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Encyclopedia > Antibacterials
Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate.

An antibiotic is a drug that kills or prevents the growth of bacteria. They have no effect against viruses or fungal infections. Antibiotics are one class of antimicrobials, a larger group which also includes anti-viral, anti-fungal, and anti-parasitic drugs. They are relatively harmless to the host, and therefore can be used to treat infections. The term, coined by Selman Waksman, originally described only those formulations derived from living organisms, in contrast to "chemotherapeutic agents", which are purely synthetic. Nowadays the term "antibiotic" is also applied to synthetic antimicrobials, such as the sulfa drugs. Antibiotics are generally small molecules with a molecular weight less than 2000 Da. They are not enzymes. Some antibiotics have been derived from mold, for example the penicillin class. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2315x2097, 422 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Antibiotic ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2315x2097, 422 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Antibiotic ... Binomial name Staphylococcus aureus Rosenbach 1884 Staphylococcus aureus, the most common cause of staph infections, is a spherical bacterium, frequently living on the skin or in the nose of a healthy person, that can cause a range of illnesses from minor skin infections (such as pimples, boils, and cellulitis) and... Oral medication A medication is a licenced drug taken to cure or reduce symptoms of an illness or medical condition. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... An antimicrobial is a substance that kills or slows the growth of microbes like bacteria (antibacterial activity), fungi (antifungal activity), viruses (antiviral activity), or parasites (antiparasitic activity). ... Pharmacotherapy is the practice of treating diseases with medication. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... Selman Abraham Waksman (22 July 1888 – 16 August 1973) was an Ukrainian-American biochemist and microbiologist whose research into organic substances—largely into organisms that live in soil—and their decomposition lead to the discovery of Streptomycin, and several other antibiotics. ... In chemistry, chemical synthesis is purposeful execution of chemical reactions in order to get a product, or several products. ... There are several sulphonamide-based groups of drugs. ... In science, a molecule is a group of atoms in a definite arrangement held together by chemical bonds. ... The molecular mass of a substance (less accurately called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW) is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... The unified atomic mass unit (u), or Dalton (Da), is a small unit of mass used to express atomic and molecular masses. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... It has been suggested that Toxic mold be merged into this article or section. ... Penicillin nucleus Penicillin (sometimes abbreviated PCN) refers to a group of β-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. ...

 Points of attack on bacteria by antibiotics
Points of attack on bacteria by antibiotics

Unlike previous treatments for infections, which included poisons such as strychnine and arsenic, antibiotics were labeled "magic bullets": drugs which targeted disease without harming the host. Conventional antibiotics are not effective in viral, fungal and other nonbacterial infections, and individual antibiotics vary widely in their effectiveness on various types of bacteria. Antibiotics can be categorized based on their target specificity: "narrow-spectrum" antibiotics target particular types of bacteria, such as Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria, while broad-spectrum antibiotics affect a larger range of bacteria. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 645 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1635 × 1519 pixel, file size: 70 KB, MIME type: image/png) Author of original german version: Author of translated english copy: User:J_Raghu Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 645 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1635 × 1519 pixel, file size: 70 KB, MIME type: image/png) Author of original german version: Author of translated english copy: User:J_Raghu Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document... Strychnine (pronounced (British) or (U.S.)) is a very toxic (LD50 = 10 mg approx. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Atomic mass 74. ... Oral medication A medication is a licenced drug taken to cure or reduce symptoms of an illness or medical condition. ... Groups I: dsDNA viruses II: ssDNA viruses III: dsRNA viruses IV: (+)ssRNA viruses V: (-)ssRNA viruses VI: ssRNA-RT viruses VII: dsDNA-RT viruses A virus is a microscopic particle (ranging in size from 20 - 300 nm) that can infect the cells of a biological organism. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ... Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by gram staining, in contrast to gram-negative bacteria, which are not affected by the stain. ... A broad-spectrum antibiotic is so called due to its activity against a wide range of infectious agents. ...


The effectiveness of individual antibiotics varies with the location of the infection, the ability of the antibiotic to reach the site of infection, and the ability of the bacteria to resist or inactivate the antibiotic. Some antibiotics actually kill the bacteria (bactericidal), whereas others merely prevent the bacteria from multiplying (bacteriostatic) so that the host's immune system can overcome them.


Oral antibiotics are the simplest approach when effective, with intravenous antibiotics reserved for more serious cases. Antibiotics may sometimes be administered topically, as with eye drops or ointments. An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... In medicine, a topical medication is applied to body surfaces such as the skin or mucous membranes such as the vagina, nasopharynx, or the eye. ... Eye drops are saline-containing drops used as a vector to administer medication in the eye. ... An ointment is a viscous semisolid preparation used topically on a variety of body surfaces. ...


