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Encyclopedia > Antibiotic resistance

Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic. It is a specific type of drug resistance. Antibiotic resistance evolves naturally via natural selection through random mutation, but it could also be engineered. Once such a gene is generated, bacteria can then transfer the genetic information in a horizontal fashion (between individuals) by plasmid exchange. If a bacterium carries several resistance genes, it is called multiresistant or, informally, a superbug. A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... Organisms are said to be drug-resistant when they are no longer affected by drugs that are meant to neutralize them. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that mutant be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... Figure 1: Illustration of a bacterium with plasmids enclosed showing chromosomal DNA and plasmids. ...


Antibiotic resistance can also be introduced artificially into a microorganism through transformation protocols. This can be a useful way of implanting artificial genes into the microorganism. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Transfection. ...

Contents

Causes

Schematic representation of how antibiotic resistance evolves via natural selection. The top section represents a population of bacteria before exposure to an antibiotic. The middle section shows the population directly after exposure, the phase in which selection took place. The last section shows the distribution of resistance in a new generation of bacteria. The legend indicates the resistance levels of individuals.
Schematic representation of how antibiotic resistance evolves via natural selection. The top section represents a population of bacteria before exposure to an antibiotic. The middle section shows the population directly after exposure, the phase in which selection took place. The last section shows the distribution of resistance in a new generation of bacteria. The legend indicates the resistance levels of individuals.

Antibiotic resistance is a consequence of evolution via natural selection. The antibiotic action is an environmental pressure; those bacteria which have a mutation allowing them to survive will live on to reproduce. They will then pass this trait to their offspring, which will be a fully resistant generation. If left untreated, the victim will quickly die. Several studies have demonstrated that patterns of antibiotic usage greatly affect the number of resistant organisms which develop. Overuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics, such as second- and third-generation cephalosporins, greatly hastens the development of methicillin resistance. Other factors contributing towards resistance include incorrect diagnosis, unnecessary prescriptions, improper use of antibiotics by patients, and the use of antibiotics as livestock food additives for growth promotion. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... A broad-spectrum antibiotic is so called due to its activity against a wide range of infectious agents. ... The cephalosporins, are a class of β-lactam antibiotics. ...


Researchers have recently demonstrated the bacterial protein LexA may play a key role in the acquisition of bacterial mutations[1]. Repressor LexA or LexA is a repressor enzyme (EC 3. ...


Mechanisms

The four main mechanisms by which microorganisms exhibit resistance to antimicrobials are:

  1. Drug inactivation or modification: e.g. enzymatic deactivation of Penicillin G in some penicillin-resistant bacteria through the production of β-lactamases.
  2. Alteration of target site : e.g. alteration of PBP—the binding target site of penicillins—in MRSA and other penicillin-resistant bacteria.
  3. Alteration of metabolic pathway: e.g. some sulfonamide-resistant bacteria do not require para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), an important precursor for the synthesis of folic acid and nucleic acids in bacteria inhibited by sulfonamides. Instead, like mammalian cells, they turn to utilizing preformed folic acid.
  4. Reduced drug accumulation: by decreasing drug permeability and/or increasing active efflux on the cell surface.

For the Japanese rock band, see Penicillin (band). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Bacterial proteins that exhibit either transpeptidase or carboxypeptidase activity. ... MRSA, or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, is a bacterium that has developed antibiotic resistance, first to penicillin in 1947, and later to methicillin. ... Sulfonamides, also known as sulfa drugs, are synthetic antimicrobial agents derived from sulfonic acid. ... Para-Aminobenzoic acid (PABA) is a chemical used in sunscreen that is an essential nutrient for some bacteria. ... Folic acid and folate (the anion form) are forms of the water-soluble Vitamin B9. ... Highly simplified diagram of a double-stranded nucleic acid. ... Scheme of semipermeable membrane during hemodialysis, where red is blood, blue is the dialysing fluid, and yellow is the membrane. ... Active efflux is a mechanism responsible for extrusion of toxic substances and antibiotics outside the cell. ...

