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Encyclopedia > Antibiotic
Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate.
Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate.

An antibiotic is a chemotherapeutic agent that inhibits or abolishes the growth of micro-organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or protozoans. The term originally referred to any agent with biological activity against living organisms; however, "antibiotic" now is used to refer to substances with anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, or anti-parasitical activity. The first antibiotic compounds used in modern medicine were produced and isolated from living organisms, such as the penicillin class produced by fungi in the genus Penicillium, or streptomycin from bacteria of the genus Streptomyces. With advances in organic chemistry many antibiotics are now also obtained by chemical synthesis, such as the sulfa drugs. Many antibiotics are relatively small molecules with a molecular weight less than 2000 Da. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2315x2097, 422 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Antibiotic ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2315x2097, 422 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Antibiotic ... Binomial name Rosenbach 1884 Staphylococcus aureus , literally Golden Cluster Seed and also known as golden staph, is the most common cause of staph infections. ... Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... Protozoa (in Greek protos = first and zoon = animal) are single-celled creatures with nuclei that show some characteristics usually associated with animals, most notably mobility and heterotrophy. ... Low Temperature Scanning Electron Microscope (LTSEM) image of Varroa destructor on a honey bee host Mites parasitising a harvestman Parasitism is one version of symbiosis (living together), a phenomenon in which two organisms which are phylogenetically unrelated co-exist over a prolonged period of time, usually the lifetime of one... For the Japanese rock band, see Penicillin (band). ... Species Penicillium bilaiae Penicillium camemberti Penicillium candida Penicillium claviforme Penicillium crustosum Penicillium glaucum Penicillium marneffei Penicillium notatum Penicillium purpurogenum Penicillium roqueforti Penicillium stoloniferum Penicillium viridicatum Penicillium verrucosum Penicillium commune Penicillium is a genus of ascomyceteous fungi that includes: Penicillium bilaiae, which is an agricultural inoculant. ... Streptomycin is an antibiotic drug, the first of a class of drugs called aminoglycosides to be discovered, and was the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis. ... Streptomyces is a genus of Actinobacteria. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, halogens as well... In chemistry, chemical synthesis is purposeful execution of chemical reactions in order to get a product, or several products. ... There are several sulphonamide-based groups of drugs. ... 3D (left and center) and 2D (right) representations of the terpenoid molecule atisane. ... The molecular mass of a substance (less accurately called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW) is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... The unified atomic mass unit (u), or dalton (Da), is a small unit of mass used to express atomic and molecular masses. ...

Contents

Overview

Unlike previous treatments for infections, which often consisted of administering chemical compounds such as strychnine and arsenic, with high toxicity also against mammals, antibiotics from microbes had no or few side effects and high effective target activity. Most anti-bacterial antibiotics do not have activity against viruses, fungi, or other microbes. Anti-bacterial antibiotics can be categorized based on their target specificity: "narrow-spectrum" antibiotics target particular types of bacteria, such as Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria, while broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a wide range of bacteria. Strychnine (pronounced (British, U.S.), or (U.S.)) is a very toxic (LD50 = 10 mg approx. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... // Toxic and Intoxicated redirect here – toxic has other uses, which can be found at Toxicity (disambiguation); for the state of being intoxicated by alcohol see Drunkenness. ... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ... Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by gram staining, in contrast to gram-negative bacteria, which are not affected by the stain. ... A broad-spectrum antibiotic is so called due to its activity against a wide range of infectious agents. ...


The effectiveness of individual antibiotics varies with the location of the infection, the ability of the antibiotic to reach the site of infection, and the ability of the microbe to inactivate or excrete the antibiotic. Some anti-bacterial antibiotics destroy bacteria (bactericidal), whereas others prevent bacteria from multiplying (bacteriostatic).


Oral antibiotics are simply ingested, while intravenous antibiotics are used in more serious cases, such as deep-seated systemic infections. Antibiotics may also sometimes be administered topically, as with eye drops or ointments. An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... Systemic infection is a generic term for infection caused by microorganisms in animals or plants, where the causal agent (the microbe) has spread actively or passively in the hosts anatomy and is disseminated throughout several organs in different systems of the host. ... In medicine, a topical medication is applied to body surfaces such as the skin or mucous membranes such as the vagina, nasopharynx, or the eye. ... Eye drops are saline-containing drops used as a vector to administer medication in the eye. ... An ointment is a viscous semisolid preparation used topically on a variety of body surfaces. ...


In the last few years, three new classes of antibiotics have been brought into clinical use. This follows a 40-year hiatus in discovering new classes of antibiotic compounds. These new antibiotics are of the following three classes: cyclic lipopeptides (daptomycin), glycylcyclines (tigecycline), and oxazolidinones (linezolid). Tigecycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, while the two others are used for gram-positive infections. These developments show promise as a means to counteract the growing bacterial resistance to existing antibiotics.


History

See also: Timeline of antibiotics
Penicillin
Penicillin

Although potent antibiotic compounds for treatment of human diseases caused by bacteria (such as tuberculosis, bubonic plague, or leprosy) were not isolated and identified until the twentieth century, the first known use of antibiotics was by the ancient Chinese over 2,500 years ago.[1] Many other ancient cultures, including the ancient Egyptians and ancient Greeks already used molds and plants to treat infections, owing to the production of antibiotic substances by these organisms. At that time, however, the compounds having antibiotic activity and present in moulds or plants were unknown. This is the timeline of antimicrobial (anti-infective) therapy. ... Penicillin core structure selfmade by cacycle File links The following pages link to this file: Penicillin Categories: GFDL images ... Penicillin core structure selfmade by cacycle File links The following pages link to this file: Penicillin Categories: GFDL images ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... The bubonic plague or bubonic fever is the best-known variant of the deadly infectious disease caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis (Pasteurella pestis). ... For the malady found in the Hebrew Bible, see the article Tzaraath. ... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... Map of Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was the civilization of the Nile Valley between about 3000 BC and the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great in 332 BC. As a civilization based on irrigation it is the quintessential example of an hydraulic empire. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... This article is about the fungi known as molds. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ...


The antibiotic properties of Penicillium sp. were first described in France by Ernest Duchesne in 1897. However, his work went by without much notice from the scientific community until Alexander Fleming's discovery of Penicillin (see below). Ernest Duchesne Ernest Duchesne (May 30, 1874 – April 12, 1912) was a French physician who noted that certain moulds kill bacteria. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Sir Alexander Fleming (6 August 1881 – 11 March 1955) was a Scottish biologist and pharmacologist. ... For the Japanese rock band, see Penicillin (band). ...


Modern research on antibiotic therapy began in Germany with the development of the narrow-spectrum antibiotic Salvarsan by Paul Ehrlich in 1909, for the first time allowing an efficient treatment of the then-widespread problem of Syphilis. The drug, which was also effective against other spirochaetal infections, is no longer in use in modern medicine. Arsphenamine, also known under its trade name Salvarsan, is a drug that was used to treat syphilis. ... Paul Ehrlich Paul Ehrlich in his workroom Paul Ehrlich (March 14, 1854 – August 20, 1915) was a German scientist who won the 1908 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Syphilis is a curable sexually transmitted disease caused by the Treponema pallidum spirochete. ... Families Spirochaetaceae Brachyspiraceae    Brachyspira    Serpulina Leptospiraceae    Leptospira    Leptonema Spirochaetes is a phylum of distinctive Gram-negative bacteria, which have long, helically coiled cells. ...


