Antigonus I Monophthalmos ("the One-eyed") (382 BC - 301 BC) was a Macedonian nobleman, general, and governor under Alexander the Great. He was a major figure in the Wars of the Diadochi after Alexander's death. He established himself Antigonid dynasty and declered himself King of Macedonia in 306 BC.
Coin of Antigonus I Monophthalmos
("the One-eyed") (382 BC
- 301 BC
He was apinted governor of Greater Phrygia in 333 BC, and in the division of the provinces after Alexander's death in 323 BC, he also received Pamphylia and Lycia from Perdiccas, main regent of the empire. On the death of Perdiccas in 321 BC, a new division of empire tok place. Antigonus was entrusted with the command of the war against Eumenes, who had joined Perdiccas against the coalition of Antipater, Antigonus, Ptolemy, Craterus, and the other generals. Eumenes was defeated, and forced to retire to fortress Nora in Cappadocia.
Polyperchon succeeded Antipater (d. 319 BC) as main regent of the empire. Antigonus was set himself up as lord of all Asia, and in conjunction with Cassander and Ptolemy, refused to recognize Polyperchon. Antigonus fight against Eumenes two great battle at Paraitacene in 317 BC and Gabiene in 316 BC. Antigonus had Eumenes captured and executed. Antigonus again claimed authority over most Asia, seized the treasures at Susa, and entered Babylon, of which Seleucus was governor. Seleucus fled to Ptolemy, and entered into a league with him (315 BC), together with Lysimachus and Cassander against Antigonus. In 314 BC Antigonus invaded Syria, under Ptolemy's control, and besieged Tyre for more than a year Demetrius, son of Antigonus, was defeated in Battle of Gaza against Ptolemy in 312 BC and lost Babylonia.
Demetrius von a naval battle of Cyprus against Ptolemy and conquered Cyprus in 306 BC. On this victory Antigonus assumed the title king, and bestowed the same upon his son, a declaration that claimed to be the heir of Alexander. Antigonus now prepared a large army, and a formidable fleet, the command of which he gave to Demetrius, and hastened to attack Ptolemy in his own dominions. His invasion of Egypt, however, proved a failure; he was unable to penetrate the defences of Ptolemy, and was obliged to retire. Demetrius in 305 BC attempted the reduction of Rhodes, which had refused to assist Antigonus against Egypt. Thesiege of Rhodes lasted a year and ended in 304 BC with a peace treaty.
Although widely believed to have claimed authority over the whole of Alexander's empire, this is likely not the case. The most powerful satraps of the empire, Cassander, Seleucus I Nicator, Ptolemy I of Egypt and Lysimachus, answered by proclaiming themselves kings and their territories kingdoms. Antigonus soon found himself at war with all four, largely because his territory shared borders with all. Antigonus demanded Cassander's unconditional submission from Macedonia. Seleucus, Lysimachus and Ptolemy joined forces and attacked Antigonus. Antigonus called Demetrius from Greece and moved against Lysimachus. The united forces of Antigonus and Demetrius were defeated against the united forces of Seleucus and Lysimachus at Ipsus in 301 BC. Antigonus himself died in the battle from thrown javelins. Antigonus never before had lost a battle. With Antigonus's death in battle his plans of reuniting Alexander's Empire, if he in fact had them, came to an end. The victors did not claim power over each other, but instead accepted their kingdoms as separate. Antigonus's former kingdom was divided up, with most ending up in the hands of Lysimachus and Seleucus I Nicator.
Antigonus's son Demetrius took control of Macedon in 294 BC, which the family held, off and on, until it was conquered by the Roman Republic at the Battle of Pydna in 168 BC.
This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 Encyclopędia Britannica.