Antibiotics can also be classified by the organisms against which they are effective, and by the type of infection in which they are useful, which depends on the sensitivities of the organisms that most commonly cause the infection and the concentration of antibiotic obtainable in the affected tissue.

Contents

History

See also: Timeline of antibiotics
Penicillin
Penicillin

Although the principles of antibiotic action were not discovered until the twentieth century, the first known use of antibiotics was by the ancient Chinese over 2,500 years ago.[1] Many other ancient cultures, including the ancient Egyptians and ancient Greeks already used molds and plants to treat infections. This worked because some molds produce antibiotic substances. However, they couldn't distinguish or distill the active component in the molds. This is the timeline of antimicrobial (anti-infective) therapy. ... Penicillin core structure selfmade by cacycle File links The following pages link to this file: Penicillin Categories: GFDL images ... Penicillin core structure selfmade by cacycle File links The following pages link to this file: Penicillin Categories: GFDL images ... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... Map of Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was the civilization of the Nile Valley between about 3000 BC and the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great in 332 BC. As a civilization based on irrigation it is the quintessential example of an hydraulic empire. ... The Temple to Athena, the Parthenon Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around three thousand years. ... It has been suggested that Toxic mold be merged into this article or section. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ...


Modern research on antibiotic therapy began in Germany with the development of the narrow-spectrum antibiotic Salvarsan by Paul Ehrlich in 1909, for the first time allowing an efficient treatment of the then-widespread problem of Syphilis. The drug, which was also effective against other spirochaetal infections, is no longer in use in modern medicine. Arsphenamine, also known under its trade name Salvarsan, is a drug that was used to treat syphilis. ... Paul Ehrlich Paul Ehrlich in his workroom Paul Ehrlich (March 14, 1854 – August 20, 1915) was a German scientist who won the 1908 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. ... 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Families Spirochaetaceae Brachyspiraceae    Brachyspira    Serpulina Leptospiraceae    Leptospira    Leptonema The spirochaetes (or spirochetes) are a phylum of distinctive bacteria, which have long, helically coiled cells. ...


Antibiotics were further developed in Britain following the discovery of Penicillin in 1928 by Alexander Fleming. More than ten years later, Ernst Chain and Howard Florey became interested in his work, and came up with the purified form of penicillin. The three shared the 1945 Nobel Prize in Medicine. "Antibiotic" was originally used to refer only to substances extracted from a fungus or other microorganism, but has come to include also the many synthetic and semi-synthetic drugs that have antibacterial effects. Penicillin nucleus Penicillin (sometimes abbreviated PCN) refers to a group of β-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... Alexander Fleming Sir Alexander Fleming (6 August 1881 – 11 March 1955) was a Scottish biologist and pharmacologist. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Glomeromycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota Deuteromycota Fungi (singular fungus) are a kingdom of eukaryotic organisms. ... A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ...


Classes of antibiotics

At the highest level, antibiotics can be classified as either bactericidal or bacteriostatic. Bactericidals kill bacteria directly where bacteriostatics prevent them from dividing. However, these classifications are based on laboratory behavior; in practice, both of these are capable of ending a bacterial infection. A bacteriocide or bactericide is a substance that kills bacteria and, preferably, nothing else. ... Bacteriostatic antibiotics hamper the growth of bacteria by interfering with bacteria protein production, interfering with bacteria DNA production interfering with bacteria cellular metabolism Bacteriostatic antibiotics inhibit growth and repoduction of the bacteria, though do not kill it, while bactericidal antibiotics kill bacteria. ...