Antibiotics were further developed in Britain following the re-discovery of Penicillin in 1928 by Alexander Fleming. More than ten years later, Ernst Chain and Howard Florey became interested in his work, and came up with the purified form of penicillin. The three shared the 1945 Nobel Prize in Medicine. For the Japanese rock band, see Penicillin (band). ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir Alexander Fleming (6 August 1881 – 11 March 1955) was a Scottish biologist and pharmacologist. ... Sir Ernst Boris Chain (June 19, 1906 - August 12, 1979) was a German-born British biochemist, and a 1945 co-recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his work on penicillin. ... Howard Walter Florey, Baron Florey, OM, FRS, (September 24, 1898 – February 21, 1968) was a pharmacologist who shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1945 with Ernst Boris Chain and Sir Alexander Fleming for his role in the extraction of penicillin. ...


"Antibiotic" was originally used to refer only to substances extracted from a fungus or other microorganism, but has come to also include the many synthetic and semi-synthetic drugs that have antibacterial effects. Antibiotics can help succeed in curing many illnesses For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ...


Classes of antibiotics

At the highest level, antibiotics can be classified as either bactericidal or bacteriostatic. Bactericidals kill bacteria directly where bacteriostatics prevent them from dividing. However, these classifications are based on laboratory behavior; in practice, both of these are capable of ending a bacterial infection.[2] A bacteriocide or bactericide is a substance that kills bacteria and, preferably, nothing else. ... Bacteriostatic antibiotics hamper the growth of bacteria by interfering with bacteria protein production, interfering with bacteria DNA production interfering with bacteria cellular metabolism Bacteriostatic antibiotics inhibit growth and repoduction of the bacteria, though do not kill it, while bactericidal antibiotics kill bacteria. ...

Antibiotics[3]
Generic Name Brand Names Common Uses Possible Side Effects
Aminoglycosides
Amikacin Amikin Infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella particularly Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Effective against Aerobic bacteria (not obligate/facultative anaerobes).
Gentamicin Garamycin
Kanamycin Kantrex
Neomycin
Netilmicin Netromycin
Streptomycin
Tobramycin Nebcin
Paromomycin Humatin
Ansamycins
Geldanamycin Experimental, as antitumor antibiotics
Herbimycin
Carbacephem
Loracarbef Lorabid
Carbapenems
Ertapenem Invanz Bactericidal for both Gram positive and Gram negative organisms via inhibition of cell wall synthesis and therefore useful for empiric broad-spectrum antibacterial coverage. (Note MRSA resistance to this class.)
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea
  • Seizures
  • Headache
  • Rash and Allergic reactions
Doripenem Finibax
Imipenem/Cilastatin Primaxin
Meropenem Merrem
Cephalosporins (First generation)
Cefadroxil Duricef
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea (if alcohol taken concurrently)
  • Allergic reactions
Cefazolin Ancef
Cefalotin or Cefalothin Keflin
Cephalexin Keflex
Cephalosporins (Second generation)
Cefaclor Ceclor
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea (if alcohol taken concurrently)
  • Allergic reactions
Cefamandole Mandole
Cefoxitin Mefoxin
Cefprozil Cefzil
Cefuroxime Ceftin
Cephalosporins (Third generation)
Cefixime Suprax
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea (if alcohol taken concurrently)
  • Allergic reactions
Cefdinir Omnicef
Cefditoren Spectracef
Cefoperazone Cefobid
Cefotaxime Claforan
Cefpodoxime
Ceftazidime Fortaz
Ceftibuten
Ceftizoxime
Ceftriaxone Rocephin
Cefdinir
Cephalosporins (Fourth generation)
Cefepime Maxipime
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea (if alcohol taken concurrently)
  • Allergic reactions
Glycopeptides
Teicoplanin
Vancomycin Vancocin
Macrolides
Azithromycin Zithromax, Sumamed, Zitrocin Streptococcal infections, syphilis, respiratory infections, mycoplasmal infections, Lyme disease
  • Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea (especially at higher doses)
  • Jaundice
Clarithromycin Biaxin
Dirithromycin
Erythromycin
Roxithromycin
Troleandomycin
Telithromycin Ketek Pneumonia Visual Disturbance, LIVER TOXICITY. This medication's approval in the U.S. was controversial, and one doctor went to jail in followup attempts to ascertain its safety because she falsified the results of her part of the testing precisely because it seemed to cause liver problems, including liver failure, to a greater extent than would be expected of a common-use antibiotic.[4]
Spectinomycin Antimetabolite, Anticancer
Monobactams
Aztreonam
Penicillins
Amoxicillin Novamox Wide range of infections; penicillin used for streptococcal infections, syphilis, and Lyme disease
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Allergy with serious anaphylactic reactions
  • Brain and kidney damage (rare)
Ampicillin
Azlocillin
Carbenicillin
Cloxacillin
Dicloxacillin
Flucloxacillin
Mezlocillin
Nafcillin
Penicillin
Piperacillin
Ticarcillin
Polypeptides
Bacitracin Eye, ear or bladder infections; usually applied directly to the eye or inhaled into the lungs; rarely given by injection Kidney and nerve damage (when given by injection)
Colistin
Polymyxin B
Quinolones
Ciprofloxacin Ciproxin, CiploxESTECINA Urinary tract infections, bacterial prostatitis, community-acquired pneumonia, bacterial diarrhea, mycoplasmal infections, gonorrhea Nausea (rare), tendinosis (rare)
Enoxacin
Gatifloxacin Tequin
Levofloxacin Levaquin
Lomefloxacin
Moxifloxacin Avelox
Norfloxacin NOROXIN
Ofloxacin Ocuflox
Trovafloxacin Trovan
Sulfonamides
Mafenide Urinary tract infections (except sulfacetamide and mafenide); mafenide is used topically for burns
Prontosil (archaic)
Sulfacetamide
Sulfamethizole
Sulfanilimide (archaic)
Sulfasalazine
Sulfisoxazole
Trimethoprim
Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (Co-trimoxazole) (TMP-SMX) Bactrim
Tetracyclines
Demeclocycline Syphilis, chlamydial infections, Lyme disease, mycoplasmal infections, acne rickettsial infections
  • Gastrointestinal upset
  • Sensitivity to sunlight
  • Staining of teeth (especially in children)
  • Potential toxicity to mother and fetus during pregnancy
Doxycycline Vibramycin
Minocycline Minocin
Oxytetracycline Terracin
Tetracycline Sumycin
Others
Arsphenamine Salvarsan Spirochaetal infections (obsolete)
Chloramphenicol Chloromycetin
Clindamycin Cleocin acne infections, prophylaxis before surgery
Lincoamycin acne infections, prophylaxis before surgery
Ethambutol Antituberculosis
Fosfomycin
Fusidic acid Fucidin
Furazolidone
Isoniazid Antituberculosis
Linezolid Zyvox
Metronidazole Flagyl Giardia
Mupirocin Bactroban
Nitrofurantoin Macrodantin, Macrobid
Platensimycin
Pyrazinamide Antituberculosis
Quinupristin/Dalfopristin Syncercid
Rifampin or Rifampicin Binds to the β subunit of "RNA polymerase" to inhibit transcription of mostly "Gram positive" and "mycobacteria" Reddish-orange sweat, tears, and urine
Tinidazole
Generic Name Brand Names Common Uses Possible Side Effects

