenz (GWAHN-a-benz) belongs to the antihypertensives drugs. ... Methyldopa or alpha-methyldopa (brand names Aldomet, Apo-Methyldopa, Dopamet, Novomedopa) is a centrally-acting antiadrenergic antihypertensive medication. ...

Adrenergic neuron blockers

Guanethidine is an antihypertensive drug. ... Reserpine is an indole alkaloid antipsychotic and antihypertensive drug known to irreversibly bind to storage vesicles of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. ...

Herbals provoking hypotension

[citation needed]

Species About 15 species; see text Agrimony (Agrimonia) is a genus of 12-15 species of perennial herbaceous flowering plants in the family Rosaceae, native to the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, with one species also in Africa. ... Binomial name Apium graveolens L. Celery (Apium graveolens dulce) is a herbaceous biennial plant in the family Apiaceae, native to the coasts of western and northern Europe, most commonly in ditches and saltmarshes. ... Binomial name Zea mays L. Maize (Zea mays ssp. ... Binomial name Allium sativum L. Percentages are relative to US RDI values for adults. ... Binomial name Zingiber officinale Roscoe Ginger root is used extensively as a spice in many if not all cuisines of the world. ... Ginseng (Panax) is a genus of about five or six species of slow-growing perennial plants with fleshy roots, in the family Araliaceae. ... Binomial name Hydrastis canadensis L. Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) is a perennial herb in the buttercup family Ranunculaceae, native to southeastern Canada and the northeastern United States. ... Hawthorn is a common name for plants in two related genera in the subfamily Maloideae of the family Rosaceae: Crataegus Rhaphiolepis The term Hawthorn also refers to the following places: Hawthorn, Victoria, a suburb of Melbourne, Australia. ... Families Santalaceae(Viscaceae) Loranthaceae Mistletoe is the common name for various parasitic plants of the families Santalaceae (in the section of the family formerly separated as Viscaceae) and Loranthaceae. ... Species See text. ... Species Percentages are relative to US RDI values for adults. ... Species About 35, including: Phytolacca acinosa (Southeast Asia) Phytolacca americana (North America) Phytolacca clavigera (China) Phytolacca dioica (South America) Phytolacca esculenta (East Asia) Phytolacca heteropetala (Mexico) Phytolacca icosandra (South America) Phytolacca octandra (New Zealand) The Pokeweeds (Phytolacca), also known as poke, pokeberry and pokeroot, are a genus of perennial plants... Sage or SAGE can refer to: Look up sage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Squill or squill liquid is a substance derived from a plant and is used as an ingredient in cough medicine, and in cardiac surgery. ... Binomial name Daucus carota Species Daucus carota Wild carrot or Queen Annes lace, Daucus carota, is the ancestor of the domesticated carrot of Europe, widely introduced in North America. ...

Choice

The choice between the drugs is to a large degree determined by the characteristics of the patient being prescribed for, the drugs' side-effects, and cost. For example, asthmatics have been reported to have worsening symptoms when using beta blockers. Most drugs have other uses; sometimes the presence of other symptoms can warrant the use of one particular antihypertensive (such as beta blockers in case of tremor and nervousness, and alpha blockers in case of benign prostatic hyperplasia). The JNC 7 report outlines compelling reasons to choose one drug over the others for certain individual patients.[2] Asthma is a disease of the respiratory system in which the airways constrict, become inflamed, and are lined with excessive amounts of mucus and semen, often in response to one or more triggers, such as exposure to an environmental stimulant (or allergen), cold air, exercise, or emotional stress. ... Beta blockers or beta-adrenergic blocking agents are a class of drugs used to treat a variety of cardiovascular conditions and some other diseases. ... For other uses, see Tremor (disambiguation). ... Nervous can refer to: Anxiety Nervous system Categories: Disambiguation ... Alpha blockers (also called alpha-adrenergic blocking agents) constitute a variety of drugs which block alpha-adrenergic receptors in arteries and smooth muscles. ... For other uses of the acronym BPH, see BPH (disambiguation). ...