Resistant pathogens

Staphylococcus aureus (colloquially known as "Staph aureus" or a Staph infection) is one of the major resistant pathogens. Found on the mucous membranes and the skin of around a third of the population, it is extremely adaptable to antibiotic pressure. It was the first bacterium in which penicillin resistance was found—in 1947, just four years after the drug started being mass-produced. Methicillin was then the antibiotic of choice, but has since been replaced by oxacillin due to significant kidney toxicity. MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) was first detected in Britain in 1961 and is now "quite common" in hospitals. MRSA was responsible for 37% of fatal cases of blood poisoning in the UK in 1999, up from 4% in 1991. Half of all S. aureus infections in the US are resistant to penicillin, methicillin, tetracycline and erythromycin. Binomial name Rosenbach 1884 Staphylococcus aureus , literally Golden Cluster Seed and also known as golden staph, is the most common cause of staph infections. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosa) are linings of ectodermic origin, covered in epithelium, that line various body cavities and internal organs. ... Beyond overall skin structure, refer below to: See-also. ... For the Japanese rock band, see Penicillin (band). ... Methicillin (USAN) or meticillin (INN, BAN) is a narrow spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic. ... Oxacillin sodium (Bactocill®) is an beta-lactam antibiotic in the penicillin class. ... MRSA redirects here. ... Blood poisoning, also known as septicaemia, is a bacterial infection that occurs when bacteria get into the bloodstream and multiply rapidly. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Tetracycline (INN) (IPA: ) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by the streptomyces bacterium, indicated for use against many bacterial infections. ... Erythromycin is a macrolide antibiotic which has an antimicrobial spectrum similar to or slightly wider than that of penicillin, and is often used for people who have an allergy to penicillins. ...


This left vancomycin as the only effective agent available at the time. However, VRSA (Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) was first identified in Japan in 1996, and has since been found in hospitals in England, France and the US. VRSA is also termed GISA (glycopeptide intermediate Staphylococcus aureus) or VISA (vancomycin insensitive Staphylococcus aureus), indicating resistance to all glycopeptide antibiotics. Crystal structure of a short peptide L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala (bacterial cell wall precursor, in green) bound to vancomycin (blue) through hydrogen bonds. ... Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) is a strain of Staphylococcus aureus that has become resistant to the glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin. ... Glycopeptide antibiotics are a class of antibiotic drugs. ...


A new class of antibiotics, oxazolidinones, became available in the 1990s, and the first commercially available oxazolidinone, linezolid, is comparable to vancomycin in effectiveness against MRSA. Linezolid-resistance in Staphylococcus aureus was reported in 2003. Linezolid is a synthetic systemic antibiotic drug. ... Linezolid is a synthetic systemic antibiotic drug. ... Binomial name Rosenbach 1884 Staphylococcus aureus , literally Golden Cluster Seed and also known as golden staph, is the most common cause of staph infections. ...


CA-MRSA has now emerged as an epidemic that is responsible for rapidly progressive, fatal diseases including necrotizing pneumonia, severe sepsis and necrotizing fasciitis.[2] Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the most frequently identified antimicrobial drug-resistant pathogen in US hospitals. The epidemiology of infections caused by MRSA is rapidly changing. In the past 10 years, infections caused by this organism have emerged in the community. The 2 MRSA clones in the United States most closely associated with community outbreaks, USA400 (MW2 strain, ST1 lineage) and USA300, often contain Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes and, more frequently, have been associated with skin and soft tissue infections. Outbreaks of community-associated (CA)-MRSA infections have been reported in correctional facilities, among athletic teams, among military recruits, in newborn nurseries, and among active homosexual men. CA-MRSA infections now appear to be endemic in many urban regions and cause most CA-S. aureus infections.[3] Binomial name Rosenbach 1884 Staphylococcus aureus , literally Golden Cluster Seed and also known as golden staph, is the most common cause of staph infections. ... MRSA, or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, is a bacterium that has developed antibiotic resistance, first to penicillin in 1947, and later to methicillin. ... Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ... Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a cytotoxin. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ...


Enterococcus faecium is another superbug found in hospitals. Penicillin-Resistant Enterococcus was seen in 1983, Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus (VRE) in 1987, and Linezolid-Resistant Enterococcus (LRE) in the late 1990s. Species E. faecalis etc. ... SEM micrograph of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. ...


Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus: GAS) infections can usually be treated with many different antibiotics. Early treatment may reduce the risk of death from invasive group A streptococcal disease. However, even the best medical care does not prevent death in every case. For those with very severe illness, supportive care in an intensive care unit may be needed. For persons with necrotizing fasciitis, surgery often is needed to remove damaged tissue.[4] Strains of S. pyogenes resistant to macrolide antibiotics have emerged, however all strains remain uniformly sensitive to penicillin.[5] Binomial name Streptococcus pyogenes Rosenbach 1884 Streptococcus pyogenes is a Gram-positive coccus that grows in long chains depending on the culture method. ... The macrolides are a group of drugs (typically antibiotics) whose activity stems from the presence of a macrolide ring, a large lactone ring to which one or more deoxy sugars, usually cladinose and desosamine, are attached. ... For the Japanese rock band, see Penicillin (band). ...


Resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to penicillin and other beta-lactams is increasing worldwide. The major mechanism of resistance involves the introduction of mutations in genes encoding penicillin-binding proteins. Selective pressure is thought to play an important role, and use of beta-lactam antibiotics has been implicated as a risk factor for infection and colonization. Streptococcus pneumoniae is responsible for pneumonia, bacteremia, otitis media, meningitis, sinusitis, peritonitis and arthritis.[6] Binomial name (Klein 1884) Chester 1901 Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic diplococcus bacterium and a member of the genus Streptococcus. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ... Bacteremia (Bacteræmia in British English, also known as blood poisoning or toxemia) is the presence of bacteria in the blood. ... Otitis media is inflammation of the middle ear: the small space between the ear drum and the inner ear. ... Meningitis is the inflammation of the protective membranes covering the central nervous system, known collectively as the meninges. ... Sinusitis is an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, which may or may not be as a result of infection, from bacterial, fungal, viral, allergic or autoimmune issues. ... Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a group of conditions where there is damage caused to the joints of the body. ...


Proteus can cause urinary tract infections and hospital-acquired infections. Proteus is unique, however, because it is highly motile and does not form regular colonies. Instead, Proteus forms what are known as "swarming colonies" when plated on non-inhibitory media. The most important member of this genus is considered to be Proteus mirabilis, a cause of wound and urinary tract infections. Fortunately, most strains of Proteus mirabilis are sensitive to ampicillin and cephalosporins. Unlike its relative, Proteus vulgaris is not sensitive to these antibiotics. However, this organism is isolated less often in the laboratory and usually only targets immunosuppressed individuals. Proteus vulgaris occurs naturally in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals; also manure, soil and polluted waters. More than 80% of human urinary tract infections (UTI) are due to the bacterium Escherichia coli but urinary infections due to Proteus mirabilis are also well documented. Proteus mirabilis once attached to urinary tract, infects the kidney more commonly than E. coli. Proteus mirabilis belongs to family Enterobacteriaceae and is a gram-negative motile swarmer bacterium. Proteus mirabilis are often found as free-living organisms in soil and water but they are also parasitic in the upper urinary tract of human beings. Binomial name Proteus mirabilis Hauser 1885 Proteus mirabilis is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacterium. ... Binomial name Hauser 1885 Proteus vulgaris is a rod-shaped (bacilli) Gram negative bacterium (a chemoheterotroph) that inhabits the intestinal tracts of animals and can be pathogenic. ... A urinary tract infection is an infection of the urinary tract. ... E. coli redirects here. ...


Penicillin-resistant pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (commonly known as pneumococcus), was first detected in 1967, as was penicillin-resistant gonorrhea. Resistance to penicillin substitutes is also known as beyond S. aureus. By 1993 Escherichia coli was resistant to five fluoroquinolone variants. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is commonly resistant to isoniazid and rifampin and sometimes universally resistant to the common treatments. Other pathogens showing some resistance include Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Streptococci. This article is about human pneumonia. ... Binomial name (Klein 1884) Chester 1901 Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic diplococcus bacterium and a member of the genus Streptococcus. ... Gonorrhea (gonorrhoea in British English) is amongst the most common sexually transmitted diseases in the world and is caused by Gram-negative bacterium Neisseria gonorrheae. ... E. coli redirects here. ... Quinolones and fluoroquinolones form a group of broad-spectrum antibiotics. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Isoniazid (also called isonicotinyl hydrazine or isonicotinic acid hydrazide); abbreviated INH or just H. Isoniazid is a first-line antituberculous medication used in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. ... Rifampicin (INN) or rifampin (USAN) is an antibiotic drug of the rifamycin group. ... Species Salmonella bongori Salmonella enterica Salmonella arizonae Salmonella enteritidis Salmonella typhi Salmonella typhimurium Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria that causes typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, and foodborne illness. ... Species C. fetus C. jejuni Campylobacter is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria. ... Species S. pneumoniae S. pyogenes S. viridans Streptococcus is a genus of spherical, Gram-positive bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes. ...