Aminoglycosides are a group of antibiotics that are effective against certain types of bacteria. ... Amikacin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat different types of bacterial infections. ... Amikacin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat different types of bacterial infections. ... Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ... E. coli redirects here. ... Klebsiella pneumoniae is a gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria, and clinically the most important member of the Klebsiella genus of Enterobacteriaceae. ... Binomial name Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Schroeter 1872) Migula 1900 Synonyms Bacterium aeruginosum Schroeter 1872 Bacterium aeruginosum Cohn 1872 Micrococcus pyocyaneus Zopf 1884 Bacillus aeruginosus (Schroeter 1872) Trevisan 1885 Bacillus pyocyaneus (Zopf 1884) Flügge 1886 Pseudomonas pyocyanea (Zopf 1884) Migula 1895 Bacterium pyocyaneum (Zopf 1884) Lehmann and Neumann 1896 Pseudomonas polycolor... Ototoxicity is damage of the ear (oto), specifically the cochlea or auditory nerve and sometimes the vestibulum, by a toxin (often medication). ... For other uses, see Vertigo. ... Nephrotoxicity is a poisonous effect of some substances, both toxins and medication, on the kidney. ... Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic, and can treat many types of bacterial infections, particularly Gram-negative infection. ... Gentamicin (also gentamycin) is an aminoglycoside antibiotic, and can treat many different types of bacterial infections, particularly Gram-negative infection. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Kanamycin sulfate ® is an aminoglycoside antibiotic, available in both oral and intravenous forms, and used to treat a wide variety of infections. ... Neomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that is found in many topical medications such as creams, ointments and eyedrops. ... Netilmicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic. ... Streptomycin is an antibiotic drug, the first of a class of drugs called aminoglycosides to be discovered, and was the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis. ... Tobramycin sulfate is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat various types of bacterial infections, particularly Gram-negative infections. ... Tobramycin sulfate is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat various types of bacterial infections, particularly Gram-negative infections. ... Paromomycin sulfate (brand name Humatin) is a drug that fights intestinal amoeba infection, or amebiasis. ... Paromomycin sulfate (brand name Humatin) is a drug that fights intestinal infections such as cryptosporidiosis and amoeba infection, or amoebiasis and was developed as a therapeutic against visceral leishmaniasis by the Institute for OneWorld Health. ... Ansamycins is a family of secondary metabolites that show antimicrobial activity against many gram-positive and some gram-negative bacteria and includes various compounds among which: streptovaricins and rifamycins [1]. In addition, these compounds demonstrated antiviral activity towards bacteriophages and poxviruses. ... Geldanamycin is a benzoquinone ansamycin antibiotic that binds to Hsp90 (Heat Shock Protein 90) and alters its function. ... herbs that have the specific action of inhibiting and combating the development of tumors. ... Herbimycin is a benzoquinone ansamycin antibiotic that binds to Hsp90 (Heat Shock Protein 90) and alters its function. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Loracarbef is a second-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, also called Lorabid. ... Loracarbef is a carbacephem antibiotic sometimes grouped together with the second-generation cephalosporin antibiotics. ... Carbapenems are a class of beta-lactam antibiotics. ... Ertapenem is a carbapenem antibiotic marketed by Merck as Invanz®. It is structurally very similar to meropenem in that it possess a 1-β-methyl group. ... Ertapenem is a carbapenem antibiotic marketed by Merck as Invanz®. It is structurally very similar to meropenem in that it possess a 1-β-methyl group. ... Doripenem is an ultra-broad spectrum injectable antibiotic. ... Imipenem is an intravenous beta-lactam antibiotic developed in 1985. ... Cilastatin is a chemical compound which inhibits the human enzyme dehydropeptidase. ... Primaxin is a broad spectrum antibiotic containing equal quantities of Imipenem monohydrate and Cilastatin. ... Meropenem is an ultra-broad spectrum injectable antibiotic used to treat a wide variety of infections, including meningitis and pneumonia. ... Meropenem is an ultra-broad spectrum injectable antibiotic for a wide variety of serious infections, including meningitis and pneumonia. ... The cephalosporins, are a class of β-lactam antibiotics. ... The cephalosporins, are a class of β-lactam antibiotics. ... Cefadroxil is a broadspectrum antibiotic effective on both bactria GRAM +ve and GRAM -ve bactria. ... Cefazolin is an antibiotic in the chemical family of Cephalosporin. ... Cefazolin, also known as cefazoline or cephazolin, is a first generation cephalosporin antibiotic. ... Cefalotin (INN) (IPA: ) or cephalothin (USAN) (IPA: ) is a first-generation cephalosporin antibiotic. ... Categories: Stub | Cephalosporin antibiotics ... Cephalexin structure (racemic) Cephalexin (also called Cefalexin) is a drug that is a member of the cephalosporin class of antibiotics. ... The cephalosporins, are a class of β-lactam antibiotics. ... The cephalosporins, are a class of β-lactam antibiotics. ... Cefaclor, also known as cefachlor (brand names Ceclor®, Distaclor®, Keflor®, Raniclor®), is a second-generation cephalosporin antibiotic used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia and ear, lung, skin, throat, and urinary tract infections. ... Cefaclor, also known as cefachlor, (brand names Ceclor®, Distaclor®, Keflor®, Raniclor®) is a 2nd-generation cephalosporin antibiotic used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia and ear, lung, skin, throat, and urinary tract infections. ... Cefamandole (INN, also known as cephamandole) is a broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic. ... Second−generation cephalosporin: active against a wide spectrum of gram−negative bacteria including anaerobes (B fragilis). ... Cefoxitin is a cephamycin antibiotic often grouped with the second−generation cephalosporins. ... Cefprozil, sometimes spelled cefproxil and sold under the brand name Cefzil, is a cephalosporin antibiotic. ... Cefprozil, sometimes spelled cefproxil and sold under the brand name Cefzil, is a cephalosporin antibiotic. ... Cefuroxime is a second-generation cephalosporin antibiotic that has been widely available in the USA since 1977. ... Cefuroxime is a second-generation cephalosporin antibiotic that has been widely available in the USA since 1977. ... The cephalosporins, are a class of β-lactam antibiotics. ... The cephalosporins, are a class of β-lactam antibiotics. ... Cefixime is an oral third generation cephalosporin antibiotic. ... The active ingredient is Cefixime. ... Cefdinir (marketed by Abbott Laboratories under the brand name Omnicef®) is a semi-synthetic, broad-spectrum antibiotic in the third generation of the cephalosporin class, proven effective for common bacterial infections of the ear, sinus, throat, and skin. ... OMNICEF® (cefdinir) Capsules and OMNICEF® (cefdinir) for Oral Suspension contain the active ingredient cefdinir, an extended-spectrum, semisynthetic cephalosporin, for oral administration. ... Cefditoren is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic for oral use. ... Spectracef Oral Important Note CEFDITOREN - ORAL Pronunciation: (seff-dih-TOR-en) Brand Name(s): Spectrace This medication is used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. ... Cefoperazone is a third generation cephalosporin antibiotic. ... Cefoperazone is a third generation cephalosporin antibiotic. ... Cefotaxime (INN) (IPA: ) is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic. ... Cefotaxime (INN) (IPA: ) is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic. ... Cefpodoxime is an oral third generation cephalosporin antibiotic. ... Ceftazidime is an antibiotic which eliminates bacteria that cause many kinds of infections, including lung, skin, bone, joint, stomach, blood, gynecological, and urinary tract infections. ... Ceftibuten is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic. ... Ceftizoxime is a cephalosporin. ... Ceftriaxone (INN) (IPA: ) is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic. ... Ceftriaxone (INN) (IPA: ) is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic. ... Cefdinir (marketed by Abbott Laboratories under the brand name Omnicef®) is a semi-synthetic, broad-spectrum antibiotic in the third generation of the cephalosporin class, proven effective for common bacterial infections of the ear, sinus, throat, and skin. ... The cephalosporins, are a class of β-lactam antibiotics. ... The cephalosporins, are a class of β-lactam antibiotics. