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Encyclopedia > Antidiuretic hormone

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), or arginine vasopressin (AVP), is a peptide hormone produced by the hypothalamus, and stored in the posterior part of the pituitary gland. ADH acts on the kidneys, concentrating the urine by promoting the reabsorption of water from the cortical collecting duct. Peptide hormones are a class of peptides that are secreted into the blood stream and have endocrine functions in living animals. ... In the anatomy of mammals, the hypothalamus is a region of the brain located below the thalamus, forming the major portion of the ventral region of the diencephalon and functioning to regulate certain metabolic processes and other autonomic activities. ... Located at the base of the skull, the pituitary gland is protected by a bony structure called the sella turcica. ... Kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The kidneys are bean-shaped excretory organs in vertebrates. ... Urine is liquid waste excreted by the kidneys and eventually expelled from the body in a process known as urination. ... Water (from the Old English word wæter; c. ...

Contents


Physiology

Control

ADH is activated by "water receptors" in both the extracellular fluid volume and the intracellular fluid volume. Ethanol and caffeine block the release of ADH from the posterior pituitary gland. The resulting decrease in water reabsorption in the kidneys leads to a higher volume of urine output. In some animals, including mammals, the two types of extracellular fluids are interstitial fluid and blood plasma. ... The cytosol (as opposed to cytoplasm, which also includes the organelles) is the internal fluid of the cell, and a large part of cell metabolism occurs here. ... Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless chemical compound, one of the alcohols that is most often found in alcoholic beverages. ... Caffeine molecular structure Anhydrous USP grade Caffeine Caffeine, also known as trimethylxanthine, coffeine, theine, mateine, guaranine, methyltheobromine and 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine, is a xanthine alkaloid found naturally in such foods as coffee beans, tea, kola nuts, Yerba mate, guarana berries, and (in small amounts) cacao beans. ... Urine is liquid waste excreted by the kidneys and eventually expelled from the body in a process known as urination. ...


In the extracellular fluid the activators are mainly baroreceptors in the veins, atria, and arterioles. In the intracellular fluid the activators are mainly osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus. In biology, a vein is a blood vessel which returns blood from the microvasculature to the heart. ... In anatomy, the atrium (plural: atria) is the blood collection chamber of a heart. ... An arteriole is a blood vessel that extends and branches out from an artery and leads to capillaries. ... An osmoreceptor is a sensory receptor primarily found in the hypothalamus of most homeothermic organisms that detects changes in osmotic pressure. ... In the anatomy of mammals, the hypothalamus is a region of the brain located below the thalamus, forming the major portion of the ventral region of the diencephalon and functioning to regulate certain metabolic processes and other autonomic activities. ...


Actions

ADH acts on three different receptors, termed V1a, V1b and V2. The receptors are differently expressed in different tissues, and exert different actions: In biochemistry, a receptor is a protein on the cell membrane or within the cytoplasm or cell nucleus that binds to a specific factor (a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, or other substance, and initiates the cellular response to the ligand. ...

The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... Gluconeogenesis, ultimately, is the generation of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources like lactate, glycerol, and amino acids. ... A 250 ml bag of newly collected platelets. ... <<a href=b class=external free title=b>b>Factor VIII</<a href=b class=external free title=b>b> (FVIII) is an essential [clot]ting factor. ... Von Willebrand factor (vWF, also called Factor VIII-related antigen) is a blood protein of the coagulation system. ... Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH or corticotropin) is a polypeptide hormone secreted from corticotropes in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland in response to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) released by the hypothalamus. ... Located at the base of the skull, the pituitary gland is protected by a bony structure called the sella turcica. ... Adenylate cyclase (EC 4. ... Aquaporins are a class of integral membrane proteins that form pores in the membrane of biological cells and selectively conduct water molecules in and out, while preventing the passage of ions and other solutes. ...