In November 2004, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported an increasing number of Acinetobacter baumannii bloodstream infections in patients at military medical facilities in which service members injured in the Iraq/Kuwait region during Operation Iraqi Freedom and in Afghanistan during Operation Enduring Freedom were treated. Most of these showed multidrug resistance (MRAB), with a few isolates resistant to all drugs tested.[7] The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... Acinetobacter is a genus of Proteobacteria. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Combatants United States, Poland, France, Canada, Pakistan, India, Australia, United Kingdom, Germany, Netherlands, New Zealand, Philippines (in the Philippines theatre only), Northern Alliance, Italy, Czech Republic, Hungary, Ethiopia, Somalia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Croatia, Albania, Macedonia, Romania, Portugal, Bulgaria, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Georgia Taliban, al-Qaeda, Abu Sayyaf, Jemaah... Multidrug resistance is the ability of pathologic cells to withstand chemicals that are designed to aid in the eradication of such cells. ...


Pseudomonas

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a highly relevant opportunistic pathogen. One of the most worrisome characteristics of P. aeruginosa consists in its low antibiotic susceptibility. This low susceptibility is attributable to a concerted action of multidrug efflux pumps with chromosomally-encoded antibiotic resistance genes and the low permeability of the bacterial cellular envelopes. Besides intrinsic resistance, P. aeruginosa easily develop acquired resistance either by mutation in chromosomally-encoded genes, or by the horizontal gene transfer of antibiotic resistance determinants. Development of multidrug resistance by P. aeruginosa isolates requires several different genetic events that include acquisition of different mutations and/or horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes. Hypermutation favours the selection of mutation-driven antibiotic resistance in P. aeruginosa strains producing chronic infections, whereas the clustering of several different antibiotic resistance genes in integrons favours the concerted acquisition of antibiotic resistance determinants. Some recent studies have shown that phenotypic resistance associated to biofilm formation or to the emergence of small-colony-variants may be important in the response of P. aeruginosa populations to antibiotics treatment.[8] Binomial name Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Schroeter 1872) Migula 1900 Synonyms Bacterium aeruginosum Schroeter 1872 Bacterium aeruginosum Cohn 1872 Micrococcus pyocyaneus Zopf 1884 Bacillus aeruginosus (Schroeter 1872) Trevisan 1885 Bacillus pyocyaneus (Zopf 1884) Flügge 1886 Pseudomonas pyocyanea (Zopf 1884) Migula 1895 Bacterium pyocyaneum (Zopf 1884) Lehmann and Neumann 1896 Pseudomonas polycolor... Opportunistic infections are infections caused by organisms that usually do not cause disease in a person with a healthy immune system, but can affect people with a poorly functioning or suppressed immune system. ... Binomial name (Schröter 1872) Migula 1900 Type strain ATCC 10145 CCUG 551 CFBP 2466 CIP 100720 DSM 50071 JCM 5962 LMG 1242 NBRC 12689 NCCB 76039 NCIMB 8295 NCTC 10332 NRRL B-771 VKM B-588 Synonyms Bacterium aeruginosum Schroeter 1872 Bacterium aeruginosum Cohn 1872 Micrococcus pyocyaneus Zopf 1884... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... It has been suggested that mutant be merged into this article or section. ... Multidrug resistance is the ability of pathologic cells to withstand chemicals that are designed to aid in the eradication of such cells. ... An integron is a gene capture system found in some bacteria. ... Staphylococcus aureus biofilm on an indwelling catheter. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ...