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Glycopeptide antibiotics are a class of antibiotic drugs. ... Teicoplanin is an antibiotic used in the prophylaxis and treatment of serious infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. ... Crystal structure of a short peptide L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala (bacterial cell wall precursor, in green) bound to vancomycin (blue) through hydrogen bonds. ... The macrolides are a group of drugs (typically antibiotics) whose activity stems from the presence of a macrolide ring, a large lactone ring to which one or more deoxy sugars, usually cladinose and desosamine, are attached. ... Azithromycin is an azalide, a subclass of macrolide antibiotics. ... Azithromycin is the first macrolide antibiotic belonging to the azalide group. ... Azithromycin is an azalide, a subclass of macrolide antibiotics. ... Species S. pneumoniae S. pyogenes S. viridans Streptococcus is a genus of spherical, Gram-positive bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes. ... Syphilis is a curable sexually transmitted disease caused by the Treponema pallidum spirochete. ... Upper respiratory tract infection, also popularly known as either the acronym URTI or URI, is the disease characterised by an acute infection which involves the upper respiratory tract: nose, sinuses, pharynx, or larynx. ... Lyme disease, or borreliosis, is an emerging infectious disease caused by spirochete bacteria from the genus Borrelia. ... Look up jaundice in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Clarithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic used to treat pharyngitis, tonsillitis, acute maxillary sinusitis, acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, pneumonia (especially atypical pneumonias associated with Chlamydia pneumoniae or TWAR), skin and skin structure infections, and, in HIV and AIDS patients to prevent, and to treat, disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). ... Clarithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic used to treat pharyngitis, tonsillitis, acute maxillary sinusitis, acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, pneumonia (especially atypical pneumonias associated with Chlamydia pneumoniae or TWAR), skin and skin structure infections, and, in HIV and AIDS patients to prevent, and to treat, disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex or... Dirithromycin is a macrolide glycopeptide antibiotic. ... Erythromycin is a macrolide antibiotic which has an antimicrobial spectrum similar to or slightly wider than that of penicillin, and is often used for people who have an allergy to penicillins. ... Roxithromycin is a semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic. ... Troleandomycin is a macrolide antibiotic. ... Telithromycin is the first ketolide antibiotic to enter clinical use. ... Telithromycin is the first ketolide antibiotic to enter clinical use. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ... Spectinomycin hydrochloride (Trobicin®) is an aminocyclitol antibiotic produced by the bacteria Streptomyces spectabilis. ... An antimetabolite is a chemical with a similar structure to a substance (a metabolite) required for normal biochemical reactions, yet different enough to interfere with the normal functions of cells, including cell division. ... Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... Aztreonam. ... Aztreonam (Azactam®) is a synthetic monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotic (a monobactam) originally isolated from Chromobacterium violaceum. ... For the Japanese rock band, see Penicillin (band). ... Amoxicillin (INN) or amoxycillin (former BAN) is a moderate-spectrum β-lactam antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections caused by susceptible microorganisms. ... Species S. pneumoniae S. pyogenes S. viridans Streptococcus is a genus of spherical, Gram-positive bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes. ... Syphilis is a curable sexually transmitted disease caused by the Treponema pallidum spirochete. ... Lyme disease, or borreliosis, is an emerging infectious disease caused by spirochete bacteria from the genus Borrelia. ... Anaphylaxis is a severe and rapid systemic allergic reaction to a trigger substance, called an allergen. ... Ampicillin is a beta-lactam antibiotic that has been used extensively to treat bacterial infections since 1961. ... Azlocillin, similar to mezlocillin and piperacillin, is an acylampicillin with an extended spectrum of activity and greater in vitro potency than the carboxy penicillins. ... Carbenicillin is an antibiotic chemically similar to ampicillin. ... Cloxacillin is a semisynthetic antibiotic in the same class as penicillin. ... Dicloxacillin (INN) is a narrow spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic. ... Flucloxacillin (INN) or floxacillin (USAN) is a narrow spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic. ... Mezlocillin is a penicillin antibiotic. ... Nafcillin sodium is an beta-lactam antibiotic related to penicillin. ... For the Japanese rock band, see Penicillin (band). ... Piperacillin is an extended spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic of the ureidopenicillin class. ... Ticarcillin, almost invariably sold and used in combination with clavulanate as Timentin, is a Beta-lactam antibiotic similar to penicillin. ... A tube of bacitracin ointment for eyes Bacitracin is a mixture of related cyclic polypeptides produced by organisms of the licheniformis group of Bacillus subtilis var Tracy. ... Colistin (polymyxin E) is a polymyxin antibiotic produced by certain strains of Bacillus polymyxa var. ... Polymyxin B (also referred to as PMB) are antibiotics primary used for resistant gram negative infections. ... Nalidixic acid Ciprofloxacin Levofloxacin Trovafloxacin The quinolones are a family of broad-spectrum antibiotics. ... Ciprofloxacin is the generic international name for the synthetic antibiotic manufactured and sold by Bayer Pharmaceutical under the brand names Cipro, Ciproxin and Ciprobay (and other brand names in other markets, e. ... Ciprofloxacin is the generic international name for the synthetic antibiotic manufactured and sold by Bayer Pharmaceutical under the brand names Cipro® and Ciproxin® (and other brand names in other markets, e. ... Ciprofloxacin is the generic international name for the synthetic antibiotic manufactured and sold by Bayer Pharmaceutical under the brand names Cipro® and Ciproxin® (and other brand names in other markets, e. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ... The clap redirects here. ... Enoxacin (Enroxil, Penetrex) is an oral broad-spectrum quinoline antibacterial agent used in the treatment of urinary tract infections and gonorrhea. ... Gatifloxacin is an antibiotic of the fluoroquinolone family, that like other members of that family, inhibits the bacterial enzymes DNA gyrase and Topoisomerase IV. Bristol-Myers Squibb introduced Gatifloxacin in 1999 under the proprietary name Tequin for the treatment of respiratory tract infections, having licensed the medication from Kyorin Pharmaceutical... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Levofloxacin is an advanced generation fluoroquinolone antibiotic, marketed by Ortho-McNeil under the trade name Levaquin in the United States. ... Levofloxacin is relatively new fluoroquinolone antibiotic, marketed by Ortho-McNeil under the brand name Levaquin. ... Lomefloxacin hydrochloride (Maxaquin) is a quinolone antibiotic, used to treat bacterial infections including bronchitis and urinary tract infections. ... Moxifloxacin is a synthetic fluoroquinolone antibiotic agent. ... Moxifloxacin is a synthetic fluoroquinolone antibiotic agent. ... Norfloxacin is an oral broad-spectrum quinoline antibacterial agent used in the treatment of urinary tract infections. ... Ofloxacin sold under the brand name Floxin in the US. It is a quinolone antibiotic. ... Trovafloxacin (sold as Trovan by Pfizer) is a broad spectrum antibiotic that inhibits DNA supercoiling in various bacteria by blocking the activity of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV [1]. It is not used widely due to the risk of hepatotoxicity. ... Trovafloxacin (sold as Trovan® by Pfizer) is a broad spectrum antibiotic that inhibits DNA supercoiling in various bacteria by blocking the activity of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV [1]. It is not used widely due to the risk of hepatotoxicity. ... There are several sulphonamide-based groups of drugs. ... Mafenide is a sulfonamide often used to treat severe burns. ... A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a bacterial infection that affects any part of the urinary tract. ... Allergy is an abnormal reaction to a substance foreign to the body that is acquired, predictable and rapid. ... Renal failure or kidney failure is a situation in which the kidneys fail to function adequately. ... White Blood Cells redirects here. ... Prontosil is the first successful oral antibiotic developed by Gerhard Domagk, who received the 1939 Nobel Prize in Medicine. ... Sulfacetamide is a sulfonamide antibiotic. ... Sulfamethizole is a sulfonamide antibiotic. ... Sulfonamides, also known as sulfa drugs, are synthetic antimicrobial agents derived from sulfonic acid. ... Sulfasalazine is a sulfa drug, a derivative of Mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid abbreviated as 5-ASA), used primarily as an anti-inflammatory agent in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease as well as for rheumatoid arthritis. ... Sulfisoxazole is a sulfa drug based upon sulfonamide with a substituted oxazole. ... Trimethoprim is a bacteriostatic antibiotic mainly used in the prophylaxis and treatment of urinary tract infections (cystitis). ... Trimethoprim is a bacteriostatic antibiotic mainly used in the prophylaxis and treatment of urinary tract infections (cystitis). ... Sulfamethoxazole is a sulfonamide bacteriostatic antibiotic. ... Co-trimoxazole (abbreviated SXT, TMP-SMX, or TMP-sulfa) is an antibiotic combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, in the ratio of 1 to 5, used in the treatment of a variety of bacterial infections. ... Co-trimoxazole (abbreviated SXT) is a bacteriostatic antibiotic combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, in the ratio of 1 to 5, used in the treatment of a variety of bacterial infections. ... Co-trimoxazole (abbreviated SXT) is a bacteriostatic antibiotic combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, in the ratio of 1 to 5, used in the treatment of a variety of bacterial infections. ... This article deals with the group of antibiotics known as the Tetracyclines . ... Demeclocycline (marketed as Declomycin®, Declostatin® and Ledermycin®) is a tetracycline antibiotic used in various types of bacterial infections. ... Syphilis is a curable sexually transmitted disease caused by the Treponema pallidum spirochete. ... Chlamydia is a common term for Chlamydiae. ... Lyme disease, or borreliosis, is an emerging infectious disease caused by spirochete bacteria from the genus Borrelia. ... Species Rickettsia felis Rickettsia prowazekii Rickettsia rickettsii Rickettsia typhi Rickettsia conorii Rickettsia africae etc. ... Doxycycline (INN) (IPA: ) is a member of the tetracycline antibiotics group and is commonly used to treat a variety of infections. ... Doxycycline (INN) (IPA: ) is a member of the tetracycline antibiotics group and is commonly used to treat a variety of infections. ... Minocycline hydrochloride, also known as minocycline, is a member of the broad spectrum tetracycline antibiotics, and has a broader spectrum than the other members. ... Minocycline hydrochloride, also known as minocycline, is a member of the broad spectrum tetracycline antibiotics, and has a broader spectrum than the other members. ... Oxytetracycline is known as a broad-spectrum antibiotic due to its activity against such a wide range of infections. ... Tetracycline (INN) (IPA: ) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by the streptomyces bacterium, indicated for use against many bacterial infections. ... Tetracycline (INN) (IPA: ) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by the streptomyces bacterium, indicated for use against many bacterial infections. ... Arsphenamine is a drug that was used to treat syphilis and trypanosomiasis. ... Arsphenamine, also known under its trade name Salvarsan, is a drug that was used to treat syphilis. ... Families Spirochaetaceae Brachyspiraceae    Brachyspira    Serpulina Leptospiraceae    Leptospira    Leptonema Spirochaetes is a phylum of distinctive Gram-negative bacteria, which have long, helically coiled cells. ... Chloramphenicol is a bacteriostatic antibiotic originally derived from the bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae, isolated by David Gottlieb, and introduced into clinical practice in 1949. ... Clindamycin (rINN) (IPA: ) is a lincosamide antibiotic used in the treatment of infections caused by susceptible microorganisms. ... Clindamycin (rINN) (IPA: ) is a lincosamide antibiotic used in the treatment of infections caused by susceptible microorganisms. ... A bacteriostatic antimycobacterial prescribed to treat Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium). ... Tuberculous lungs show up on an X-ray image Tuberculosis is an infection with the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system (meningitis), lymphatic system, circulatory system (miliary TB), genitourinary system, bones and joints. ... Fosfomycin (usually as fosfomycin tromethamine, trade name Monurol) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by certain Streptomyces species. ... Fusidic acid is an antibacterial antibiotic used particularly for eye and skin infections. ... Fusidic acid is a bacteriostatic antibiotic that is often used topically in creams and eyedrops, but may also be given systemically as tablets or injections. ... Furazolidone (also marketed as Furoxone) is an antibiotic used to treat diarrhea and enteritis caused by bacteria or protozoan infections. ... Isoniazid (also called isonicotinyl hydrazine or isonicotinic acid hydrazide); abbreviated INH or just H. Isoniazid is a first-line antituberculous medication used in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. ... Tuberculous lungs show up on an X-ray image Tuberculosis is an infection with the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system (meningitis), lymphatic system, circulatory system (miliary TB), genitourinary system, bones and joints. ... Linezolid (INN) (IPA: ) is a synthetic antibiotic, the first of the oxazolidinone class, used for the treatment of infections caused by multi-resistant bacteria including streptococcus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). ... Linezolid is a synthetic systemic antibiotic drug. ... Metronidazole (INN) (pronounced ) is a nitroimidazole anti-infective drug used mainly in the treatment of infections caused by susceptible organisms, particularly anaerobic bacteria and protozoa. ... Metronidazole is an antibiotic and antiparasitic drug classified as a nitroimidazole. ... Binomial name Giardia lamblia (Kunstler, 1882) Giardia lamblia (formerly also Lamblia intestinalis) is a protozoan parasite that infects the gastrointestinal tract of humans. ... Mupirocin (pseudomonic acid A, or Bactroban) is an antibiotic originally isolated from Pseudomonas fluorescens. ... Mupirocin (pseudomonic acid A, or Bactroban) is an antibiotic originally isolated from Pseudomonas fluorescens. ... Nitrofurantoin is an antibiotic. ... Nitrofurantoin (trade names Furadantin, Macrobid, Microdantina, and Macrodantinis) is an antibiotic drug. ... Nitrofurantoin is an antibiotic. ... Platensimycin is an experimental new drug being trialed in an effort to combat MRSA. Manufactured by a strain of Streptomyces platensis, it represents a previously unknown class of antibiotics, which acts by blocking enzymes involved in the synthesis of fatty acids, which bacteria need to construct cell membranes. ... Pyrazinamide is a drug used to treat tuberculosis in afflicted patients. ... Tuberculous lungs show up on an X-ray image Tuberculosis is an infection with the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system (meningitis), lymphatic system, circulatory system (miliary TB), genitourinary system, bones and joints. ... Quinupristin-dalfopristin (Synercid®) is an antibiotic used to treat infections by staphylococci and by vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecium. ... Rifampicin (INN) or rifampin (USAN) is an antibiotic drug of the rifamycin group. ... Rifampicin (INN) (IPA: ) or rifampin (USAN) is a bacteriocidal antibiotic drug of the rifamycin group. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Gram-positive Bacillus anthracis bacteria (purple rods) in cerebrospinal fluid sample. ... Species see text Mycobacterium is the a genus of actinobacteria, given its own family, the Mycobacteriaceae. ... Tinidazole is an anti-parasitic drug used against protozoan infections. ...

