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Encyclopedia > Antibody
Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key.
Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key.

Antibodies (also known as immunoglobulins) are proteins that are found in blood or other bodily fluids of vertebrates, and are used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects, such as bacteria and viruses. They are made of a few basic structural units called chains; each antibody has two large heavy chains and two small light chains. Antibodies are produced by a kind of white blood cell called a B cell. There are several different types of antibody heavy chain, and several different kinds of antibodies, which are grouped into different isotypes based on which heavy chain they possess. Five different antibody isotypes are known in mammals, which perform different roles, and help direct the appropriate immune response for each different type of foreign object they encounter.[1] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... // Bodily fluids listed below are found in the bodies of men and/or women. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... An antibody molecule. ... Schematic diagram of an typical antibody showing two Ig heavy chains (blue) linked by disulphide bonds to two Ig light chains (green). ... B cells are lymphocytes that play a large role in the humoral immune response (as opposed to the cell-mediated immune response). ... In immunology, the immunoglobulin isotype refers to the type of chain. ...


Although the general structure of all antibodies is very similar, a small region at the tip of the protein is extremely variable, allowing millions of antibodies with slightly different tip structures to exist. This region is known as the hypervariable region. Each of these variants can bind to a different target, known as an antigen.[2] This huge diversity of antibodies allows the immune system to recognize an equally wide diversity of antigens. The unique part of the antigen recognized by an antibody is called an epitope. These epitopes bind with their antibody in a highly specific interaction, called induced fit, that allows antibodies to identify and bind only their unique antigen in the midst of the millions of different molecules that make up an organism. Recognition of an antigen by an antibody tags it for attack by other parts of the immune system. Antibodies can also neutralize targets directly by, for example, binding to a part of a pathogen that it needs to cause an infection.[3] An antigen or immunogen is a molecule that stimulates an immune response. ... An epitope is the part of a macromolecule that is recognized by the immune system, specifically by antibodies, B cells, or cytotoxic T cells. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Life on Earth redirects here. ... A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ...


The large and diverse population of antibodies is generated by random combinations of a set of gene segments that encode different antigen binding sites (or paratopes), followed by random mutations in this area of the antibody gene, which create further diversity.[1][4] Antibody genes also re-organize in a process called class switching that changes the base of the heavy chain to another, creating a different isotype of the antibody that retains the antigen specific variable region. This allows a single antibody to be used by several different parts of the immune system. Production of antibodies is the main function of the humoral immune system.[5] For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... For linguistic mutation, see Apophony. ... Immunoglobulin class switching (or isotype switching) is a mechanism by which the constant region of a heavy chain changes. ... Humoral immunity is the aspect of immunity that is mediated by secreted antibodies, produced in the cells of the B lymphocyte lineage (B cell). ...

Contents

Antibody forms

Antibodies occur in two forms: a soluble form secreted into the blood and tissue fluids, and a membrane-bound form attached to the surface of a B cell that is called the B cell receptor (BCR). The BCR allows a B cell to detect when a specific antigen is present in the body and triggers B cell activation.[6] Activated B cells differentiate into either antibody generating factories called plasma cells that secrete soluble antibody, or into memory cells that survive in the body for years afterwards to allow the immune system to remember an antigen and respond faster upon future exposures.[7] Antibodies are, therefore, an essential component of the adaptive immune system that learns, adapts and remembers responses to invading pathogens. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Solution. ... Secretion is the process of segregating, elaborating, and releasing chemicals from a cell, or a secreted chemical substance or amount of substance. ... Biological tissue is a group of cells that perform a similar function. ... Look up cell membrane in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... B cells are lymphocytes that play a large role in the humoral immune response (as opposed to the cell-mediated immune response). ... Embryonic stem cells differentiate into cells in various body organs. ... Plasma cells (also called plasma B cells or plasmocytes) are cells of the immune system that secrete large amounts of antibodies. ... Memory B cells are a B cell sub-type that are formed following primary infection. ... The immune system is the collection of organs and tissues involved in the adaptive defense of a body against foreign biological material. ...


Isotypes

Antibody isotypes of mammals
Name Types Description Antibody Complexes
IgA 2 Found in mucosal areas, such as the gut, respiratory tract and urogenital tract, and prevents colonization by pathogens.[8] Also found in saliva, tears, and breast milk. Some antibodies form complexes that bind to multiple antigen molecules.
IgD 1 Functions mainly as an antigen receptor on B cells.[9] Its function is less defined than other isotypes.
IgE 1 Binds to allergens and triggers histamine release from mast cells, and is involved in allergy. Also protects against parasitic worms.[5]
IgG 4 In its four forms, provides the majority of antibody-based immunity against invading pathogens.[5]
IgM 1 Expressed on the surface of B cells and in a secreted form with very high avidity. Eliminates pathogens in the early stages of B cell mediated immunity before there is sufficient IgG.[5][9]

Antibodies can come in different varieties known as isotypes or classes. In mammals there are five antibody isotypes known as IgA, IgD, IgE,IgG and IgM. They are each named with an "Ig" prefix that stands for immunoglobulin, another name for antibody, and differ in their biological properties, functional locations and ability to deal with different antigens, as depicted in the table.[10] IGA may stand for: Koji Igarashi, a video game producer Interactive genetic algorithm International Geothermal Association Independent Glass Association International Gothic Association International Gamers Award International Goat Association Irish Games Association Irish Geological Association ImmunoGlobulin A - see IgA nephritis which is a renal disease IGA (supermarkets) Independent Grocers Association or... The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of ectodermic origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... In humans the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy that has to do with the process of respiration or breathing. ... In anatomy, the genitourinary system is the organ system of all the reproductive organs and the urinary system. ... A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... Image File history File links Mono-und-Polymere. ... Schematic of antibody binding to an antigen An antibody is a protein complex used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. ... IGE (Internet Gaming Entertainment) is the largest MMORPG services company world-wide, with offices in Los Angeles, Hong Kong, and Miami. ... An allergen is any substance (antigen), most often eaten or inhaled, that is recognized by the immune system and causes an allergic reaction. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A mast cell (or mastocyte) is a resident cell of connective tissue that contains many granules rich in histamine and heparin. ... Allergy is an abnormal reaction to a substance foreign to the body that is acquired, predictable and rapid. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Schematic of antibody binding to an antigen An antibody is a protein complex used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. ... IGM might be an acronym or abbreviation for: The polymeric immunoglobulin, IgM International Grandmaster, a chess ranking intergalactic medium Intragroup medium - see: Intracluster medium IG Metall - the dominant German metalworkers union IGM is an acronym created by Robinson Technologies for several early BBS door games, including Legend of the Red... In immunology, the immunoglobulin isotype refers to the type of chain. ...


