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Encyclopedia > Anticholinergic

An anticholinergic agent is a member of a class of pharmaceutical compounds which serve to reduce the effects mediated by acetylcholine in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... The chemical compound acetylcholine, often abbreviated as ACh, was the first neurotransmitter to be identified. ... The peripheral nervous system or PNS, is part of the nervous system, and consists of the nerves and neurons that reside or extend outside the central nervous system--to serve the limbs and organs, for example. ...


Anticholinergics are typically reversible competitive inhibitors of one of the two types of acetylcholine receptors, and are classified according to the receptors that are affected: antimuscarinic agents operate on the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, and antinicotinic agents operate on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The majority of anticholinergics are antimuscarinics. In biochemistry there are three ways in which certain chemical substances may reduce or prevent the activities of enzymes: competitive, non-competitive and uncompetitive inhibition. ... Transmembrane receptors are integral membrane proteins, which reside and operate typically within a cells plasma membrane, but also in the membranes of some subcellular compartments and organelles. ... Amanita muscaria from which muscarine was isolated Acetylcholine - natural agonist of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. ... Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or nAChRs, are ionotropic receptors that form ion channels in cells plasma membranes. ...

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Effects

When a significant amount of anticholinergic is taken into the body, a toxidrome known as acute anticholinergic syndrome may result. This may happen accidentally or intentionally as a form of recreational drug use. This class of drug is usually considered the least "fun" by experienced drug users. Because most users do not enjoy the experience, they don't use it again, or very rarely. Risk of addiction is low in the anticholinergic class. Effects are usually more pronounced in the elderly, due to the decrease of acetylcholine production associated with age. Categories: Move to Wiktionary | Stub ... Recreational drug use is the use of psychoactive drugs for recreational rather than medical or spiritual purposes, although the distinction is not always clear. ...


Possible effects of anticholinergics include:

Possible effects in the central nervous system resemble those associated with delirium, and may include: Ataxia (from Greek ataxiā, meaning failure to put in order) is unsteady and clumsy motion of the limbs or trunk due to a failure of the gross coordination of muscle movements. ... Anatomy In anatomy, the throat is the part of the neck anterior to the vertebral column. ... Xerostomia is the medical term for a dry mouth due to a lack of saliva. ... Sweating (also called perspiration or sometimes transpiration) is the loss of a watery fluid, consisting mainly of sodium chloride and urea in solution, that is secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals. ... Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when temperature surrounding is very different. ... An abnormally dilated pupil. ... Photophobia (also light sensitivity) is a symptom of excessive sensitivity to light and the aversion to sunlight or well-lit places. ... Cycloplegia is the paralysis of the ciliary muscle, resulting in a loss of accommodation. ... Diplopia, commonly known as double vision, is the perception of two images from a single object. ... Tachycardia is an abnormally rapid beating of the heart, defined as a resting heart rate of 100 or more beats per minute in an average adult. ... Urinary retention also known as ischuria is a lack of ability to urinate. ... Ileus refers to limited or absent intestinal passage. ... Intraocular pressure is the fluid pressure inside the eye. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... Delirium is a medical term used to describe an acute decline in attention and cognition. ...

  • Confusion
  • Disorientation
  • Agitation
  • Respiratory depression
  • Short-term memory loss
  • Inability to concentrate
  • Wandering thoughts; inability to sustain a train of thought
  • Incoherent speech
  • Wakeful myoclonic jerking
  • Unusual sensitivity to sudden sounds
  • Illogical thinking
  • Photophobia
  • Visual disturbances
    • Periodic flashes of light
    • Periodic changes in visual field
    • Visual snow
    • Restricted or "tunnel vision"
  • Visual, auditory, or other sensory hallucinations
    • Warping or waving of surfaces and edges
    • Textured surfaces
    • "Dancing" lines; "spiders", insects
    • Lifelike objects indistinguishable from reality
  • Rarely: seizures, coma and death

Acute anticholinergic syndrome is completely reversible and subsides once all of the toxin has been excreted. Ordinarily, no specific treatment is indicated. However, in extreme cases, especially those that involves severe distortions of mental state, a reversible cholinergic agent such as physostigmine may be used. A myoclonic jerk is a sudden, involuntary twitch of a muscle. ... Visual snow is a transitory or persisting visual symptom where people see snow or television-like static in parts or the whole of their visual fields. ... An hallucination is a sensory perception experienced in the absence of an external stimulus, as distinct from an illusion, which is a misperception of an external stimulus. ... A synapse is cholinergic if it uses acetylcholine as its neurotransmitter. ... Physostigmine is a parasympathomimetic, specifically, an irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor obtained from the Calabar bean. ...

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Plant sources

The most common plants containing anticholinergic alkaloids are:

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For information on the erotic actress Belladonna see: Belladonna. ... Species Mandragora autumnalis Mandragora officinarum Mandragora turcomanica Mandragora caulescens Mandrake is the common name for members of the plant genus Mandragora belonging to the nightshades family (Solanaceae). ... Binomial name Hyoscyamus niger L. Henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) is a plant of the family Solanaceae that originated in Eurasia. ... Species See text Datura is a genus of 12-15 species of flowering plants belonging to the family Solanaceae. ...