Role of animals

MRSA is acknowledged to be a human commensal and pathogen. MRSA has been found in cats, dogs and horses, where it can cause the same problems as it does in humans. Owners can transfer the organism to their pets and vice-versa, and MRSA in animals is generally believed to be derived from humans. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, (MRSA) is a specific strain of the Staphylococcus aureus bacterium that has developed antibiotic resistance, first to penicillin since 1947, and later to methicillin and related anti-staphylococcal drugs (such as flucloxacillin). ... Common Clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) in their magnificent sea anemone (Heteractis magnifica) home. ... A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ...


Currently, it is estimated that greater than 55% of the antibiotics used in the US are given to food animals (e.g. chickens, pigs and cattle) in the absence of disease. Antibiotic use in food animal production has been associated with the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria including Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus, among others. There is substantial evidence from the US and European Union that these resistant bacteria cause antibiotic-resistant infections in humans. The American Society for Microbiology (ASM), the American Public Health Association (APHA) and the American Medical Association (AMA) have called for substantial restrictions on antibiotic use in food animal production including an end to all non-therapeutic uses. The food animal and pharmaceutical industries have fought hard to prevent new regulations that would limit the use of antibiotics in food animal production. For example, in 2000 the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced their intention to rescind approval for fluoroquinolone use in poultry production because of substantial evidence linking it to the emergence of fluoroquinolone resistant Campylobacter infections in humans. The final decision to ban fluoroquinolones from use in poultry production was not made until 5 years later because of challenges from the food animal and pharmaceutical industries.[9] Today, there are two federal bills (S.742 and H.R. 2562) aimed at phasing out non-therapeutic antibiotics in US food animal production. These bills are endorsed by many public health and medical organizations including the American Nurses Association (ANA), the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), and the American Public Health Association (APHA). Species Salmonella bongori Salmonella enterica Salmonella arizonae Salmonella enteritidis Salmonella typhi Salmonella typhimurium Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria that causes typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, and foodborne illness. ... Species C. fetus C. jejuni Campylobacter is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria. ... E. coli redirects here. ... Species E. faecalis etc. ... The American Society for Microbiology (ASM) is a scientific organization, based in the United States although with over 43,000 members throughout the world. ... The American Public Health Association (APHA) is a professional organization for public health professionals in the United States. ... The American Medical Association (AMA) is the largest association of medical doctors in the United States. ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ... Quinolones and fluoroquinolones form a group of broad-spectrum antibiotics. ... The American Nurses Association (ANA) is a professional organization to advance and protect the profession of nursing. ... The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is an organization of pediatricians, physicians trained to deal with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents. ... The American Public Health Association (APHA) is a professional organization for public health professionals in the United States. ...


The illegal use of amantadine to medicate poultry in the South of China and other parts of southeast Asia means that although the H5N1 (avian flu) strain that appeared in Hong Kong in 1997 was amantadine sensitive, the more recent strains have all been amantadine resistant. This seriously reduces the treatment options available to doctors in the event of an influenza pandemic. Amantadine, 1-aminoadamantane, is an antiviral drug that was approved by the FDA in 1976 for the treatment of influenza type A in adults. ... Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. ... For the H5N1 subtype generating the concern see H5N1. ... Influenza, commonly known as flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by an RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses). ... This article is about large epidemics. ...


Alternatives

Prevention

Washing hands properly reduces the chance of getting infected or spreading infection. Thoroughly washing or avoiding raw foods such as fruits, vegetables, raw eggs, and undercooked meat can also reduce the chance of an infection. High risk activities include: unprotected sex [10] [11] [12]; use of equipment in a public gymnasium or on a playground; being a patient in a nursing home or hospital; being a prison inmate; visiting a barbershop; the sharing of personal products (cosmetic items, lotion, bedding, toothpaste, headphones, nail clippers, shampoo); even being overweight.[citation needed] Schoolchildren washing their hands before eating lunch. ...