The antibody isotype of a B cell changes during the cell's development and activation. Immature B cells, which have never been exposed to antigen, are known as naïve B cells and express only the IgM isotype in a cell surface bound form. B cells begin to express both IgM and IgD when they reach maturity - the co-expression of both these immunoglobulin isotypes renders the B cell 'mature' and ready to respond to antigen.[11] B cell activation follows engagement of the cell bound antibody molecule with an antigen, causing the cell to divide and differentiate into an antibody producing cell called a plasma cell. In this activated form, the B cell starts to produce antibody in a secreted form rather than a membrane-bound form. Some daughter cells of the activated B cells undergo isotype switching, a mechanism that causes the production of antibodies to change from IgM or IgD to the other antibody isotypes, IgE, IgA or IgG, that have defined roles in the immune system. B cells are lymphocytes that play a large role in the humoral immune response (as opposed to the cell-mediated immune response). ... B cells are lymphocytes that play a large role in the humoral immune response (as opposed to the cell-mediated immune response). ... Embryonic stem cells differentiate into cells in various body organs. ... Plasma cells (also called plasma B cells or plasmocytes) are cells of the immune system that secrete large amounts of antibodies. ... Secretion is the process of segregating, elaborating, and releasing chemicals from a cell, or a secreted chemical substance or amount of substance. ... Look up cell membrane in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In biology, a daughter cell is either one of the two cells that are formed when mitosis occurs in a cell. ... Immunoglobulin class switching (or isotype switching) is a biological mechanism that changes an antibody from one class to another, for example, from an isotype called IgM to an isotype called IgG. During this process, the constant region portion of the antibody heavy chain is changed, but the variable region of...


Structure

Antibodies are heavy globular plasma proteins that are also known as immunoglobulins. They have sugar chains added to some of their amino acid residues.[12] In other words, antibodies are glycoproteins. The basic functional unit of each antibody is an immunoglobulin (Ig) monomer (containing only one Ig unit); secreted antibodies can also be dimeric with two Ig units as with IgA, tetrameric with four Ig units like teleost fish IgM, or pentameric with five Ig units, like mammalian IgM.[13] 3-dimensional structure of hemoglobin, a globular protein. ... Blood proteins are proteins found in blood plasma. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... N-linked protein glycosylation (N-glycosylation of N-glycans) at Asn residues (Asn-x-Ser/Thr motifs) in glycoproteins[1]. Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbones. ... In chemistry, a monomer (from Greek mono one and meros part) is a small molecule that may become chemically bonded to other monomers to form a polymer. ... Sucrose, or common table sugar, is composed of glucose and fructose. ... A tetramer is a protein with four subunits (tetrameric). ... Superorders Osteoglossomorpha Elopomorpha Clupeomorpha Ostariophysi Protacanthopterygii Sternopterygii Cyclosquamata Scopelomorpha Lampridiomorpha Polymyxiomorpha Paracanthopterygii Polymyxiomorpha Acanthopterygii Teleostei is one of three infraclasses in class Actinopterygii, the ray-finned fishes. ... A polymer is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ...

Several immunoglobulin domains make up the two heavy chains (red and blue) and the two light chains (green and yellow) of an antibody. The immunoglobulin domains are composed of between 7 (IgC) and 9 (IgV) β-strands. See also: [1]

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 587 pixel Image in higher resolution (960 × 704 pixel, file size: 244 KB, MIME type: image/png) Structure of an antibody. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 587 pixel Image in higher resolution (960 × 704 pixel, file size: 244 KB, MIME type: image/png) Structure of an antibody. ...

Immunoglobulin domains

The Ig monomer is a "Y"-shaped molecule that consists of four polypeptide chains; two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains connected by disulfide bonds.[10] Each chain is composed of structural domains called Ig domains. These domains contain about 70-110 amino acids and are classified into different categories (for example, variable or IgV, and constant or IgC) according to their size and function.[14] They possess a characteristic immunoglobulin fold in which two beta sheets create a “sandwich” shape, held together by interactions between conserved cysteines and other charged amino acids. Peptides are the family of molecules formed from the linking, in a defined order, of various amino acids. ... In chemistry, a disulfide bond is a single covalent bond derived from the coupling of thiol groups. ... Within a protein, a structural domain (domain) is an element of overall structure that is self-stabilizing and often folds independently of the rest of the protein chain. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... Example of an immunoglobulin domain, the fibronectin type III domain from human tenascin (PDB accesion code 1TEN), colored from blue (N-terminus) to red (C-terminus). ... Diagram of β-pleated sheet with H-bonding between protein strands The β sheet (also β-pleated sheet) is the second form of regular secondary structure in proteins — the first is the alpha helix — consisting of beta strands connected laterally by three or more hydrogen bonds, forming a generally twisted, pleated sheet. ... Cysteine is a naturally occurring, sulfur-containing amino acid that is found in most proteins, although only in small quantities. ...


Heavy chain

For more details on this topic, see heavy chain.

There are five types of mammalian Ig heavy chain denoted by the Greek letters: α, δ, ε, γ, and μ.[2] The type of heavy chain present defines the class of antibody; these chains are found in IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM antibodies, respectively.[3] Distinct heavy chains differ in size and composition; α and γ contain approximately 450 amino acids, while μ and ε have approximately 550 amino acids.[2] An antibody molecule. ... An antibody molecule. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ...

1. Fab region2. Fc region3. Heavy chain with one variable (VH) domain followed by a constant domain (CH1), a hinge region, and two more constant (CH2 and CH3) domains.4. Light chain with one variable (VL) and one constant (CL) domain5. Antigen binding site (paratope)6. Hinge regions.
1. Fab region
2. Fc region
3. Heavy chain with one variable (VH) domain followed by a constant domain (CH1), a hinge region, and two more constant (CH2 and CH3) domains.
4. Light chain with one variable (VL) and one constant (CL) domain
5. Antigen binding site (paratope)
6. Hinge regions.

Each heavy chain has two regions, the constant region and the variable region. The constant region is identical in all antibodies of the same isotype, but differs in antibodies of different isotypes. Heavy chains γ, α and δ have a constant region composed of three tandem (in a line) Ig domains, and a hinge region for added flexibility;[10] heavy chains μ and ε have a constant region composed of four immunoglobulin domains.[2] The variable region of the heavy chain differs in antibodies produced by different B cells, but is the same for all antibodies produced by a single B cell or B cell clone. The variable region of each heavy chain is approximately 110 amino acids long and is composed of a single Ig domain. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... An antibody digested by papain yields three fragments: two Fab fragments and one Fc fragment The fragment antigen binding (Fab fragment) is a region on an antibody which binds to antigens. ... An antibody digested by papain yields two fragments, two Fab fragments and one Fc fragment Schematic diagram showing Fc receptor interaction with an antibody-coated microbial pathogen The fragment crystallizable region (Fc region) is a region of an antibody composed of two heavy chains that each contribute three or four... An antibody molecule. ... Schematic diagram of an typical antibody showing two Ig heavy chains (blue) linked by disulphide bonds to two Ig light chains (green). ... Within a protein, a structural domain (domain) is an element of overall structure that is self-stabilizing and often folds independently of the rest of the protein chain. ... The process of immunological B-cell maturation involves transformation from an undifferentiated B-cell to one that secretes antibodies with particular specificity[1]. This differentiation and activation of the B-cell occurs most rapidly after exposure to antigen by antigen-presenting cells in the reticuloendothelial system, and under modulation by...


