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Encyclopedia > Antifouling
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Biofouling or biological fouling is the undesirable accumulation of microorganisms, plants, algae, and animals on submerged structures, especially ship's hulls. Biofouling also occurs on the surfaces of all living marine organisms, when it is known as epibiosis. Jump to: navigation, search A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... Jump to: navigation, search Divisions Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Hepaticophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants... The algae (singular is alga) comprise several different groups of living things that produce energy through photosynthesis. ... Jump to: navigation, search Phyla Porifera (sponges) Ctenophora (comb jellies) Cnidaria Placozoa Subregnum Bilateria  Acoelomorpha  Orthonectida  Rhombozoa  Myxozoa  Superphylum Deuterostomia     Chordata (vertebrates, etc. ...


Anti-fouling is the process of removing the accumulation, or preventing its accumulation.


Biofouling is divided into microfouling — biofilm formation and bacterial adhesion — and macrofouling — attachment of larger organisms, of which the main culprits are barnacles, mussels, polychaete worms, bryozoans, and seaweed. Orders Ascothoracica Acrothoracica Thoracica Rhizocephala A barnacle is a type of arthropod belonging to infraclass Cirripedia in the subphylum Crustacea and is hence distantly related to crabs and lobsters. ... Orders A mussel is a bivalve mollusc that can be found in lakes, rivers, creeks, intertidal areas, and throughout the ocean. ... Orders Amphinomida Capitellida Chaetopterida Cirratulida Cossurida Ctenodrillidae Eunicida Flabelligerida Magelonida Myzostomida Nerillida Opheliida Orbiniida Orweniida Phyllodocida Pisionidae Polygordiida Protodrilida Psammodrilidae Sabellida Spionida Spintheridae Sternaspida Terebellida Tomopteris from plankton The Polychaeta or Polychaetes are a class of annelid worms, generally marine, with a pair of fleshy protrusions on each body segment... Fossilized Bryozoa, Ordovician limestone, Batavia, Ohio Bryozoans (moss animals) are tiny colonial animals that generally build stony skeletons of calcium carbonate, superficially similar to coral. ... Seaweed covered rocks in the UK Phycologists consider seaweed to refer any of a large number of marine benthic algae that are multicellular, macrothallic (large-bodied), and thus differentiated from most algae that tend towards microscopic size (Smith, 1944). ...


Individually small, accumulated biofoulers can form enormous masses that severely diminish ships' manouvrability and carrying capacity. Fouling causes huge material and economic costs in maintenance of mariculture, shipping industries, naval vessels, and seawater pipelines. Governments and industry spend more than US$ 5.7 billion annually to prevent and control marine biofouling. Mariculture is the cultivation of marine organisms for food, either in their natural environment or in seawater in ponds or raceways. ... Shipping is the transport of cargo between seaports by ships, typically large steel vessels powered by diesel engines or steam turbine plants. ...


In order to minimize the impacts of foulers, many underwater structures are protected by antifouling coatings. Coatings, however, have been found to be toxic to marine organisms. For example, extremely low concentrations of tributyltin moiety (TBT), the mostly commonly used anti-fouling agent, cause defective shell growth in the oyster Crassostrea gigas (at a concentration of 20 ng/l) and development of male characteristics in female genitalia in the dog whelk Nucella (at 1 ng/l). The ban of TBT and other toxic biocides in marine coatings is a severe problem for the shipping industry and for the producers of coatings to develop alternative technologies to prevent fouling on ship hulls. Therefore, safer methods of biofouling control are actively researched. Jump to: navigation, search Look up Oyster on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The name oyster is used for a number of different groups of molluscs which grow for the most part in marine or brackish water. ... Binomial name Nucella lapillus Linnaeus, 1758 The Dog Whelk or Dogwhelk, Nucella lapillus, is a carnivorous rocky shore mollusc found around the coasts of Europe, between the 0°C and 20°C isotherms. ... A biocide is a chemical substance, such as pesticides, which can be fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, miticides, or rodenticides, etc. ...


Biofouling can also occur in groundwater wells where buildup can limit recovery flowrates, and in the exterior and interior of ocean-laying pipes, in the latter case it has been shown to retard the seawater flow through the pipe.


External links

  • What is biofouling?

  Results from FactBites:
 
Antifouling biocides, dynamic marine paint, Inula viscosa herbal - Poseidon Sciences. (197 words)
Marine antifouling biocides, herbal research on the extract of the Inula viscosa plant, dynamic test system for the marine paint industry.
Poseidon Sciences pursues the development of alternative commercial technologies that are in harmony with the environment, such as innovations in marine antifouling and architectural biocides, the artificial culture of marine and freshwater organisms of economic importance, and the discovery of natural compounds with applications for the improvement of human health.
Poseidon has a broad portfolio of technologies which include novel insect repellents, new designs of equipment for dynamic marine paint testing, and promising natural compounds for the treatment of diabetes, arthritis, pain, inflammatory and skin diseases.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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