Avoiding the use of antibiotics, in some situations, can also reduce the chances of infection by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In one study the use of fluoroquinolones are clearly associated with Clostridium difficile infection, which is a leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea in the United States[13] and a major cause of death, worldwide.[14] An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ... Binomial name Hall & OToole, 1935 Clostridium difficile or CDF/cdf (commonly mistaken  , alternatively and correctly pronounced ) (also referred to as C. diff or C-diff) is a species of bacteria of the genus Clostridium which are gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming rods (bacillus). ... A nosocomial infection is an infection that is caused by staying in a hospital. ... Types 5-7 on the Bristol Stool Chart are often associated with diarrhea Diarrhea (in American English) or diarrhoea (in British English) is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the Greek word διάρροια; literally meaning through-flowing). Acute infectious diarrhea is a common cause...


Vaccines

Vaccines do not suffer the problem of resistance because a vaccine enhances the body's natural defenses, while an antibiotic operates separately from the body's normal defenses. Nevertheless, new strains may evolve that escape immunity induced by vaccines. A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... This article is about biological evolution. ...


While theoretically promising, anti-staphylococcal vaccines have shown limited efficacy, because of immunological variation between Staphylococcus species, and the limited duration of effectiveness of the antibodies produced. Development and testing of more effective vaccines is under way.


Phage therapy

Phage therapy, an approach that has been extensively researched and utilized as a therapeutic agent for over 60 years, especially in the Soviet Union, is an alternative that might help with the problem of resistance. Phage Therapy was widely used in the United States until the discovery of antibiotics, in the early 1940's. Bacteriophages or "phages" are viruses that invade bacterial cells and, in the case of lytic phages, disrupt bacterial metabolism and cause the bacterium to lyse [destruct]. Phage Therapy is the therapeutic use of lytic bacteriophages to treat pathogenic bacterial infections.[15][16][17] A 3D rendering showing T4 type bacteriophages landing on a bacterium to inject genetic material. ... ... A pathogen (literally birth of pain from the Greek παθογένεια) is a biological agent that can cause disease to its host. ...


Bacteriophage therapy is an important alternative to antibiotics in the current era of multidrug resistant pathogens. A review of studies that dealt with the therapeutic use of phages from 1966–1996 and few latest ongoing phage therapy projects via internet showed: phages were used topically, orally or systemically in Polish and Soviet studies. The success rate found in these studies was 80–95% with few gastrointeslinal or allergic side effects. British studies also demonstrated significant efficacy of phages against Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp and Staphylococcus aureus. US studies dealt with improving the bioavailability of phage. Phage therapy may prove as an important alternative to antibiotics for treating multidrug resistant pathogens.[18] [19] E. coli redirects here. ... Species A. baumannii A. lwoffii etc. ... Type species Pseudomonas aeruginosa Species group P. aeruginosa P. alcaligenes P. anguilliseptica P. argentinensis P. borbori P. citronellolis P. flavescens P. mendocina P. nitroreducens P. oleovorans P. pseudoalcaligenes P. resinovorans P. straminea group P. aurantiaca P. aureofaciens P. chlororaphis P. fragi P. lundensis P. taetrolens group P. antarctica P. azotoformans... Binomial name Rosenbach 1884 Staphylococcus aureus , literally Golden Cluster Seed and also known as golden staph, is the most common cause of staph infections. ...


Development of new drugs

Until recently, research and development (R&D) efforts have provided new drugs in time to treat bacteria that became resistant to older antibiotics. That is no longer the case. The potential crisis at hand is the result of a marked decrease in industry R&D, government inaction, and the increasing prevalence of resistant bacteria. Infectious disease physicians are alarmed by the prospect that effective antibiotics may not be available to treat seriously ill patients in the near future.


The pipeline of new antibiotics is drying up. Major pharmaceutical companies are losing interest in the antibiotics market because these drugs may not be as profitable as drugs that treat chronic (long-term) conditions and lifestyle issues.[20]


The resistance problem demands that a renewed effort be made to seek antibacterial agents effective against pathogenic bacteria resistant to current antibiotics. One of the possible strategies towards this objective is the rational localization of bioactive phytochemicals. Plants have an almost limitless ability to synthesize aromatic substances, most of which are phenols or their oxygen-substituted derivatives such as tannins. Most are secondary metabolites, of which at least 12,000 have been isolated, a number estimated to be less than 10% of the total[citation needed]. In many cases, these substances serve as plant defense mechanisms against predation by microorganisms, insects, and herbivores. Many of the herbs and spices used by humans to season food yield useful medicinal compounds including those having antibacterial activity[21][22][23] ... Phytochemicals are sometimes referred to as phytonutrients; these terms are often used interchangeably. ... In chemistry, an aromatic molecule is one in which electrons are free to cycle around circular arrangements of atoms, which are alternately singly and doubly bonded to one another. ... Phenol, also known under an older name of carbolic acid, is a colourless crystalline solid with a typical sweet tarry odor. ... A bottle of tannic acid. ... A metabolite is the product of metabolism. ... Predator and Prey redirect here. ... A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ...