Light chain

For more details on this topic, see light chain.

In mammals there are only two types of light chain, which are called lambda (λ) and kappa (κ).[2] A light chain has two successive domains: one constant domain and one variable domain. The approximate length of a light chain is 211 to 217 amino acids.[2] Each antibody contains two light chains that are always identical; only one type of light chain, κ or λ, is present per antibody in mammals. Other types of light chains, such as the iota (ι) chain, are found in lower vertebrates like Chondrichthyes and Teleostei. Schematic diagram of an typical antibody showing two Ig heavy chains (blue) linked by disulphide bonds to two Ig light chains (green). ... Schematic diagram of an typical antibody showing two Ig heavy chains (blue) linked by disulphide bonds to two Ig light chains (green). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Subclasses and Orders See text. ... Orders See text The Actinopterygii are the ray-finned fish. ...


Fab and Fc Regions

Some parts of an antibody have unique functions. The tip of the Y, for example, contains the site that binds antigen and, therefore, recognizes specific foreign objects. This region of the antibody is called the Fab (fragment, antigen binding) region. It is composed of one constant and one variable domain from each heavy and light chain of the antibody.[15] The paratope is shaped at the amino terminal end of the antibody monomer by the variable domains from the heavy and light chains. An antibody digested by papain yields two fragments, two Fab fragments and one Fc fragment The fragment antigen binding (Fab fragment) is a region on an antibody which binds to antigens. ... The N-terminal end (also known as the N-terminus, N-terminal domain or amine-terminus) refers to the extremity of a protein or polypeptide terminated by an amino acid with a free amine group (-NH2). ... In chemistry, a monomer (from Greek mono one and meros part) is a small molecule that may become chemically bonded to other monomers to form a polymer. ...


The base of the Y plays a role in modulating immune cell activity. This region is called the Fc (Fragment, crystallizable) region, and is composed of two heavy chains that contribute two or three constant domains depending on the class of the antibody.[2] By binding to specific proteins the Fc region ensures that each antibody generates an appropriate immune response for a given antigen.[16] The Fc region also binds to various cell receptors, such as Fc receptors, and other immune molecules, such as complement proteins. By doing this, it mediates different physiological effects including opsonization, cell lysis, and degranulation of mast cells, basophils and eosinophils.[10][17] An antibody digested by papain yields two fragments, two Fab fragments and one Fc fragment The fragment crystallizable region (Fc region) is a region of an antibody composed of two heavy chains that each contribute two to three constant domains, depending on the class of the antibody. ... In biochemistry, a receptor is a protein on the cell membrane or within the cytoplasm or cell nucleus that binds to a specific molecule (a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, or other substance, and initiates the cellular response to the ligand. ... // Fc-receptor(s) Introduction Fc-receptor(s) are structures on the surface of cells and can contribute to the protective functions of the immune system. ... A complement protein attacking an invader. ... Physiology (in Greek physis = nature and logos = word) is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms. ... An opsonin is any molecule that acts as a binding enhancer for the process of phagocytosis. ... This article is about the biological definition of the word Lysis. ... The degranulation process in a Mast cell. ... A mast cell (or mastocyte) is a resident cell of connective tissue that contains many granules rich in histamine and heparin. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Eosinophil granulocyte Eosinophil granulocytes, commonly referred to as eosinophils (or less commonly as acidophils), are white blood cells that are responsible for combating infection by parasites in the body. ...


Function

Further information: Immune system

Since antibodies exist freely in the bloodstream, they are said to be part of the humoral immune system. Circulating antibodies are produced by clonal B cells that specifically respond to only one antigen, a virus hull protein fragment, for example. Antibodies contribute to immunity in three main ways: they can prevent pathogens from entering or damaging cells by binding to them; they can stimulate removal of a pathogen by macrophages and other cells by coating the pathogen; and they can trigger direct pathogen destruction by stimulating other immune responses such as the complement pathway.[18] A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Humoral immunity is mediated by secreted antibodies, produced in cells of the B lymphocyte lineage (B cell). ... An antigen or immunogen is a molecule that stimulates an immune response. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... A capsid is the outer shell of a virus. ... Immunity is a medical term that describes a state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion. ... Macrophages (Greek: big eaters) are cells found in tissues that are responsible for phagocytosis of pathogens, dead cells and cellular debris. ... A request has been made on Wikipedia for this article to be deleted in accordance with the deletion policy. ... A complement protein attacking an invader. ...


Activation of complement

Antibodies that bind to surface antigens on, for example a bacterium, attract the first component of the complement cascade with their Fc region and initiate activation of the "classical" complement system.[18] This results in the killing of bacteria in two ways.[5] First, the binding of the antibody and complement molecules marks the microbe for ingestion by phagocytes in a process called opsonization; these phagocytes are attracted by certain complement molecules generated in the complement cascade. Secondly, some complement system components form a membrane attack complex to assist antibodies to kill the bacterium directly.[19] The complement system is a complex biochemical cascade of the immune system, leading to cytolysis, chemotaxis, opsonization and inflammation, it can mark pathogens for phagocytosis. ... Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key. ... An opsonin is any molecule that acts as a binding enhancer for the process of phagocytosis. ... The membrane attack complex (MAC) is formed on the surface of intruding pathogenic bacterial cells as a result of the activation of the complement system, and it is one of the ultimate weapons of the immune system. ...


Activation of effector cells

To combat pathogens that replicate outside cells antibodies bind to pathogens to link them together, causing them to agglutinate. Since an antibody possesses at least two paratopes it can bind more than one antigen by binding identical epitopes carried on the surfaces of these antigens. By coating the pathogen, antibodies stimulate effector functions against the pathogen in cells that recognize their Fc region.[5] Agglutination is the clumping of particles. ...


Those cells which recognize coated pathogens have Fc receptors which, as the name suggests, interacts with the Fc region of IgA, IgG, and IgE antibodies. The engagement of a particular antibody with the Fc receptor on a particular cell triggers an effector function of that cell; phagocytes will phagocytose, mast cells and neutrophils will degranulate, natural killer cells will release cytokines and cytotoxic molecules; that will ultimately result in destruction of the invading microbe. The Fc receptors are isotype-specific, which gives greater flexibility to the immune system, invoking only the appropriate immune mechanisms for distinct pathogens.[2] An antibody digested by papain yields two fragments, two Fab fragments and one Fc fragment The fragment crystallizable region (Fc region) is a region of an antibody composed of two heavy chains that each contribute two to three constant domains, depending on the class of the antibody. ... Steps of a macrophage ingesting a pathogen: a. ... Mast cells A mast cell (or mastocyte) is a resident cell of areolar connective tissue (loose connective tissue) that contains many granules rich in histamine and heparin. ... Neutrophil granulocytes (commonly referred to as neutrophils) are a class of white blood cells and are part of the immune system. ... The degranulation process in a Mast cell. ... Natural NK cells are cytotoxic; small granules in their cytoplasm contain special proteins such as perforin and proteases known as granzymes. ... Cytokines are a group of proteins and peptides that are used in organisms as signaling compounds. ... Cytotoxicity is the quality of being poisonous to cells. ...