Antibiotics[2]
Generic Name Brand Names Common Uses Side Effects
Aminoglycosides
Amikacin Amikin Infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella particularly Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Gentamicin Garamycin
Kanamycin
Neomycin
Netilmicin
Streptomycin
Tobramycin Nebcin
Carbacephem
Loracarbef Lorabid
Carbapenems
Ertapenem
Imipenem/Cilastatin Primaxin
Meropenem
Cephalosporins (First generation)
Cefadroxil Duricef
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea (if alcohol taken concurrently)
  • Allergic reactions
Cefazolin Ancef
Cephalexin Keflex
Cephalosporins (Second generation)
Cefaclor Ceclor
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea (if alcohol taken concurrently)
  • Allergic reactions
Cefamandole Mandole
Cefoxitin Mefoxin
Cefprozil Cefzil
Cefuroxime Ceftin
Cephalosporins (Third generation)
Cefixime
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea (if alcohol taken concurrently)
  • Allergic reactions
Cefdinir Omnicef
Cefditoren
Cefoperazone Cefobid
Cefotaxime Claforan
Cefpodoxime
Ceftazidime Fortum
Ceftibuten
Ceftizoxime
Ceftriaxone Rocephin
Cephalosporins (Fourth generation)
Cefepime Maxipime
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Nausea (if alcohol taken concurrently)
  • Allergic reactions
Glycopeptides
Teicoplanin
Vancomycin Vancocin
Macrolides
Azithromycin Zithromax, Sumamed, Zitrocin Streptococcal infections, syphilis, respiratory infections, mycoplasmal infections, Lyme disease
  • Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea (especially at higher doses)
  • Jaundice
Clarithromycin Biaxin
Dirithromycin
Erythromycin
Roxithromycin
Troleandomycin
Monobactam
Aztreonam
Penicillins
Amoxicillin Novamox Wide range of infections; penicillin used for streptococcal infections, syphilis, and Lyme disease
  • Gastrointestinal upset and diarrhea
  • Allergy with serious anaphylactic reactions
  • Brain and kidney damage (rare)
Ampicillin
Azlocillin
Carbenicillin
Cloxacillin
Dicloxacillin
Flucloxacillin
Mezlocillin
Nafcillin
Penicillin
Piperacillin
Ticarcillin
Polypeptides
Bacitracin Eye, ear or bladder infections; usually applied directly to the eye or inhaled into the lungs; rarely given by injection Kidney and nerve damage (when given by injection)
Colistin
Polymyxin B
Quinolones
Ciprofloxacin Ciproxin, Ciplox Urinary tract infections, bacterial prostatitis, bacterial diarrhea, gonorrhea Nausea (rare), tendinosis (rare)
Enoxacin
Gatifloxacin Tequin
Levofloxacin Levaquin
Lomefloxacin
Moxifloxacin Avelox
Norfloxacin
Ofloxacin Ocuflox
Trovafloxacin Trovan
Sulfonamides
Mafenide Urinary tract infections (except sulfacetamide and mafenide); mafenide is used topically for burns
Prontosil (archaic)
Sulfacetamide
Sulfamethizole
Sulfanilimide (archaic)
Sulfasalazine
Sulfisoxazole
Trimethoprim
Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (Co-trimoxazole) (TMP-SMX) Bactrim
Tetracyclines
Demeclocycline Syphilis, chlamydial infections, Lyme disease, mycoplasmal infections, acne rickettsial infections
  • Gastrointestinal upset
  • Sensitivity to sunlight
  • Staining of teeth
  • Potential toxicity to mother and fetus during pregnancy
Doxycycline Vibramycin
Minocycline Minocin
Oxytetracycline
Tetracycline Sumycin
Others
Arsphenamine Salvarsan Spirochaetal infections (obsolete)
Chloramphenicol Chloromycetin
Clindamycin Cleocin
Ethambutol
Fosfomycin
Furazolidone
Isoniazid
Linezolid Zyvox
Metronidazole Flagyl
Mupirocin
Nitrofurantoin Macrodantin, Macrobid
Platensimycin
Pyrazinamide
Quinupristin/Dalfopristin Syncercid
Rifampin
Spectinomycin
Telithromycin Ketek Pneumonia Visual Disturbance
Generic Name Brand Names Common Uses Side Effects