Traditional healers have long used plants to prevent or cure infectious conditions. Many of these plants have been investigated scientifically for antimicrobial activity and a large number of plant products have been shown to inhibit growth of pathogenic bacteria. A number of these agents appear to have structures and modes of action that are distinct from those of the antibiotics in current use, suggesting that cross-resistance with agents already in use may be minimal. For example the combination of 5'-methoxyhydnocarpine and berberine in herbs like Hydrastis canadensis and Berberis vulgaris can block the MDR-pumps that cause multidrug resistance. This has been shown for Staphylococcus aureus.[24]. Chemical structure of berberine. ... Binomial name Hydrastis canadensis L. Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) is a perennial herb in the buttercup family Ranunculaceae, native to southeastern Canada and the northeastern United States. ... Binomial name Berberis vulgaris L. Berberis vulgaris (European Barberry) is a shrub in the family Berberidaceae]. It is a deciduous shrub growing up to 4 m high. ... Binomial name Rosenbach 1884 Staphylococcus aureus , literally Golden Cluster Seed and also known as golden staph, is the most common cause of staph infections. ...


Applications

Antibiotic resistance is an important tool for genetic engineering. By constructing a plasmid which contains an antibiotic resistance gene as well as the gene being engineered or expressed, a researcher can ensure that when bacteria replicate, only the copies which carry along the plasmid survive. This ensures that the gene being manipulated passes along when the bacteria replicates.


The most commonly used antibiotics in genetic engineering are generally "older" antibiotics which have largely fallen out of use in clinical practice. These include:

Industrially the use of antibiotic resistance is disfavored since maintaining bacterial cultures would require feeding them large quantities of antibiotics. Instead, the use of auxotrophic bacterial strains (and function-replacement plasmids) is preferred. Ampicillin is a beta-lactam antibiotic that has been used extensively to treat bacterial infections since 1961. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Tetracycline (INN) (IPA: ) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by the streptomyces bacterium, indicated for use against many bacterial infections. ... Chloramphenicol is a bacteriostatic antibiotic originally derived from the bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae, isolated by David Gottlieb, and introduced into clinical practice in 1949. ... Auxotrophy is the inability of an organism to synthesize a particular organic compound required for its growth (as defined by IUPAC). ...


See also

Repressor LexA or LexA is a repressor enzyme (EC 3. ... Active efflux is a mechanism responsible for extrusion of toxic substances and antibiotics outside the cell. ... This is a list of topics related (in whole or in part) to (a) phenomena in the natural environment which have a definite or significantly possible connection with human activity or (b) features of human activity which have a definite or significantly possible connection with the natural environment, even if... // Nosocomial infections are those which are a result of treatment in a hospital or a healthcare service unit, but secondary to the patients original condition. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacteria through direct cell-to-cell contact. ... Drugs of last resort are drugs with the most potent antibiotic, antiviral, or anticancer effect, and for which no (or for cancer, very few) resistant strains are known. ...