The secreted mammalian IgM has five Ig units. Each Ig unit (labeled 1) has two epitope binding Fab regions, so IgM is capable of binding up to 10 epitopes.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 636 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (728 × 686 pixels, file size: 167 KB, MIME type: image/png) Modified version of Image:IgM.png Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 636 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (728 × 686 pixels, file size: 167 KB, MIME type: image/png) Modified version of Image:IgM.png Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License... IGM might be an acronym or abbreviation for: The polymeric immunoglobulin, IgM International Grandmaster, a chess ranking intergalactic medium Intragroup medium - see: Intracluster medium IG Metall - the dominant German metalworkers union IGM is an acronym created by Robinson Technologies for several early BBS door games, including Legend of the Red... An antibody digested by papain yields two fragments, two Fab fragments and one Fc fragment The fragment antigen binding (Fab fragment) is a region on an antibody which binds to antigens. ...

Immunoglobulin diversity

Virtually all microbes can trigger an antibody response. Successful recognition and eradication of many different types of microbes requires diversity among antibodies; their amino acid composition varies allowing them to interact with many different antigens.[20] It has been estimated that humans generate about 10 billion different antibodies, each capable of binding a distinct epitope of an antigen.[21] Although a huge repertoire of different antibodies is generated in a single individual, the number of genes available to make these proteins is limited. Several complex genetic mechanisms have evolved that allow vertebrate B cells to generate a diverse pool of antibodies from a relatively small number of antibody genes.[22] For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ...

Simplistic overview of V(D)J recombination of immunoglobulin heavy chains

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (750 × 750 pixel, file size: 7 KB, MIME type: image/png) Simplistic overview of V(D)J recombination I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (750 × 750 pixel, file size: 7 KB, MIME type: image/png) Simplistic overview of V(D)J recombination I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...

V(D)J recombination

For more details on this topic, see V(D)J recombination.

Somatic recombination of immunoglobulins, also known as V(D)J recombination, involves the generation of a unique immunoglobulin variable region. The variable region of each immunoglobulin heavy or light chain is encoded in several pieces - known as gene segments. These segments are called variable (V), diversity (D) and joining (J) segments.[22] V, D and J segments are found in Ig heavy chains, but only V and J segments are found in Ig light chains. Multiple copies of the V, D and J gene segments exist, and are tandemly arranged in the genomes of mammals. In the bone marrow, each developing B cell will assemble an immunoglobulin variable region by randomly selecting and combining one V, one D and one J gene segment (or one V and one J segment in the light chain). As there are multiple copies of each type of gene segment, and different combinations of gene segments can be used to generate each immunoglobulin variable region, this process generates a huge number of antibodies, each with different paratopes, and thus different antigen specificities.[1] V(D)J recombination is a mechanism of DNA recombination used by humans and other vertebrates for immunological protection against attacks by bacterial, viral, and parasitic invaders. ... An antibody molecule. ... Schematic diagram of an typical antibody showing two Ig heavy chains (blue) linked by disulphide bonds to two Ig light chains (green). ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex...


After a B cell produces a functional immunoglobulin gene during V(D)J recombination, it cannot express any other variable region (a process known as allelic exclusion) thus each B cell can produce antibodies containing only one kind of variable chain.[23][2] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation

For more details on this topic, see Somatic hypermutation and Affinity maturation

Another mechanism that generates antibody diversity occurs in the mature B cell. Following activation with antigen, B cells begin to proliferate rapidly. In these rapidly dividing cells, the genes encoding the variable domains of the heavy and light chains undergo a high rate of point mutation, by a process called somatic hypermutation (SHM). SHM results in approximately one nucleotide change per variable gene, per cell division.[4] As a consequence, any daughter B cells will acquire slight amino acid differences in the variable domains of their antibody chains. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The process by which B-cells produce antibodies with increased affinity for antigen. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A point mutation, or substitution, is a type of mutation that causes the replacement of a single base nucleotide with another nucleotide. ... A nucleotide is a chemical compound that consists of 3 portions: a heterocyclic base, a sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ...


Somatic hypermutation serves to increase the diversity of the antibody pool and impacts the antibody’s antigen-binding affinity.[24] Some point mutations will result in the production of antibodies that have a weaker interaction (low affinity) with their antigen than the original antibody, and some mutations will generate antibodies with a stronger interaction (high affinity).[25] B cells that express high affinity antibodies on their surface will receive a strong survival signal during interactions with other cells, whereas those with low affinity antibodies will not, and will die by apoptosis.[25] Thus, B cells expressing higher affinity antibodies for will outcompete those with weaker affinities for function and survival. The process of generating antibodies with increased binding affinities is called affinity maturation. Affinity maturation occurs in mature B cells after V(D)J recombination, and is dependent on help from helper T cells.[26] Chemical affinity results from electronic properties by which dissimilar substances are capable of forming chemical compounds. ... A section of mouse liver showing an apoptotic cell indicated by an arrow Apoptosis (pronounced apo tō sis) is a process of suicide by a cell in a multicellular organism. ... A helper (or TH) T cell is a T cell (a type of white blood cell) which has on its surface antigen receptors that can bind to fragments of antigens displayed by the Class II MHC molecules found on professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs). ...

Mechanism of class switch recombination that allows isotype switching in activated B cells

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (750 × 750 pixel, file size: 9 KB, MIME type: image/png) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (750 × 750 pixel, file size: 9 KB, MIME type: image/png) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ...

Class switching

Isotype or class switching is a biological process occurring after activation of the B cell, which allows the cell to produce different classes of antibody (IgA, IgE, or IgG).[1] The different classes of antibody, and thus effector functions, are defined by the constant (C) regions of the immunoglobulin heavy chain. Initially, naïve B cells express only cell-surface IgM and IgD with identical antigen binding regions. Each isotype is adapted for a distinct function, therefore, after activation, an antibody with a IgG, IgA, or IgE effector function might be required to effectively eliminate an antigen. Class switching allows different daughter cells from the same activated B cell to produce antibodies of different isotypes. Only the constant region of the antibody heavy chain changes during class switching; the variable regions, and therefore antigen specificity, remain unchanged. Thus the progeny of a single B cell can produce antibodies, all specific for the same antigen, but with the ability to produce the effector function appropriate for each antigenic challenge. Class switching is triggered by cytokines; the isotype generated depends on which cytokines are present in the B cell environment.[27] Immunoglobulin class switching (or isotype switching) is a mechanism by which the constant region of a heavy chain changes. ... A biological process is a process of a living organism. ...