References

  1. ^ Nelson MR, McNeil JJ, Peeters A et al (Jun 4 2001). "PBS/RPBS cost implications of trends and guideline recommendations in the pharmacological management of hypertension in Australia, 1994-1998". Med J Aust 174 (11): 565-8. PMID 11453328.
  2. ^ a b c Chobanian AV et al (2003). "The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: the JNC 7 report". JAMA 289: 2560-72. PMID 12748199.
  3. ^ ALLHAT Officers and Coordinators for the ALLHAT Collaborative Research Group (Dec 18 2002). "Major outcomes in high-risk hypertensive patients randomized to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or calcium channel blocker vs diuretic: The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT)". JAMA 288 (23): 2981-97. PMID 12479763.
  4. ^ Wing LM, Reid CM, Ryan P et al (Feb 13 2003). "A comparison of outcomes with angiotensin-converting--enzyme inhibitors and diuretics for hypertension in the elderly". NEJM 348 (7): 583-92. PMID 12584366.
  5. ^ Wang TJ, Ausiello JC, Stafford RS (1999). "Trends in Antihypertensive Drug Advertising, 1985–1996". Circulation 99: 2055-2057. PMID 10209012.
  6. ^ Hypertension: management of hypertension in adults in primary care (PDF). National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Retrieved on 2006-09-30.
  7. ^ Sheetal Ladva (28/06/2006). NICE and BHS launch updated hypertension guideline. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Retrieved on 2006-09-30.
  8. ^ Lindholm LH, Carlberg B, Samuelsson O (Oct 29-Nov 4 2005). "Should beta blockers remain first choice in the treatment of primary hypertension? A meta-analysis". Lancet 366 (9496): 1545-53. PMID 16257341.
  9. ^ Carlberg B, Samuelsson O, Lindholm LH (Nov 6-12 2004). "Atenolol in hypertension: is it a wise choice?". Lancet 364 (9446): 1684-9. PMID 15530629.
  10. ^ Freemantle N, Cleland J, Young P et al (Jun 26 1999). "Beta Blockade after myocardial infarction: systematic review and meta regression analysis". BMJ 318 (7200): 1730-7. PMID 10381708.
  11. ^ ALLHAT Officers and Coordinators for the ALLHAT Collaborative Research Group (Sep 2003). "Diuretic Versus alpha-Blocker as First-Step Antihypertensive Therapy". Hypertension 42 (3): 239-46. PMID 12925554.
  1. Herbals Affecting Blood Pressure [Herbal Provoking Hypotension; Clark (2003) AAFP Board Review, Seattle ]

JAMA is the acronym for the Journal of the American Medical Association, a leading medical journal. ... JAMA is the acronym for the Journal of the American Medical Association, a leading medical journal. ... The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society. ... The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence or NICE is an agency of the National Health Service in the United Kingdom. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 30 is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence or NICE is an agency of the National Health Service in the United Kingdom. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 30 is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Lancet is one of the oldest and most respected peer-reviewed medical journals in the world, published weekly by Elsevier, part of Reed Elsevier. ... The Lancet is one of the oldest and most respected peer-reviewed medical journals in the world, published weekly by Elsevier, part of Reed Elsevier. ... The British Medical Journal (BMJ) is a medical journal published weekly in the United Kingdom by the British Medical Association (BMA). ...

See also


Arterial hypertension, or high blood pressure is a medical condition where the blood pressure is chronically elevated. ...

Antihypertensives (C02) and diuretics (C03) edit
Antiadrenergic agents (including alpha):

Clonidine, Doxazosin, Guanethidine, Guanfacine, Lofexidine, Mecamylamine, Methyldopa, Moxonidine, Prazosin, Rescinnamine, Reserpine A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... A diuretic (colloquially called a water pill) is any drug or herb that elevates the rate of bodily urine excretion (diuresis). ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Alpha blockers (also called alpha-adrenergic blocking agents) constitute a variety of drugs which block alpha-adrenergic receptors in arteries and smooth muscles. ... Clonidine is a centrally acting antihypertensive (to lower high blood pressure) agent, used mainly for this purpose in the past. ... Doxazosin mesylate, a quinazoline compound sold by Pfizer under the brand name Cardura, is used to treat high blood pressure and benign prostatic hyperplasia. ... Guanethidine is an antihypertensive drug. ... Guanfacine is a centrally acting antihypertensive agent. ... Lofexidine is an alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonist, can be used as a short acting (short half life) anti-hypertensive, but mostly used to help with relief from symptoms of heroin or opiate withdrawal in opiate dependency. ... Mecamylamine is a nicotinic antagonist that is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and crosses the blood-brain barrier. ... Methyldopa or alpha-methyldopa (brand names Aldomet, Apo-Methyldopa, Dopamet, Novomedopa) is a centrally-acting antiadrenergic antihypertensive medication. ... MOXONIDINE Indications: Moxonidine, a centrally acting drug, is licensed for mild to moderate essential hypertension. ... Prazosin, brand name Minipress®, is a medication used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). ... Rescinnamine is an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor used as an antihypertensive drug. ... Reserpine is an indole alkaloid antipsychotic and antihypertensive drug known to irreversibly bind to storage vesicles of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. ...