Pharmacology

ADH is used therapeutically in various conditions, and its long-acting synthetic analogue desmopressin is used in conditions featuring low ADH, as well as for control of bleeding (in some forms of von Willebrand disease) and in extreme cases of bedwetting by children. Terlipressin and related analogues are used as vasocontrictors in certain conditions. Desmopressin (DDAVP®, Stimate®, Minrin®) is a synthetic drug that mimics the action of antidiuretic hormone. ... Von Willebrands disease (vWD) is the most common hereditary coagulation abnormality described in humans. ... Terlipressin as vasoactive drug used for the management of hypotension. ...


Vasopressin has also been implicated in playing a positive role in different kinds of memory formation, including delayed reflexes, image, short- and long-term memory, though the mechanism remains unknown. Thus, desmopressin has come to interest as a likely nootropic. Desmopressin (DDAVP®, Stimate®, Minrin®) is a synthetic drug that mimics the action of antidiuretic hormone. ... Nootropics are so-called smart drugs. ...


Demeclocycline, a tetracycline antibiotic, is sometimes used to block the action of ADH on the kidney in hyponatremia (low blood sodium levels) due to increased secretion of ADH (SIADH, see below), when fluid restriction has failed. A new class of medication (conivaptan, tolvaptan, relcovaptan, lixivaptan) acts by inhibiting the action of ADH on its receptors (V1 and V2), with tolvaptan acting on V1a and V2 and the remainder mainly on V1a. Demeclocycline (marketed as Declomycin®, Declostatin® and Ledermycin®) is a tetracycline antibiotic used in various types of bacterial infections. ... The electrolyte disturbance hyponatremia exists when the sodium level in the plasma falls below 135 mmol/l. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Chemical series alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 22. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Conivaptan (YM 087) is a non-peptide inhibitor of antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin). ... In biochemistry, a receptor is a protein on the cell membrane or within the cytoplasm or cell nucleus that binds to a specific factor (a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, or other substance, and initiates the cellular response to the ligand. ...


Role in disease

Decreased ADH release leads to diabetes insipidus, a condition featuring hypernatremia (increased blood sodium content), polyuria (excess urine production) and thirst. Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of severely diluted urine, which cannot be reduced when fluid intake is reduced. ... Hypernatremia is a medical condition in which there is excess sodium, urea, and other electrolytes in the body relative to the amount of water. ... Polyuria is the passage of a large volume of urine in a given period, a characteristic of diabetes. ...


Raised ADH (syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone) and resultant hyponatremia occurs in brain diseases and conditions of the lungs. In the peri-operative period, the effects of surgical stress and some commonly used medications (e.g. opiates, syntocinon, anti-emetics) lead to a similar state of excess ADH secretion. This may cause mild hyponatraemia for several days. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is a condition commonly found in the hospital population, especially in patients being hospitalized for central nervous system (CNS) injury. ... The electrolyte disturbance hyponatremia exists when the sodium level in the plasma falls below 135 mmol/l. ... In the anatomy of animals, the brain, or encephalon, is the supervisory center of the nervous system. ... The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ... An opioid is any agent that binds to opioid receptors found principally in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. ... Pitocin and Syntocinon are synthetic versions of the hormone oxytocin. ... An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Peptide hormone - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (230 words)
Peptide hormones are a class of peptides that are secreted into the blood stream and have endocrine functions in living animals.
Peptide hormone precursors (pre-prohormones) are then processed in several stages, typically in the endoplasmic reticulum, including removal of the N-terminal signal sequence and sometimes glycosylation, resulting in prohormones.
Mature peptide hormones then diffuse through the blood to all of the cells of the body, where they interact with specific receptors on the surface of their target cells.
Antidiuretic Hormone (Vasopressin) (781 words)
Antidiuretic hormone, also known as vasopressin, is a nine amino acid peptide secreted from the posterior pituitary.
Antidiuretic hormone stimulates water reabsorbtion by stimulating insertion of "water channels" or aquaporins into the membranes of kidney tubules.
Another potent stimulus of antidiuretic hormone is nausea and vomiting, both of which are controlled by regions in the brain with links to the hypothalamus.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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