Class switching occurs in the heavy chain gene locus by a mechanism called class switch recombination (CSR). This mechanism relies on conserved nucleotide motifs, called switch (S) regions, found in DNA upstream of each constant region gene (except in the δ-chain). The DNA strand is broken by the activity of a series of enzymes at two selected S-regions.[28][29] The variable domain exon is rejoined through a process called non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) to the desired constant region (γ, α or ε). This process results in an immunoglobulin gene that encodes an antibody of a different isotype.[30] Short and long arms Chromosome. ... Mechanism of class switch recombination that allows isotype switching in activated B cells Class switch recombination (CSR) is a biological mechanism that allows the class of antibody produced by an activated B cell to change during a process known as isotype or class switching. ... A nucleotide is a chemical compound that consists of 3 portions: a heterocyclic base, a sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... An exon is any region of DNA within a gene, that is transcribed to the final messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule, rather than being spliced out from the transcribed RNA molecule. ... Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is one pathway that can be used to repair double-stranded DNA breaks. ...


Medical applications

Disease diagnosis

Detection of particular antibodies is a very common form of medical diagnostics, and applications such as serology depend on these methods.[31] For example, in biochemical assays for disease diagnosis,[32] a titer of antibodies directed against Epstein-Barr virus or Lyme disease is estimated from the blood. If those antibodies are not present, either the person is not infected, or the infection occurred a very long time ago, and the B cells generating these specific antibodies have naturally decayed. In clinical immunology, levels of individual classes of immunoglobulins are measured by nephelometry (or turbidimetry) to characterize the antibody profile of patient.[33] Elevations in different classes of immunoglobulins are sometimes useful in determining the cause of liver damage in patients whom the diagnosis is unclear.[3] For example, elevated IgA indicates alcoholic cirrhosis, elevated IgM indicates viral hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis, while IgG is elevated in viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis and cirrhosis. Autoimmune disorders can often be traced to antibodies that bind the body's own epitopes; many can be detected through blood tests. Antibodies directed against red blood cell surface antigens in immune mediated hemolytic anemia are detected with the Coombs test.[34] The Coombs test is also used for antibody screening in blood transfusion preparation and also for antibody screening in antenatal women.[34] Practically, several immunodiagnostic methods based on detection of complex antigen-antibody are used to diagnose infectious diseases, for example ELISA, immunofluorescence, Western blot, immunodiffusion, and immunoelectrophoresis. In general, diagnosis (plural diagnoses) has two distinct dictionary definitions. ... Serology is the scientific study of blood serum. ... A titer (BE: titre) is the unit in which the analytical detection of many substances is expressed. ... The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), also called Human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4), is a virus of the herpes family (which includes Herpes simplex virus and Cytomegalovirus), and is one of the most common viruses in humans. ... Lyme disease, or borreliosis, is an emerging infectious disease caused by spirochete bacteria from the genus Borrelia. ... Immunology is a broad branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. ... Nephelometry is a technique used in immunology to determine levels of IgM, IgG, and IgA.[1] It is performed by shining light on a sample, and measuring the amount of light reflected. ... For the bird, see Liver bird. ... Cirrhosis is a consequence of chronic liver disease characterized by replacement of liver tissue by fibrotic scar tissue as well as regenerative nodules, leading to progressive loss of liver function. ... Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver characterised by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Hepatitis (plural hepatitides) implies injury to liver characterised by presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue. ... In medicine (gastroenterology), hepatitis is any disease featuring inflammation of the liver. ... Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. ... An epitope is the part of a macromolecule that is recognized by the immune system, specifically by antibodies, B cells, or cytotoxic T cells. ... Blood tests are laboratory tests done on blood to gain an appreciation of disease states and the function of organs. ... “Red cell” redirects here. ... Hemolytic anemia is anemia due to hemolysis, the abnormal breakdown of red blood cells either in the blood vessels (intravascular hemolysis) or elsewhere in the body (extravascular). ... Coombs test (also known as Coombs test, antiglobulin test or AGT) refers to two clinical blood tests used in [[immunohematology] and immunology. ... Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into the circulatory system of another. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Elisa (born Elisa Toffoli on 19 December 1977) is an Italian singer and solo artist, writing and performing within several genres, notably rock, blues, soul and ambient. ... Immunofluorescence is the labeling of antibodies or antigens with fluorescent dyes. ... A Western blot. ... Immunodiffusion is a diagnostic test which involves diffusion through a substance such as agar. ... Immunoelectrophoresis (IES) is the electrophoresis of a determined antigen mixture in an agarose gel that allows the separation of different proteins along the gel slide, and then the lateral diffusion in the gel of an immune serum or a monoclonal antibody. ...


Disease therapy

"Targeted" monoclonal antibody therapy is employed to treat diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis,[35] multiple sclerosis,[36] psoriasis,[37] and many forms of cancer including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma,[38] colorectal cancer, head and neck cancer and breast cancer.[39] Some immune deficiencies, such as X-linked agammaglobulinemia and hypogammaglobulinemia, result in partial or complete lack of antibodies.[40] These diseases are often treated by inducing a short term form of immunity called passive immunity. Passive immunity is achieved through the transfer of ready-made antibodies in the form of human or animal serum, pooled immunoglobulin or monoclonal antibodies, into the affected individual.[41] Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are antibodies that are identical because they were produced by one type of immune cell, all clones of a single parent cell. ... Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is traditionally considered a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack the joints. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Non-Hodgkins lymphoma is a type of cancer. ... Colorectal cancer, also called colon cancer or bowel cancer, includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. ... Head and neck cancers are malignant growths originating in the lip and oral cavity (mouth), nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, thyroid, paranasal sinuses, salivary glands and cervical lymph nodes of the neck. ... Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ... X-linked agammaglobulinemia (also called X-linked hypogammaglobulinemia, XLA, Bruton type agammaglobulinemia) is a rare X-linked genetic disorder that affects the bodys ability to fight infection (origin of the name: A=no, gammaglobulin=Antibody). ... Hypogammaglobulinemia is a type of immune deficiency. ... Immunity is a medical term that describes a state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ...


Prenatal therapy

For more details on this topic, see Rho(D) Immune Globulin.