Production

Since the first pioneering efforts of Florey and Chain in 1939, the importance of antibiotics to medicine has led to much research into discovering and producing them. The process of production usually involves screening of wide ranges of microorganisms, testing and modification. Production is carried out using fermentation; a process that is important in anaerobic conditions when there is no oxidative phosphorylation to maintain the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by glycolysis. ŇThe production of antibiotics has been widespread since the pioneering efforts of Florey and Chain in 1939. ... Howard Walter Florey, Baron Florey of Adelaide and Marston, OM, FRS, (September 24, 1898 – February 21, 1968) was a pharmacologist who shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1945 with Ernst Boris Chain and Sir Alexander Fleming for his role in the extraction of penicillin. ... Sir Ernst Boris Chain (June 19, 1906 – August 12, 1979) was a German-born British biochemist, and a 1945 co-recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his work on penicillin. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleotide that is most important as a molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer. ... The word glycolysis is derived from Greek γλυκύς (sweet) and λύσις (letting loose). ...


Side effects

Possible side effects are varied, depend on the antibiotics used and the microbial organisms targeted. Adverse effects can range from fever and nausea to major allergic reactions including photodermatitis.[citation needed] One of the more common side effects is diarrhea, sometimes caused by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium difficile, which results from the antibiotic disrupting the normal balance of the intestinal flora,[5] Such overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria may be alleviated by ingesting probiotics during a course of antibiotics.[citation needed]. An antibiotic-induced disruption of the population of the bacteria normally present as constituents of the normal vaginal flora may also occur, and may lead to overgrowth of yeast species of the genus Candida in the vulvo-vaginal area. [6] Other side effects can result from interaction with other drugs, such as elevated risk of tendon damage from administration of a quinolone antibiotic with a systemic corticosteroid. Photodermatitis is a reaction of the skin to UV rays of the sun. ... Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea (see spelling differences), is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the Greek word διάρροια; literally meaning through-flowing). Acute infectious diarrhea is a common cause of death in developing countries (particularly among infants), accounting for 5 to 8 million deaths... Binomial name Hall & OToole, 1935 Clostridium difficile or CDF/cdf (commonly mistaken  , alternatively and correctly pronounced ) (also referred to as C. diff or C-diff) is a species of bacteria of the genus Clostridium which are gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming rods (bacillus). ... numerous beneficial bacterial microorganisms found in the lower intestine ... Probiotics are dietary supplements containing potentially beneficial bacteria. ... Species C. albicans C. dubliniensis C. glabrata C. guilliermondii C. kefyr C. krusei C. lusitaniae C. milleri C. oleophila C. parapsilosis C. tropicalis C. utilis Candida is a genus of yeasts. ... A tendon (or sinew) is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone and is built to withstand tension. ... Quinolones and fluoroquinolones form a group of broad-spectrum antibiotics. ... In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. ...


It is a common assertion that some antibiotics can interfere with the efficiency of birth control pills. Although there remain few known cases of complication, the majority of antibiotics do not interfere with contraception, despite widespread misinformation to the contrary.[7]


Antibiotic misuse

Common forms of antibiotic misuse include failure to take the entire prescribed course of the antibiotic, or failure to rest for sufficient recovery allowing clearance from the infecting organism. These practices may cause the development of bacterial populations with antibiotic resistance. Inappropriate antibiotic treatment is another common form of antibiotic misuse. A common example is the use of antibacterial antibiotics to treat viral infections such as the common cold. Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic. ... // Acute viral nasopharyngitis, or acute coryza, usually known as the common cold, is a highly contagious, viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system, primarily caused by picornaviruses or coronaviruses. ...


Animals

It is estimated that greater than 50% of the antibiotics used in U.S. are given to feed animals (e.g. chickens, pigs and cattle) in the absence of disease.[8] Antibiotic use in food animal production has been associated with the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria including Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus spp. Evidence from some US and European studies suggest that these resistant bacteria cause infections in humans that do not respond to commonly prescribed antibiotics. In response to these practices and attendant problems, several organizations (e.g. The American Society for Microbiology (ASM), American Public Health Association (APHA) and the American Medical Association (AMA)) have called for restrictions on antibiotic use in food animal production and an end to all non-therapeutic uses.[citation needed] However, delays in regulatory and legislative actions to limit the use of antibiotics are common, and may include resistance to these changes by industries using or selling antibiotics, as well as time spend on research to establish causal links between antibiotic use and emergence of untreatable bacterial diseases. Today, there are two federal bills (S.742 and H.R. 2562) aimed at phasing out non-therapeutic antibiotics in US food animal production. These bills are endorsed by public health and medical organizations including the American Nurses Association (ANA), the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), and the American Public Health Association (APHA).[citation needed]


Humans

One study on respiratory tract infections found "physicians were more likely to prescribe antibiotics to patients who they believed expected them, although they correctly identified only about 1 in 4 of those patients".[9] Multifactorial interventions aimed at both physicians and patients can reduce inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics. [10] Delaying antibiotics for 48 hours while observing for spontaneous resolution of respiratory tract infections may reduce antibiotic usage; however, this strategy may reduce patient satisfaction.[11] Respiratory tract infections can refer to: Lower respiratory tract infection Upper respiratory tract infection Category: ... Respiratory tract infections can refer to: Lower respiratory tract infection Upper respiratory tract infection Category: ...


Excessive use of prophylactic antibiotics in travelers may also be classified as misuse. Prophylaxis refers to any medical or public health procedure whose purpose is to prevent, rather than treat or cure, disease. ...


Antibiotic resistance

Main article: Antibiotic resistance

Use or misuse of antibiotics may result in the development of antibiotic resistance by the infecting organisms, similar to the development of pesticide resistance in insects. Evolutionary theory of genetic selection requires that as close as possible to 100% of the infecting organisms be killed off to avoid selection of resistance; if a small subset of the population survives the treatment and is allowed to multiply, the average susceptibility of this new population to the compound will be much less than that of the original population, since they have descended from those few organisms which survived the original treatment. This survival often results from an inheritable resistance to the compound which was infrequent in the original population but is now much more frequent in the descendants thus selected entirely from those originally infrequent resistant organisms. Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2835x1927, 406 KB) Summary from http://phil. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2835x1927, 406 KB) Summary from http://phil. ... SEM Cambridge S150 at Geological Institute, University Kiel, 1980 SEM opened sample chamber The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of electron microscope capable of producing high resolution images of a sample surface. ... MRSA redirects here. ... the plane is spreading pesticide. ... This article is about biological evolution. ... For other uses, see Selection (disambiguation). ...