References

  • Lord Soulsby of Swaffham Prior (2005). "Resistance to antimicrobials in humans and animals". Brit J Med 331: 1219–20. 
  1. ^ Inhibition of Mutation and Combating the Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance Ryan T. Cirz, Jodie K. Chin, David R. Andes, Valérie de Crécy-Lagard, William A. Craig, Floyd E. Romesberg Plos Biology Volume 3, Issue 6, June 2005.
  2. ^ [Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: the role of Panton-Valentine leukocidin. PMID 17146447 ]
  3. ^ Community-associated Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates Causing Healthcare-associated Infections
  4. ^ Group A Streptococcal (GAS) Disease
  5. ^ Antibiotic Selection Pressure and Resistance in Streptococcus spp.
  6. ^ Antimicrobial-Drug Use and Changes in Resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae
  7. ^ cdc.gov
  8. ^ Cornelis P (editor). (2008). Pseudomonas: Genomics and Molecular Biology, 1st ed., Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-19-6 . 
  9. ^ Nelson JM, Chiller TM, Powers JH, Angulo FJ (2007). "Fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter species and the withdrawal of fluoroquinolones from use in poultry: A public health success story". Clin Infect Dis 44: 977–80. 
  10. ^ Resurgent Bacterial Sexually Transmitted Disease Among Men Who Have Sex With Men
  11. ^ Barriers to Infectious Disease Care among Lesbians
  12. ^ Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2006
  13. ^ Fluoroquinolone Use and Clostridium difficile–associated Diarrhea
  14. ^ Increasing Hospitalization and Death Possibly Due to Clostridium difficile Diarrheal Disease
  15. ^ N Chanishvili, T Chanishvili, M. Tediashvili, P.A. Barrow (2001). "Phages and their application against drug-resistant bacteria". J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol.) 76: 689–699. 
  16. ^ D. Jikia, N. Chkhaidze, E. Imedashvili, I. Mgaloblishvili, G. Tsitlanadze (2005). "The use of a novel biodegradable preparation capable of the sustained release of bacteriophages and ciprofloxacin, in the complex treatment of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-infected local radiation injuries caused by exposure to Sr90". Clinical & Experimental Dermatology 30: 23. 
  17. ^ Weber-Dabrowska B, Mulczyk M, Gorski A. (2003). "Bacteriophages as an efficient therapy for antibiotic-resistant septicemia in man.". Transplant Proc.. 
  18. ^ Mathur MD, Vidhani S, Mehndiratta PL. (2003). "Bacteriophage therapy: an alternative to conventional antibiotics.". J Assoc Physicians India 51: 593–6. 
  19. ^ Mc Grath S and van Sinderen D (editors). (2007). Bacteriophage: Genetics and Molecular Biology, 1st ed., Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-14-1 . 
  20. ^ Bad Bugs, No Drugs, Executive SummaryInfectious Diseases Society of America
  21. ^ Wallace RJ. (2004) "Antimicrobial properties of plant secondary metabolites.". Proc Nutr Soc, jrg.63 (nr.4): pp. 621-629. PMID 15831135 free full-text
  22. ^ Thuille N, Fille M, Nagl M. (2003) "Bactericidal activity of herbal extracts.". Int J Hyg Environ Health, jrg.206 (nr.3): pp. 217-221. PMID 12872531
  23. ^ Singh G, Kapoor IP, Pandey SK, et al. (2002) "Studies on essential oils: part 10; antibacterial activity of volatile oils of some spices.". Phytother Res, jrg.16 (nr.7): pp. 680-682. PMID 12410554
  24. ^ Stermitz FR, Lorenz P, Tawara JN, et al. (2000) "Synergy in a medicinal plant: antimicrobial action of berberine potentiated by 5'-methoxyhydnocarpin, a multidrug pump inhibitor.". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, jrg.97 (nr.4): pp. 1433-1437. PMID 10677479 free full-textl

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Rise of Antibiotic-Resistant Infections (2762 words)
The increased prevalence of antibiotic resistance is an outcome of evolution.
Though bacterial antibiotic resistance is a natural phenomenon, societal factors also contribute to the problem.
Antibiotic resistance is inevitable, say scientists, but there are measures we can take to slow it.
Evolution of antibiotic resistance - fact or scientific urban myth? talk.origins and antibiotic resistance, natural ... (2186 words)
And because the appearance of resistance to antibiotics is essentially a modern phenomenon -- antibiotics being a twentieth century discovery -- it also seems on the face of it to be strong evidence of rapidly breeding organisms evolving a brand new characteristic within the space of a single human lifetime.
It cannot legitimately be argued by Darwinists that the acquisition of antibiotic resistance by mutation is a step along the road to speciation, if they have failed to provide concrete evidence for the existence of such a road in the first place.
Despite Dr Max's denials, the case of antibiotic resistance in microorganisms is exactly the same in principle as that of so called 'industrial melanism' in the peppered moth.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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