Rho(D) Immune Globulin antibodies are specific for human Rhesus D (RhD) antigen, also known as Rhesus factor.[42] These anti-RhD antibodies are known under several brand names, including RhoGAM, BayRHo-D, Gamulin Rh, HypRho-D, and WinRho SDF. Rhesus factor is an antigen found on red blood cells; individuals that are Rhesus-positive (Rh+) have this antigen on their red blood cells and individuals that are Rhesus-negative (Rh-) do not. During normal childbirth, delivery trauma or complications during pregnancy, blood from a fetus can enter the mother's system. In the case of an Rh-incompatible mother and child, consequential blood mixing may sensitize an Rh- mother to the Rh antigen on the blood cells of the Rh+ child, putting the remainder of the pregnancy, and any subsequent pregnancies, at risk for hemolytic disease of the newborn.[43] Anti-RhD antibodies are administered as part of a prenatal treatment regimen to prevent sensitization that may occur when a Rhesus-negative mother has a Rhesus-positive fetus. Treatment of a mother with Anti-RhD antibodies prior to and immediately after trauma and delivery destroys Rh antigen in the mother's system from the fetus. Importantly, this occurs before the antigen can stimulate maternal B cells to "remember" Rh antigen by generating memory B cells. Therefore, her humoral immune system will not make anti-Rh antibodies, and will not attack the Rhesus antigens of the current or subsequent baby. Rho(D) Immune Globulin treatment prevents sensitization that can lead to Rh disease, but does not prevent or treat the underlying disease itself.[42] Rho(D) Immune Globulin is a drug introduced under the tradename RhoGAM and MICRhoGAM which is used to prevent maternal sensitization to Rh D antigens on the surface of blood cells in a fetus (i. ... A blood type is a description an individuals characteristics of red blood cells due to substances (carbohydrates and proteins) on the cell membrane. ... This article is about brands in marketing. ... An antigen or immunogen is a molecule that stimulates an immune response. ... “Red cell” redirects here. ... Parturition redirects here. ... For other uses, see Fetus (disambiguation). ... This article is about human pregnancy in biological females. ... Hemolytic disease of the newborn, also known as HDN, is an alloimmune condition that develops in a fetus, when the IgG antibodies that have been produced by the mother and have passed through the placenta include ones which attack the red blood cells in the fetal circulation. ... A doctor performs a prenatal exam. ... Memory B cells are a B cell sub-type that are formed following primary infection. ... Humoral immunity is mediated by secreted antibodies, produced in cells of the B lymphocyte lineage (B cell). ... Rh disease (also known as Rh (D) disease, Rhesus disease, RhD Haemolytic Disease of the Newborn, Rhesus D Haemolytic Disease of the Newborn or RhD HDN) is one of the causes of hemolytic disease of the newborn (also known as HDN). ...


Research applications

Immunofluorescence image of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Actin filaments are shown in red, microtubules in green, and the nuclei in blue.
Immunofluorescence image of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Actin filaments are shown in red, microtubules in green, and the nuclei in blue.

Specific antibodies are produced by injecting an antigen into a mammal, such as a mouse, rat or rabbit for small quantities of antibody, or goat, sheep, or horse for large quantities of antibody. Blood isolated from these animals contains polyclonal antibodies — multiple antibodies that bind to the same antigen — in the serum, which can now be called antiserum. Antigens are also injected into chickens for generation of polyclonal antibodies in egg yolk.[44] To obtain antibody that is specific for a single epitope of an antigen, antibody-secreting lymphocytes are isolated from the animal and immortalized by fusing them with a cancer cell line. The fused cells are called hybridomas, and will continually grow and secrete antibody in culture. Single hybridoma cells are isolated by dilution cloning to generate cell clones that all produce the same antibody; these antibodies are called monoclonal antibodies.[45] Generated polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies are often purified using Protein A/G or antigen-affinity chromatography.[46] Image File history File links FluorescentCells. ... Image File history File links FluorescentCells. ... Immunofluorescence is the labeling of antibodies or antigens with fluorescent dyes. ... The eukaryotic cytoskeleton. ... G-Actin (PDB code: 1j6z). ... Microtubules are one of the components of the cytoskeleton. ... HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... This article is about the animal. ... Species 50 species; see text *Several subfamilies of Muroids include animals called rats. ... For other uses, see Rabbit (disambiguation). ... This article is about the domestic species. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Polyclonal antibodies are antibodies that are derived from different B-cell lines. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... Antiserum is blood serum containing antibodies. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... An egg yolk surrounded by the egg white An egg yolk is the part of an egg which serves as the food source for the developing embryo inside. ... A scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of a single human lymphocyte. ... Biological immortality can be defined as the absence of a sustained increase in rate of mortality as a function of chronological age. ... Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are antibodies that are identical because they were produced by one type of immune cell, all clones of a single parent cell. ... Dilution cloning describes the process of obtaining a monoclonal cell population starting from a polyclonal mass of cells. ... For other uses, see clone. ... // Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are antibodies that are identical because they were produced by one type of immune cell and are all clones of a single parent cell. ... Protein A/G is a recombinant fusion protein that combines IgG binding domains of both Protein A and Protein G. Protein A/G contains four Fc binding domains from Protein A and two from Protein G, yielding a final mass of 50,460 daltons. ... Affinity chromatography is a biochemical separation method that combines size fractionation capability of gel permeation chromatography with the ability to design a stationary phase that reversibly binds to a known subset of molecules. ...


Use

In research, purified antibodies are used in many applications. They are most commonly used to identify and locate intracellular and extracellular proteins. Antibodies are used in flow cytometry to differentiate cell types by the proteins they express; different types of cell express different combinations of cluster of differentiation molecules on their surface, and produce different intracellular and secretable proteins.[47] They are also used in immunoprecipitation to separate proteins and anything bound to them (co-immunoprecipitation) from other molecules in a cell lysate,[48] in Western blot analyses to identify proteins separated by electrophoresis,[49] and in immunohistochemistry or immunofluorescence to examine protein expression in tissue sections or to locate proteins within cells with the assistance of a microscope.[50][47] Proteins can also be detected and quantified with antibodies, using ELISA and ELISPOT techniques.[51][52] In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word intracellular means inside the cell. It is used in contrast to extracellular (outside the cell). ... In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular means outside the cell. It is used in contrast to intracellular (inside the cell). ... Analysis of a marine sample of photosynthetic picoplankton by flow cytometry showing three different populations (Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus and picoeukaryotes) Flow cytometry is a technique for counting, examining and sorting microscopic particles suspended in a stream of fluid. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Immunoprecipitation is the technique of precipitating an antigen out of solution using an antibody specific to that antigen. ... Cell lysate generally refers to the cellular debris and fluid produced by lysis. ... A Western blot. ... For specific types of electrophoresis (for example, the process of administering medicine, iontophoresis), see electrophoresis (disambiguation). ... Immunohistochemistry or IHC refers to the process of localizing proteins in cells of a tissue section exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues. ... Immunofluorescence is the labeling of antibodies or antigens with fluorescent dyes. ... Robert Hookes microscope (1665) - an engineered device used to study living systems. ... The Enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) is a common method for monitoring immune responses in humans and animals. ...