Antibiotic resistance has become a serious problem in both the developed and underdeveloped nations. By 1984 half of the people with active tuberculosis in the United States had a strain that resisted at least one antibiotic. In certain settings, such as hospitals and some child-care locations, the rate of antibiotic resistance is so high that the normal, low cost antibiotics are virtually useless for treatment of frequently seen infections. This leads to more frequent use of newer and more expensive compounds, which in turn leads inexorably to the rise of resistance to those drugs, and a race to discover new and different antibiotics ensues, just to keep us from losing ground in the battle against infection. The fear is that we will eventually fail to keep up in this race, and the time when people did not fear life-threatening bacterial infections will be just a memory of a golden era. Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic. ...

Points of attack on bacteria by antibiotics
Points of attack on bacteria by antibiotics

Another example of selection is Staphylococcus aureus ('golden staph'), which could be treated successfully with penicillin in the 1940s and 1950s. At present, nearly all strains are resistant to penicillin, and many are resistant to nafcillin, leaving only a narrow selection of drugs such as vancomycin useful for treatment. The situation is worsened by the fact that genes coding for antibiotic resistance can be transferred between bacteria via plasmids, making it possible for bacteria never exposed to an antibiotic to acquire resistance from those which have. The problem of antibiotic resistance is worsened when antibiotics are used to treat disorders in which they have no efficacy, such as the common cold or other viral complaints, and when they are used widely as prophylaxis rather than treatment (as in, for example, animal feeds), because this exposes more bacteria to selection for resistance. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 645 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1635 × 1519 pixel, file size: 70 KB, MIME type: image/png) Author of original german version: Author of translated english copy: User:J_Raghu Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 645 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1635 × 1519 pixel, file size: 70 KB, MIME type: image/png) Author of original german version: Author of translated english copy: User:J_Raghu Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document... Binomial name Rosenbach 1884 Staphylococcus aureus , literally Golden Cluster Seed and also known as golden staph, is the most common cause of staph infections. ... For the Japanese rock band, see Penicillin (band). ... Nafcillin sodium is an beta-lactam antibiotic related to penicillin. ... Crystal structure of a short peptide L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala (bacterial cell wall precursor, in green) bound to vancomycin (blue) through hydrogen bonds. ... Figure 1 : Schematic drawing of a bacterium with plasmids enclosed. ...


Resistance Modifying Agents

One solution to combat resistance currently being researched is the development of pharmaceutical compounds that would revert multiple antibiotic resistance. These so called resistance modifying agents may target and inhibit MDR mechanisms rendering the bacteria suceptible to antibiotics they were previously resistant to. These compounds targets include among others

Active efflux is a mechanism responsible for extrusion of toxic substances and antibiotics outside the cell. ... Co-amoxiclav is the British Approved Name, in the British Pharmacopoeia, for the combination antibiotic containing amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. ...

Beyond antibiotics

The comparative ease of identifying compounds which safely cured bacterial infections was more difficult to duplicate in treatments of fungal and viral infections. Antibiotic research led to great strides in the knowledge of biochemistry, establishing large differences between the cellular and molecular physiology of the bacterial cell and that of the mammalian cell. This explained the observation that many compounds that are toxic to bacteria are non-toxic to human cells. In contrast, the basic biochemistries of the fungal cell and the mammalian cell are much more similar. This restricts the development and use of therapeutic compounds that attack a fungal cell, while not harming mammalian cells. Similar problems exist in antibiotic treatments of viral diseases. Human viral metabolic biochemistry is very closely similar to human biochemistry, and the possible targets of antiviral compounds are restricted to very few components unique to a mammalian virus. Biochemistry (from Greek: , bios, life and Egyptian kēme, earth[1]) is the study of the chemical processes in living organisms. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including milk producing sweat glands, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... This article is about biological infectious particles. ...


Research into bacteriophages for use as antibiotics is presently ongoing. Several types of bacteriophage appear to exist that are specific for each bacterial taxonomic group or species.[citation needed] Research into bacteriophages for medicinal use is just beginning, but has led to advances in microscopic imaging.[14] While bacteriophages provide a possible solution to the problem of antibiotic resistance, there is no clinical evidence yet that they can be deployed as therapeutic agents to cure disease. An artists rendering of an Enterobacteria phage T4. ...


Phage therapy has been used in the past on humans in the US and Europe during the 1920s and 1930s, but these treatments had mixed results. With the discovery of penicillin in the 1940s, Europe and the US changed therapeutic strategies to using antibiotics. However, in the former Soviet Union phage therapies continued to be studied. In the Republic of Georgia, the Eliava Institute of Bacteriophage, Microbiology & Virology continues to research the use of phage therapy. Various companies and foundations in North America and Europe are currently researching phage therapies.[citation needed] However, phage are living and reproducing; concerns about genetic engineering in freely released viruses currently limits certain aspects of phage therapy. A 3D rendering showing T4 type bacteriophages landing on a bacterium to inject genetic material. ...


Bacteriocins are also a growing alternative to the classic small-molecule antibiotics. Different classes of bacteriocins have different potential as therapeutic agents. Small molecule bacteriocins (microcins, for example, and lantibiotics) may be similar to the classic antibiotics; colicin-like bacteriocins are more likely to be narrow-spectrum, demanding new molecular diagnostics prior to therapy but also not raising the specter of resistance to the same degree. Bacteriocins are proteinaceous toxins produced by bacteria to inhibit the growth of similar bacterial strain(s). ... Microcins are very small bacteriocins, composed of a relatively few peptides. ... Lantibiotics are polycyclic peptide containing uncommon amino acids like the lanthionine, 1-amino isobutyric acid, and unsaturated amino acids such as dehydroalanine. ... Bacteriocins are proteinaceous toxins produced by bacteria to inhibit the growth of similar bacterial strain(s). ...


Probiotics are another alternative that goes beyond traditional antibiotics by employing a live culture which may establish itself as a symbiont, competing, inhibiting, or simply interfering with colonization by pathogens. It may produce antibiotics or bacteriocins, essentially providing the drug in vivo and in situ, potentially avoiding the side effects of systemic administration. Probiotics are dietary supplements containing potentially beneficial bacteria or yeasts. ...


References

  1. ^ How Products Are Made: Antibiotics
  2. ^ Pelczar, M.J., Chan, E.C.S. and Krieg, N.R. (1999) “Host-Parasite Interaction; Nonspecific Host Resistance”, In: Microbiology Conceptsand Applications, 6th ed., McGraw-Hill Inc., New York, U.S.A. pp. 478-479.
  3. ^ Robert Berkow (ed.) The Merck Manual of Medical Information - Home Edition. Pocket (September 1999), ISBN 0-671-02727-1.
  4. ^ Splete, Heidi; Kerri Wachter (March 2006). "Liver toxicity reported with Ketek". Internal Medicine News. Retrieved on 2007-11-17. 
  5. ^ University of Michigan Health System: Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea, November 26, 2006
  6. ^ Pirotta MV, Garland SM (2006). "Genital Candida species detected in samples from women in Melbourne, Australia, before and after treatment with antibiotics". J Clin Microbiol. 44: 3213-3217. PMID 16954250. 
  7. ^ Planned Parenthood: Does taking antibiotics make the pill less effective?, July 15, 2004
  8. ^ Mellon, M et al. (2001) Hogging It!: Estimates of Antimicrobial Abuse in Livestock, 1st ed. Cambridge, MA: Union of Concerned Scientists.
  9. ^ Ong S, Nakase J, Moran GJ, Karras DJ, Kuehnert MJ, Talan DA (2007). "Antibiotic use for emergency department patients with upper respiratory infections: prescribing practices, patient expectations, and patient satisfaction". Annals of emergency medicine 50 (3): 213-20. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2007.03.026. PMID 17467120. 
  10. ^ Metlay JP, Camargo CA, MacKenzie T, et al (2007). "Cluster-randomized trial to improve antibiotic use for adults with acute respiratory infections treated in emergency departments". Annals of emergency medicine 50 (3): 221-30. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2007.03.022. PMID 17509729. 
  11. ^ Spurling G, Del Mar C, Dooley L, Foxlee R (2007). "Delayed antibiotics for respiratory infections". Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) (3): CD004417. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004417.pub3. PMID 17636757. 
  12. ^ B. Marquez. (2005). Bacterial efflux systems and efflux pumps inhibitors. Biochimie87 1137–1147
  13. ^ S. Gibbons (2004) Anti-staphylococcal plant natural products Nat. Prod. Rep., 21, 263-277
  14. ^ Purdue University "Biologists build better software, beat path to viral knowledge", see Imaging of Epsilon 15, a virus that infects the bacterium Salmonella News report