Pharmaceuticals

Many other drugs have anticholinergic properties, including cyclic antidepressants and the common allergy medications diphenhydramine (Benadryl) and its 8-chlorotheophylline salt dimenhydrinate (Dramamine), which are used medically for antihistaminergic and antiemetic purposes, and sometimes recreationally for their psychoactive effects. The common side effects of some SSRI antidepressants, such as Prozac (fluoxetine), often sweaty palms, are due to anticholinergic properties. Benztropine (Cogentin®) is an anticholinergic drug principally used for the treatment of: Drug-induced parkinsonism, akathisia and acute dystonia; Parkinson disease; and Idiopathic or secondary dystonia. ... Scopolamine, also known as hyoscine, is a tropane alkaloid drug obtained from plants of the Solanaceae family (Nightshade), such as henbane or jimson weed (Datura stramonium). ... Atropine is a tropane alkaloid extracted from the deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) and other plants of the family Solanaceae. ... Dicyclomine is an anticholinergic that blocks muscarinic receptors. ... Flavoxate is an anticholinergic with antimuscarinic effects. ... Sources Brenner, G. M. (2000). ... Oxybutynin is an anti-cholinergenic pharmaceutical used to relieve urinary and bladder difficulties, including frequent urination and inability to control urination. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... Tiotropium bromide monohydrate is an anticholinergic bronchodilator, marketed as Spiriva by Boehringer Ingelheim & Pfizer Inc. ... Tolterodine is an antimuscarinic drug that is used to treat incontinence. ... Tropicamide (troe-PIK-a-mide) is an acetylcholine receptor blocker. ... Solifenacin (or Solifenacin succinate) is a urinary antispasmodic. ... Darifenacin (Enablex®, Novartis) is a medication used to treat urinary incontinence. ... Trimethaphan is a drug that counteracts cholinergic transmission at the nicotinic receptors of the autonomic ganglia and therefore blocks both the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. ... Atracurium is a neuromuscular-blocking drug or muscle relaxant in the category non-depolarising neuromuscular blocking agents, used in anaesthesia to facilitate endotracheal intubation and to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery or mechanical ventilation. ... Mivacurium is a bisbenzylisoquinolinium based neuromuscular blocker or muscle relaxant. ... Pancuronium bromide is a chemical compound, used in medicine with the brand name Pavulon® (Organon Pharmaceuticals). ... Tubocurarine chloride is a competitive neuromuscular blocker, used to paralyse patients undergoing anaesthesia. ... Vecuronium Bromide is a muscle relaxant in the category of non depolarising neuromuscular blocking agents. ... Suxamethonium chloride (also known as succinylcholine, or scoline) is a white crystalline substance, it is odourless and highly soluble in water. ... An antidepressant is a medication used primarily in the treatment of clinical depression. ... Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (trade name Benadryl®, as produced by Pfizer or Dimedrol outside the US) is an over-the-counter (OTC) antihistamine and sedative. ... Dimenhydrinate (marketed under brand names Dramamine and Gravol) is an over-the-counter drug used to prevent motion-sickness (emesis). ... An antihistamine is a drug which serves to reduce or eliminate effects mediated by histamine, an endogenous chemical mediator released during allergic reactions, through action at the histamine receptor. ... An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea. ... Background Fluoxetine hydrochloride (brand names include Prozac®, Symbyax® (compounded with olanzapine), Sarafem®, Fontex® (Sweden), Fluctine (Austria, Germany), Prodep (India), Fludac (India)) is an antidepressant drug used medically in the treatment of depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, bulimia nervosa, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, and many other disorders. ...


Some drugs, such as hydrocodone, are mixed with small amounts of an anticholinergic, such as Homatropine Methylbromide to discourage abuse. It has been suggested that Vicodin be merged into this article or section. ... Drugs like hydrocodone are mixed with small amounts of an anticholinergic, such as Homatropine Methylbromide to discourage its abuse. ... Drug abuse has a wide range of definitions, all of them relating to the use, misuse or overuse of a psychoactive drug or performance enhancing drug for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
eMedicine - Toxicity, Anticholinergic : Article by John J Bruns, Jr, MD (2981 words)
Pathophysiology: Substances with anticholinergic properties competitively antagonize acetylcholine muscarinic receptors; this predominantly occurs at peripheral (eg, heart, salivary glands, sweat glands, GI tract, GU tract) postganglionic parasympathetic muscarinic receptors.
In 2003, the Toxic Exposure Surveillance System reported 3094 symptomatic anticholinergic drug presentations with unintentional ingestions in 52%, intentional ingestions in 38%, and adverse reactions occurring in 7% of cases; moderate morbidity (requiring specific treatment) was reported in 20%, major morbidity (life-threatening) in 3.7%, and death in 5 cases (case-fatality proportion = 0.16%).
Most anticholinergic agents have large volumes of distribution and are highly protein-bound; therefore, hemodialysis and hemoperfusion are ineffective treatment methods.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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