History

See also: History of immunology

The study of antibodies began in 1890 when Emil von Behring and Shibasaburo Kitasato described antibody activity against diphtheria and tetanus toxins. Behring and Kitasato put forward the theory of humoral immunity, proposing that a mediator in serum could react with a foreign antigen.[53][54] Their idea prompted Paul Ehrlich to propose the side chain theory for antibody and antigen interaction in 1897, when he hypothesized that receptors (described as “side chains”) on the surface of cells could bind specifically to toxins – in a "lock-and-key" interaction – and that this binding reaction was the trigger for the production of antibodies.[55] Other researchers believed that antibodies existed freely in the blood and, in 1904, Almroth Wright suggested that soluble antibodies coated bacteria to label them for phagocytosis and killing; a process that he named opsoninization.[56] Timeline of immunology: 1798 - smallpox vaccination (Edward Jenner) 1862 - phagocytosis (Ernst Haeckel) 1877 - mast cells (Paul Ehrlich) 1879 - development by Louis Pasteur of attenuated chicken cholera, anthrax and rabies vaccines development (Louis Pasteur) 1883 - Cellular theory of vaccination (Elie Metchnikoff) 1885 - first application of rabies vaccine in treatment of a... Emil Adolf von Behring (March 15, 1854 - March 31, 1917) was born at Hansdorf, Germany. ... Shibasaburo Kitasato (北里 柴三郎) (1852-1931) was a Japanese physician and bacteriologist. ... Tetanospasmin is the neurotoxin produced by the vegetative spore of Clostridium tetani in anaerobic conditions, causing tetanus. ... Humoral immunity is the aspect of immunity that is mediated by secreted antibodies, produced in the cells of the B lymphocyte lineage (B cell). ... Paul Ehrlich Paul Ehrlich in his workroom Paul Ehrlich (March 14, 1854 – August 20, 1915) was a German scientist who won the 1908 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. ... Side-chain theory is a theory proposed by Paul Ehrlich (1854 - 1915) to explain the immune response living cells. ... For other uses, see Toxin (disambiguation). ... Sir Almroth Edward Wright (1861-1947) was a British bacteriologist and immunologist. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Steps of a macrophage ingesting a pathogen: a. ... An opsonin is any molecule that acts as a binding enhancer for the process of phagocytosis, for example, by coating the negatively-charged molecules on the membrane. ...


In the 1920s, Michael Heidelberger and Oswald Avery observed that antigens could be precipitated by antibodies and went on to show that antibodies were made of protein.[57] The biochemical properties of antigen-antibody binding interactions were examined in more detail in the late 1930s by John Marrack.[58] The next major advance was in the 1940s, when Linus Pauling confirmed the lock-and-key theory proposed by Ehrlich by showing that the interactions between antibodies and antigens depended more on their shape than their chemical composition.[59] In 1948, Astrid Fagreaus discovered that B cells, in the form of plasma cells, were responsible for generating antibodies.[60] Michael Heidelberger in 1950 Michael Heidelberger (April 29, 1888 - June 25, 1991) was an American immunologist who is regarded as the father of modern immunology. ... Oswald Theodore Avery (October 21, 1877–1955) was a Canadian-born American physician and medical researcher. ... Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American quantum chemist and biochemist. ... Plasma cells (also called plasma B cells or plasmocytes) are cells of the immune system that secrete large amounts of antibodies. ...


Further work concentrated on characterizing the structures of the antibody proteins. A major advance in these structural studies was the discovery in the early 1960s by Gerald Edelman and Joseph Gally of the antibody light chain,[61] and their realization that this protein was the same as the Bence-Jones protein described in 1845 by Henry Bence Jones.[62] Edelman went on to discover that antibodies are composed of disulphide bond-linked heavy and light chains. Around the same time, antibody-binding (Fab) and antibody tail (Fc) regions of IgG were characterized by Rodney Porter.[63] Together, these scientists deduced the structure and complete amino acid sequence of IgG, a feat for which they were jointly awarded the 1972 Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine.[63] While most of these early studies focused on IgM and IgG, other immunoglobulin isotypes were identified in the 1960s: Thomas Tomasi discovered secretory antibody (IgA) [64] and David Rowe and John Fahey identified IgD,[65] and IgE was identified by Kikishige Ishizaka and Teruki Ishizaka as a class of antibodies involved in allergic reactions.[66] Gerald Maurice Edelman (born July 1, 1929) is an American biologist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1972 for his work on the immune system. ... Schematic diagram of an typical antibody showing two Ig heavy chains (blue) linked by disulphide bonds to two Ig light chains (green). ... A Bence Jones protein is a monoclonal globulin protein found in the blood or urine. ... Henry Bence Jones (1814 - April 20, 1873), English physician and chemist, was born at Thorington Hall, Suffolk, the son of an officer in the dragoon guards. ... A disulfide bond (SS-bond), also called a disulfide bridge, is a strong covalent bond between two sulfhydryl groups. ... Rodney Robert Porter (1917 - 1985) was a British physiologist. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... IGA may stand for: Koji Igarashi, a video game producer Interactive genetic algorithm International Geothermal Association Independent Glass Association International Gothic Association International Gamers Award International Goat Association Irish Games Association Irish Geological Association ImmunoGlobulin A - see IgA nephritis which is a renal disease IGA (supermarkets) Independent Grocers Association or... David Rowe can refer to: David E. Rowe, American science historian David C. Rowe, American psychologist David Rowe-Beddoe, Baron Rowe-Beddoe, British politician David Row Category: ... John Fahey ( February 28, 1939–February 22, 2001) was an American guitarist and composer, and one of the first guitarists to perform solo instrumental steel-string acoustic guitar. ...


Genetic studies revealed the basis of the vast diversity of these antibody proteins when somatic recombination of immunoglobulin genes was identified by Susumu Tonegawa in 1976.[67] Susumu Tonegawa (利根川 進 Tonegawa Susumu, born September 6, 1939) is a Japanese scientist who won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1987 for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity. ...

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Antibodies

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See also

There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Anti-nuclear antibodies (ANAs, also known as anti-nuclear factor or ANF) are antibodies present in higher than normal numbers in autoimmune disease. ... Elisa (born Elisa Toffoli on 19 December 1977) is an Italian singer and solo artist, writing and performing within several genres, notably rock, blues, soul and ambient. ... Humoral immunity is the aspect of immunity that is mediated by secreted antibodies, produced in the cells of the B lymphocyte lineage (B cell). ... Immunology is a broad branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. ... For a list of immunosuppressive drugs, see the transplant rejection page. ... Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are antibodies that are identical because they were produced by one type of immune cell, all clones of a single parent cell. ... Nanobodies are a type of antibodies derived from camels, and are much smaller than traditional antibodies. ... The primary antibody (in purple) binds to an antigen (in green). ...

