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Encyclopedia > Antiemetic

An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea. Antiemetics are typically used to treat motion sickness and the side effects of opioid analgesics, general anaesthetics and chemotherapy directed against cancer. Oral medication A medication is any drug taken to cure or reduce the symptoms of an illness or ongoing medical condition. ... Vomiting (or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth. ... For the Beck song, see Nausea (song). ... It has been suggested that airsickness, seasickness be merged into this article or section. ... Adverse effect, in medicine, is an abnormal, harmful, undesired and/or unintended side-effect, although not necessarily unexpected, which is obtained as the result of a therapy or other medical intervention, such as drug/chemotherapy, physical therapy, surgery, medical procedure, use of a medical device, etc. ... An opioid is a chemical substance that has a morphine-like action in the body. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A general anaesthetic drug is an anaesthetic (or anesthetic AE) drug that brings about a reversible loss of consciousness. ... Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ...


Antiemetics include:

  • non-pharmaceutical therapies with some evidence of efficacy include acupuncture and hypnosis. All drugs have potential side effects and it is important to try to reduce the baseline risk of nausea and vomiting, particularly with respect to surgery.

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesized in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract of animals including humans. ... Dolasetron is a drug used to treat nausea following chemotherapy. ... Granisetron is used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy and radiation therapy. ... Ondansetron (INN) (IPA: ) is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist used mainly to treat nausea and vomiting following chemotherapy. ... A dopamine antagonist is a drug which blocks dopamine receptors (of which there are five types in the human body; they are found in the brain, peripheral nervous system, blood vessels, and the kidney). ... Neoplasia (literally new growth) is abnormal, disorganized growth in a tissue or organ, usually forming a distinct mass. ... Domperidone (Motilium® or Motillium) is an antidopaminergic drug, developed by Janssen Pharmaceutica, and used orally or intravenously, generally to suppress nausea and vomiting. ... Droperidol (Dropletan®) is an antidopaminergic drug used as an antiemetic and antipsychotic. ... Haloperidol (sold under the tradenames Aloperidin, Bioperidolo, Brotopon, Dozic, Duraperidol (Germany), Einalon S, Eukystol, Haldol, Halosten, Keselan, Linton, Peluces, Serenace, Serenase, Sigaperidol) is a conventional, or typical, butyrophenone antipsychotic drug. ... Chlorpromazine was the first antipsychotic drug, used during the 1950s and 1960s. ... Promethazine is a first-generation H1 receptor antagonist antihistamine and antiemetic medication. ... Prochlorperazine is a highly potent neuroleptic, which is 10 to 20-times more potent than chlorpromazine. ... Metoclopramide (INN) (IPA: ) is a potent dopamine receptor antagonist used for its antiemetic and prokinetic properties. ... An antihistamine is a drug which serves to reduce or eliminate effects mediated by histamine, an endogenous chemical mediator released during allergic reactions, through action at the histamine receptor. ... There are four known histamine receptors, H1, H2, H3, and H4 with several splice variants of H3 present in various species. ... Cyclizine is an antihistamine drug used to treat nausea, vomiting and dizziness associated with motion sickness, vertigo and post-operative following administration of general anaesthesia and opioids. ... Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (trade name Benadryl, as produced by Pfizer, or Dimedrol outside the U.S.) is an over-the-counter (OTC) antihistamine and sedative. ... Dramamine redirects here. ... Meclizine is an antihistamine, considered to be an antiemetic. ... Promethazine is a first-generation H1 receptor antagonist antihistamine and antiemetic medication. ... Hydroxyzine is a piperazine derivative that is used as an antihistamine (especially for itches), anti-emetic (nausea reducing), and anxiolytic (anxiety reducing) drug. ... Steroid skeleton of lanosterol. ... Dexamethasone is a potent synthetic member of the glucocorticoid class of steroid hormones. ... Benzodiazepine tablets The benzodiazepines are a class of drugs with hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, amnestic and muscle relaxant properties. ... Midazolam (marketed under brand names Versed®, Hypnovel®, Dormicum® and Dormonid®, pronounced ) is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. ... Ondansetron (INN) (IPA: ) is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist used mainly to treat nausea and vomiting following chemotherapy. ... Cannabinoids are a group of chemicals which activate the bodys cannabinoid receptors. ... A catalog page offering Cannabis sativa extract. ... Marinol is also a commercial name for an ethanol-based liquid fuel sold for use in portable stoves, sold under this name at least in Finland. ... Trimethobenzamide is a medication frequently used as an antiemetic to prevent nausea and vomiting. ... The Chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) is an area of the brain which receives inputs from blood-borne drugs or hormones, and communicates with the Vomit Centre, to initiate vomiting. ... Binomial name Zingiber officinale Roscoe Ginger is commonly used as a spice in cuisines throughout the world. ... Emetrol is the brand name of an over-the-counter antiemetic medicine taken to relieve nausea and vomiting. ... Propofol is a short-acting intravenous anesthetic agent used for the induction of general anesthesia in adult patients and pediatric patients older than 3 years of age; maintenance of general anesthesia in adult patients and pediatric patients older than 2 months of age; and sedation in medical contexts, such as...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Advances in antiemetic pharmacology (3163 words)
We must consider the efficacy of traditional antiemetics, although they have a poor side-effect profile, and the cost of diferent 5-HT -antagonists (table 1) to decide which is the better and cheaper antiemetic in each situation.
We studied the antiemetic effect of dexamethasone in a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study in females who underwent general anesthesia for major gynecological surgery and used a IV-PCA with morphine in the postoperative period.
Antiemetic activity of the NK1 receptor antagonist GR205171 in the treatment of established postoperative nausea and vomiting after major gynecological surgery.
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