The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy (often referred to simply as The Merck Manual) is one of the worlds most widely used medical textbooks. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... The Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) is an advocacy organization based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

See also

Medicine Portal
Pharmacy Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... An antiseptic solution of Povidone-iodine applied to an abrasion Antiseptics (Greek αντί, against, and σηπτικός, putrefactive) are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. ... A bacteriocide or bactericide is a substance that kills bacteria and, preferably, nothing else. ... Bacteriostatic antibiotics hamper the growth of bacteria by interfering with bacteria protein production, interfering with bacteria DNA production interfering with bacteria cellular metabolism Bacteriostatic antibiotics inhibit growth and reproduction of bacteria without killing them; killing is done by bacteriocidal agents. ... Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences; from Greek αν- an- “without” + αἲσθησις aisthesis “sensation”) has traditionally meant the condition of having the feeling of pain and other sensations blocked. ...

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Cows go moo The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... Gut redirects here. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... A bottle of antacid tablets An antacid is any substance, generally a base, which counteracts stomach acidity. ... An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea. ... An H2-receptor antagonist, often shortened to H2 antagonist, is a drug used to block the action of histamine on parietal cells in the stomach, decreasing acid production by these cells. ... Proton pump inhibitors (or PPIs) are a group of drugs whose main action is pronounced and long-lasting reduction of gastric acid production. ... Laxatives (or purgatives are foods, compounds, or drugs taken to induce bowel movements, most often taken to treat constipation. ... An antidiarrhoeal drug is any medication which provides symptomatic relief for diarrhoea. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... An anticoagulant is a substance that prevents coagulation; that is, it stops blood from clotting. ... An antiplatelet drug is a member of a class of pharmaceuticals that decreases platelet aggregation and inhibits thrombus formation. ... Thrombolytic drugs are used in medicine to dissolve blood clots in a procedure termed thrombolysis. ... The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Antiarrhythmic agents are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used to suppress fast rhythms of the heart (cardiac arrhythmias), such as atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation. ... Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used in medicine and pharmacology to treat hypertension (high blood pressure). ... This illustration shows where some types of diuretics act, and what they do. ... A vasodilator is a drug or chemical that relaxes the smooth muscle in blood vessels, which causes them to dilate. ... An antianginal is any drug used in the treatment of angina pectoris, a symptom of ischaemic heart disease. ... Beta blockers or beta-adrenergic blocking agents are a class of drugs used to treat a variety of cardiovascular conditions and some other diseases. ... Captopril, the first ACE inhibitor ACE inhibitors, or inhibitors of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme, are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used primarily in treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure, in most cases as the drugs of first choice. ... Hypolipidemic agents, or antihyperlipidemic agents, are a diverse group of pharmaceuticals that are used in the treatment of hyperlipidemias. ... For other uses, see Skin (disambiguation). ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Emollients soften skin (and moisturisers add moisture). ... Antipruritics, also known as anti-itch drugs, are medications that inhibit the itching (Latin: pruritus) that is often associated with sunburns, allergic reactions, eczema, psoriasis, chickenpox, fungal infections, insect bites and stings like those from mosquitoes, fleas, and mites, and contact dermatitis and urticaria caused by plants such as poison... A pictorial illustration of the human female reproductive system. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Hormonal contraception refers to birth control methods that act on the hormonal system. ... Fertility medication may in a larger sense include any medication that enhances fertility, but in a specific sense consists of agents that stimulate follicle development of the ovary. ... Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) is a class of medication that acts on the estrogen receptor. ... Sex hormones are hormones that affect the reproductive system. ... Major endocrine glands. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... An anti-diabetic drug or oral hypoglycemic agent is used to treat diabetes mellitus. ... In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. ... Sex hormones are hormones that affect the reproductive system. ... The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... An antifungal drug is medication used to treat fungal infections such as athletes foot, ringworm, candidiasis (thrush), serious systemic infections such as cryptococcal meningitis, and others. ... Antiprotozoal agents (ATC code: ATC P01) is a class of pharmaceuticals used in treatment of protozoal infections. ... Anthelmintics (in the U.S., antihelminthics) are drugs that expel parasitic worms (helminthes) from the body or kill them. ... In medicine, malignant is a clinical term that means to be severe and become progressively worse, as in malignant hypertension. ... A scanning electron microscope image of a single neutrophil (yellow), engulfing anthrax bacteria (orange). ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... Immunostimulators are the drugs which stimulate the immune system by inducing activation or increasing activity of any of its components. ... For a list of immunosuppressive drugs, see the transplant rejection page. ... For other uses of Muscles, see Muscles (disambiguation). ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... For other uses, see Joint (disambiguation). ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Crystal structure of human sex hormone-binding globulin, transporting 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone. ... Anti-inflammatory refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation. ... Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs is a category of drugs used in many autoimmune diseases to slow down disease progression. ... In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. ... A muscle relaxant is a drug which decreases the tone of a muscle. ... Human brain In animals, the brain (enkephale) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... The Human Nervous System. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Anesthesia or anaesthesia (see spelling differences) has traditionally meant the condition of having the perception of pain and other sensations blocked. ... An analgesic (colloquially known as a painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia). ... The anticonvulsants, sometimes also called antiepileptics, belong to a diverse group of pharmaceuticals used in prevention of the occurrence of epileptic seizures. ... A mood stabilizer is a psychiatric medication used to treat mood disorders characterized by rapid and unstable mood shifts. ... An anxiolytic is a drug prescribed for the treatment of symptoms of anxiety. ... The term antipsychotic is applied to a group of drugs used to treat psychosis. ... Prozac, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Venlafaxine An antidepressant, is a psychiatric medication or other substance (nutrient or herb) used for alleviating depression or dysthymia (milder depression). ... Stimulants are drugs that temporarily increase alertness and wakefulness. ... The Respiratory System Among four-legged animals, the respiratory system generally includes tubes, such as the bronchi, used to carry air to the lungs, where gas exchange takes place. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... A bronchodilator is a medication intended to improve bronchial airflow. ... A decongestant is a broad class of drugs designed to symptomatically treat ailments affecting the respiratory system. ... An H1 antihistamine is a histamine antagonist which serves to reduce or eliminate effects mediated by histamine, an endogenous chemical mediator released during allergic reactions, through action at the H1 receptor. ...


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About Antibiotic Resistance (970 words)
Antibiotics come in pill form, as syrups, as salves and ointments, and are also given by injection.
Overuse of antibiotics in children is of particular concern because the highest rates of antibiotic use occur among children.
Antibiotic resistance is natural, but happens faster when antibiotics are misused or overused.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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