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PLoS Biology is a scientific journal covering the full spectrum of the biological sciences it began operation on October 13, 2003. ... Charles Alderson Janeway, Jr. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Elisa (born Elisa Toffoli on 19 December 1977) is an Italian singer and solo artist, writing and performing within several genres, notably rock, blues, soul and ambient. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) is a common method for monitoring immune responses in humans and animals. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a repository for 3-D structural data of proteins and nucleic acids. ... The University of South Carolina, Columbia (USC, SC, or Carolina) is a public, co-educational, research university located in Columbia, South Carolina, United States. ... The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Website http://www. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... Immunology is a broad branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. ... The immune system is the collection of organs and tissues involved in the adaptive defense of a body against foreign biological material. ... The innate immune system comprises the cells and mechanisms that defend the host from infection by other organisms, in a non-specific manner. ... Humoral immunity is the aspect of immunity that is mediated by secreted antibodies, produced in the cells of the B lymphocyte lineage (B cell). ... Cell-mediated immunity is an immune response that does not involve antibodies but rather involves the activation of macrophages and NK-cells, the production of antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen. ... A complement protein attacking an invader. ... Anaphylatoxins, or anaphylotoxins, are fragments (C3a, C4a or C5a) that are produced during the pathways of the complement system. ... // Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are antibodies that are identical because they were produced by one type of immune cell and are all clones of a single parent cell. ... Polyclonal antibodies are antibodies that are derived from different B-cell lines. ... An autoantibody is an antibody (a type of protein) manufactured by the immune system that is directed against one or more of the individuals own proteins. ... The allotype affects the constant region (labeled CL and CH1-3 in the diagram. ... In immunology, the immunoglobulin isotype refers to the type of chain. ... The idiotype affects the variable region (labeled VL and VH in the diagram. ... An antigen or immunogen is a molecule that stimulates an immune response. ... SEB, A typical bacterial superantigen (PDB:3SEB) The β-grasp domain is shown in red, and the β-barrel in green: The disulphide loop is shown in yellow SEC3 (yellow) complexed with an MHC-II molecule (green & cyan): The SAgs binds adjacent to the antigen (purple) presentation cleft in the MHC-II... White Blood Cells redirects here. ... T cells are a subset of lymphocytes that play a large role in the immune response. ... B cells are lymphocytes that play a large role in the humoral immune response (as opposed to the cell-mediated immune response). ... Natural killer cells (NK) are a type of lymphocyte (a white blood cell) and a component of nonspecific immune defense. ... Mast cells A mast cell (or mastocyte) is a resident cell of areolar connective tissue (loose connective tissue) that contains many granules rich in histamine and heparin. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Biology stubs | Blood and immune system cells ... Eosinophils are white blood cells that are responsible for combating infection by parasites in the body. ... A phagocyte is a cell that ingests and destroys foreign matter such as microorganisms or debris via a process known as phagocytosis. ... Neutrophil granulocytes (commonly referred to as neutrophils) are a class of white blood cells and are part of the immune system. ... A macrophage of a mouse stretching its arms to engulf two particles, possibly pathogens Macrophages (Greek: big eaters, from makros large + phagein eat) are cells within the tissues that originate from specific white blood cells called monocytes. ... Dendritic cells (DC) are immune cells and form part of the mammal immune system. ... An antigen-presenting cell (APC) is a cell that displays foreign antigen complexed with MHC on its surface. ... The reticuloendothelial system (RES), part of the immune system, consists of the phagocytic cells located in reticular connective tissue, primarily monocytes and macrophages. ... Immunity is a medical term that describes a state of having sufficient biological defenses to avoid infection, disease, or other unwanted biological invasion. ... Autoimmunity is the failure of an organism to recognize its own constituent parts (down to the sub-molecular levels) as self, which results in an immune response against its own cells and tissues. ... Allergy is an abnormal reaction to a substance foreign to the body that is acquired, predictable and rapid. ... Immune or immunological tolerance is the process by which the immune system does not attack an antigen. ... Central tolerance is a condition caused by tumor cells caused by tumor antigens inhibiting the immune system which has no reaction. ... In medicine, immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is a state in which the immune systems ability to fight infectious disease is compromised or entirely absent. ... Immunogenetics is the branch of medical research that explores the relationship between the immune system and genetics. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... V(D)J recombination is a mechanism of DNA recombination used by humans and other vertebrates for immunological protection against attacks by bacterial, viral, and parasitic invaders. ... Immunoglobulin class switching (or isotype switching) is a mechanism by which the constant region of a heavy chain changes. ... Protein images comparing the MHC I (1hsa) and MHC II (1dlh) molecules. ... HLA region of Chromosome 6 The human leukocyte antigen system (HLA) is the name of the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC). ... Cytokines are a group of proteins and peptides that are used in organisms as signaling compounds. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... An opsonin is any molecule that acts as a binding enhancer for the process of phagocytosis, for example, by coating the negatively-charged molecules on the membrane. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Globulin is one of the two types of serum proteins, the other being albumin. ... Blood plasma is the liquid component of blood, in which the blood cells are suspended. ... Alpha Globulins are a group of globular proteins in plasma, which are highly mobile in alkaline or electricaly charged solutions. ... Beta globulins are a group of globular proteins in plasma that are more mobile in alkaline or electricaly charged solutions than gamma globulins, but less mobile than alpha globulins. ... Schematic representation of a protein electrophoresis gel Gamma globulins, or Igs, are a class of proteins in the blood, identified by their position after serum protein electrophoresis. ... Fibronectin is a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein containing about 5% carbohydrate that binds to receptor proteins that span the cells membrane, called integrins. ... A macroglobulin is a plasma globulin of high molecular weight. ... Transcobalamins are carrier proteins which bind cyanocobalamin (B12). ... The structure of β-lactoglobulin from PDB entry 3BLG The ribbons denote the secondary structure. ... Lactoferrin is a globular protein found in milk and many mucosal secretions such as tears. ... Thyroglobulin is a protein secreted by the thyroid gland. ... α-lactalbumin is an important whey protein in cows milk (~1 g/l), and is also present in many other mammalian species. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... The membrane attack complex (MAC) is formed on the surface of intruding pathogenic bacterial cells as a result of the activation of the complement system, and it is one of the ultimate weapons of the immune system. ... Nanobodies are a type of antibodies derived from camels, and are much smaller than traditional antibodies. ... Perforin is a cytolytic protein found in the granules of CD8 T-cells and NK cells. ... Schematic diagram of an typical antibody showing two Ig heavy chains (blue) linked by disulphide bonds to two Ig light chains (green). ... An antibody molecule. ... ... ... Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is an antibody subclass (known as isotypes), found only in mammals. ... Molecular surface of an IgG molecule Immunoglobulin G(IgG) is a monomeric immunoglobulin, built of two heavy chains γ and two light chains. ... IgM (Immunglobulin M) antibody molecule consisting of 5 base units. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
HON Allergy Glossary Antibody (201 words)
Immunoglobulins (antibodies) are proteins produced by plasma cells (or B-Cells, a type of lymphocyte), which are designed to control the immune response in extracellular fluids by binding to substances in the body that are recognized as foreign antigens (often proteins on the surface of bacteria and viruses).
Antibodies are diverse, with more than 1010 possible variations, yet each antibody is designed to recognize only a specfic antigen.
The new antibodies, which are all designed to recognize the infecting antigen, are released into the intercellular fluid where they bind to the infecting antigen, identifying it for destruction by phagocytes and the complement system.
Antibody - MSN Encarta (482 words)
Antibody, any of perhaps a million kinds of normally occurring protein molecules that are produced in the body of cells called lymphocytes and that act primarily as a defense against invasion by foreign substances.
Animals do not have antibodies to substances to which they have not been exposed, but one animal is able to produce enough different kinds of antibodies to fit the molecular arrangement of any foreign substance it is likely to encounter.
Monoclonal antibodies are used in medicine to detect pregnancy, diagnose disease, and treat conditions caused by toxins or poisonous substances, such as snake venom.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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