Vasodilators:

Diazoxide, Hydralazine, Minoxidil, Nitroprusside, Phentolamine A vasodilator is a substance that causes blood vessels in the body to become wider by relaxing the smooth muscle in the vessel wall, or vasodilation. ... Diazoxide is a potassium channel activator, which causes local relaxation in smooth muscle by increasing membrane permeability to potassium ions. ... Hydralazine hydrochloride (1 -hydrazinophthalazine monohydrochloride; Apresoline®) is a medication used to treat high blood pressure. ... Minoxidil is a vasodilator and originally was exclusively used as an oral drug (Loniten®) to treat high blood pressure. ... Sodium nitroprusside (Na2Fe(CN)5NO) is a potent peripheral vasodilator which affects both arterioles and venules. ... Phentolamine is a competitive nonselective alpha adrenergic receptor antagonist. ...

Other antihypertensives:

Bosentan, Ketanserin Bosentan is an endothelin receptor antagonist important in the treatment of pulmonary artery hypertension. ... Ketanserin is a serotonin receptor antagonist. ...

Low ceiling diuretics:

Bendroflumethiazide, Chlorothiazide, Chlortalidone, Hydrochlorothiazide, Indapamide, Quinethazone, Mersalyl, Metolazone, Theobromine Bendroflumethiazide, (formerly known as bendrofluazide), is a thiazide diuretic, used to treat hypertension. ... Chlorothiazide sodium (Diuril®) is a diuretic used within the hospital setting or for personal use to manage excess fluid associated with congestive heart failure. ... Chlortalidone (formerly spelt chlorthalidone in the UK) is a thiazide diuretic, used to treat hypertension. ... Hydrochlorothiazide (Apo-Hydro®, Aquazide H®, Microzide®, Oretic®), sometimes abbreviated HCT, HCTZ, or HZT is a popular diuretic drug that acts by inhibiting the kidneys ability to retain water. ... Indapamide is a diuretic drug, usually used in the treatment of hypertension. ... Quinethazone (brand name Hydromox®) is a thiazide diuretic used to treat hypertension. ... Mersalyl acid (Mersal) is a mercurial diuretic. ... Metolazone is an oral diuretic drug, commonly classified with the thiazide diuretics, and marketed under the brand names Zaroxolyn and Mykrox. ... Theobromine is a bitter alkaloid of the methylxanthine family, which also includes the similar compounds theophylline and caffeine. ...

High ceiling diuretics:

Bumetanide, Furosemide, Torasemide Bumetanide is an antihypertensive, a loop diuretic of the sulfamyl category to treat hypertension. ... Furosemide (INN) or frusemide (former BAN) is a loop diuretic used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and edema. ... Torasemide (rINN) or torsemide (USAN) is a pyridine-sulfonylurea type loop diuretic mainly used in the management of oedema associated with congestive heart failure. ...

Potassium-sparing diuretics:

Amiloride, Eplerenone, Spironolactone, Triamterene Potassium-sparing diuretic refers to diuretic drugs that do not promote the secretion of potassium into the urine. ... Amiloride is an antihypertensive, a potassium-sparing diuretic that was first approved for use in 1967 and helps to treat hypertension and congestive heart failure. ... Eplerenone (INN) (IPA: ) is an aldosterone antagonist used as an adjunct in the management of chronic heart failure. ... Spironolactone (marketed as Aldactone or Spiritone) is a synthetic 17-lactone steroid which is a renal competitive aldosterone antagonist in a class of pharmaceuticals called potassium-sparing diuretics, used primarily to treat low-renin hypertension, hypokalemia, and Conns syndrome. ... Triamterene is a potassium-sparing diuretic used in combination with thiazide diuretics for the treatment of hypertension. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Pharmacology (2161 words)
The antihypertensive drug most likely to be the cause of his new complaints is: 1.
One of the mechanisms for 'resistance" to an antihypertensive drug regimen is a retention of salt and water and an increase in extracellular fluid volume.
An agent which produces its antihypertensive effect by blocking autonomic ganglia, thus lowering the sympathetic tone of blood vessels, is: 1.
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Antihypertensive (769 words)
Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used in medicine and pharmacology to treat hypertension (high blood pressure).
Despite lowering blood pressure, alpha blockers have significantly poorer endpoint outcomes than other antihypertensives, and are no longer recommended as a first-line choice in the treatment of hypertension.
Most drugs have other uses; sometimes the presence of other symptoms can warrant the use of one particular antihypertensive (such as beta blockers in case of tremor and nervousness, and alpha blockers in case of benign prostatic hyperplasia).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m