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Encyclopedia > Antidote

An antidote is a substance which can counteract a form of poisoning. For biological toxicity, see toxin and poison. ...

Sometimes, the antidote for a particular toxin is manufactured by injecting the toxin into an animal in small doses and the resulting antibodies are extracted from the animals' blood. A toxin, in a scientific context, is a biologically produced substance that causes injury to the health of a living thing on contact or absorption, typically by interacting with biological macromolecules such as enzymes and receptors. ... Schematic of antibody binding to an antigen An antibody is a protein used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. ...

The venom produced by some snakes and spiders is often treatable by the use of antidotes, although a number do lack one, and a bite from such an animal often results in death. Wasp stinger, with droplet of venom Venom is a general term for the toxins used by several groups of animal species, for the purpose of defense and hunting prey. ... Superfamilies and Families Henophidia Aniliidae Anomochilidae Boidae Bolyeriidae Cylindrophiidae Loxocemidae Pythonidae Tropidophiidae Uropeltidae Xenopeltidae Typhlopoidea Anomalepididae Leptotyphlopidae Typhlopidae Xenophidia Acrochordidae Atractaspididae Colubridae Elapidae Hydrophiidae Viperidae Snakes are cold blooded legless reptiles closely related to lizards, which share the order Squamata. ... Families Suborder Mesothelae     Liphistiidae (primitive burrowing spiders)     Arthrolycosidae (primitive spiders)     Arthromygalidae (primitive spiders) Suborder Mygalomorphae     Antrodiaetidae (folding trapdoor spider)     Atypidae (atypical tarantula)     Ctenizidae (trapdoor spider)     Cyrtaucheniidae (wafer trapdoor spider)     Dipluridae (funnel-web tarantula)     Hexathelidae (venomous funnel-web tarantula)     Mecicobothriidae (dwarf tarantulas)     Theraphosidae (tarantula) Suborder Araneomorphae     Agelenidae (araneomorph funnel-web spider...

However, some toxins have no known antidote. For example, the poison ricin, which is produced from the waste byproduct of castor oil manufacture, has no antidote, and as a result is often fatal if it enters the human body in sufficient quantities. Castor beans The protein ricin (pronounced rye-sin) is a poison manufactured from the castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... Castor oil is a vegetable oil obtained from the castor bean (or preferably castor seed as the castor plant (Ricinus communis L.) is not a member of the bean family). ...

Ingested poisons are frequently treated by the oral administration of activated charcoal, which absorbs the poison, and then it is flushed from the digestive tract, removing a large part of the toxin. Activated carbon (also called activated charcoal) is the more general term which includes material mostly derived from charcoal. ...

Poisons which are injected into the body (such as those from bites or stings from venomous animals) are usually treated by the use of a constriction band which limits the flow of lymph and/or blood to the area, thus slowing circulation of the poison around the body.

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