Aminoglycosides are a group of antibiotics that are effective against certain types of bacteria. ... Amikacin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat different types of bacterial infections. ... Amikacin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat different types of bacterial infections. ... Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ... E. coli redirects here. ... Klebsiella pneumoniae is a gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria, and clinically the most important member of the Klebsiella genus of Enterobacteriaceae. ... Binomial name Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Schroeter 1872) Migula 1900 Pseudomonas aeruginosa (also known as Pseudomonas pyocyanea) is a Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium with unipolar motility. ... Ototoxicity is damage of the ear (oto), specifically the cochlea or auditory nerve and sometimes the vestibulum, by a toxin (often medication). ... Vertigo, sometimes called a headrush, is a major symptom of a balance disorder. ... Nephrotoxicity is a poisonous effect of some substances, both toxins and medication, on the kidney. ... Gentamicin (also gentamycin) is an aminoglycoside antibiotic, and can treat many different types of bacterial infections, particularly Gram-negative infection. ... Gentamicin (also gentamycin) is an aminoglycoside antibiotic, and can treat many different types of bacterial infections, particularly Gram-negative infection. ... Kanamycin (marketed under the brand name Kantrex®) is an aminoglycoside antibiotic, available in both oral and intravenous forms, and used to treat a wide variety of infections. ... Neomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that is found in many topical medications such as creams, ointments and eyedrops. ... Netilmicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic. ... Streptomycin is an antibiotic drug, the first of a class of drugs called aminoglycosides to be discovered, and was the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis. ... Tobramycin sulfate is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat various types of bacterial infections, particularly Gram-negative infections. ... Tobramycin sulfate is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat various types of bacterial infections, particularly Gram-negative infections. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Loracarbef is a second-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, also called Lorabid. ... Loracarbef is a carbacephem antibiotic sometimes grouped together with the second-generation cephalosporin antibiotics. ... Carbapenems are a class of beta-lactam antibiotics. ... Ertapenem is an carbapenem antibiotic marketed under the name INVANZ. It is similar to the earlier imipenem, but has a longer half-life. ... Imipenem is an intravenous beta-lactam antibiotic developed in 1985. ... Cilastatin is a chemical compound which inhibits the human enzyme dehydropeptidase. ... Primaxin is a broad spectrum antibiotic containing equal quantities of Imipenem monohydrate and Cilastatin. ... Meropenem is an ultra-broad spectrum injectable antibiotic used to treat a wide variety of infections, including meningitis and pneumonia. ... The cephalosporins, are a class of β-lactam antibiotics. ... The cephalosporins, are a class of β-lactam antibiotics. ... Cefadroxil is a broadspectrum antibiotic effective on both bactria GRAM +ve and GRAM -ve bactria. ... Cefazolin is an antibiotic in the chemical family of Cephalosporin. ... Cefazolin, also known as cefazoline or cephazolin, is a first generation cephalosporin antibiotic. ... Categories: Stub | Cephalosporin antibiotics ... Cephalexin structure (racemic) Cephalexin (also called Cefalexin) is a drug that is a member of the cephalosporin class of antibiotics. ... The cephalosporins, are a class of β-lactam antibiotics. ... The cephalosporins, are a class of β-lactam antibiotics. ... Cefaclor, also known as cefachlor (brand names Ceclor®, Distaclor®, Keflor®, Raniclor®), is a second-generation cephalosporin antibiotic used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia and ear, lung, skin, throat, and urinary tract infections. ... Cefaclor, also known as cefachlor, (brand names Ceclor®, Distaclor®, Keflor®, Raniclor®) is a 2nd-generation cephalosporin antibiotic used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia and ear, lung, skin, throat, and urinary tract infections. ... Cefprozil, sometimes spelled cefproxil and sold under the brand name Cefzil, is a cephalosporin antibiotic. ... Cefprozil, sometimes spelled cefproxil and sold under the brand name Cefzil, is a cephalosporin antibiotic. ... Cefuroxime is a second-generation cephalosporin antibiotic that has been widely available in the USA since 1977. ... Cefuroxime is a second-generation cephalosporin antibiotic that has been widely available in the USA since 1977. ... The cephalosporins, are a class of β-lactam antibiotics. ... The cephalosporins, are a class of β-lactam antibiotics. ... Cefixime is an oral third generation cephalosporin antibiotic. ... Cefdinir (marketed by Abbott Laboratories under the brand name Omnicef®) is a semi-synthetic, broad-spectrum antibiotic in the third generation of the cephalosporin class, proven effective for common bacterial infections of the ear, sinus, throat, and skin. ... OMNICEF® (cefdinir) Capsules and OMNICEF® (cefdinir) for Oral Suspension contain the active ingredient cefdinir, an extended-spectrum, semisynthetic cephalosporin, for oral administration. ... Cefotaxime (INN) (IPA: ) is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic. ... Cefotaxime (INN) (IPA: ) is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic. ... Cefpodoxime is an oral third generation cephalosporin antibiotic. ... Ceftazidime is an antibiotic which eliminates bacteria that cause many kinds of infections, including lung, skin, bone, joint, stomach, blood, gynecological, and urinary tract infections. ... Fortum (before 1998 IVO and Neste) is a Finnish public listed energy company which operates in Nordic countries and in Baltic countries and in Poland. ... Ceftriaxone (trade name Rocephin®) is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic. ... Ceftriaxone (INN) (IPA: ) is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic. ... The cephalosporins, are a class of β-lactam antibiotics. ... The cephalosporins, are a class of β-lactam antibiotics. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Teicoplanin is an antibiotic used in the prophylaxis and treatment of serious infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. ... Vancomycin (INN) (IPA: ) is a glycopeptide antibiotic used in the prophylaxis and treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. ... The macrolides are a group of drugs (typically antibiotics) whose activity stems from the presence of a macrolide ring, a large lactone ring to which one or more deoxy sugars, usually cladinose and desosamine, are attached. ... Azithromycin is an azalide, a subclass of macrolide antibiotics. ... Azithromycin is the first macrolide antibiotic belonging to the azalide group. ... Azithromycin is an azalide, a subclass of macrolide antibiotics. ... Species S. pneumoniae S. pyogenes S. viridans Streptococcus is a genus of spherical, Gram-positive bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Upper respiratory tract infection, also popularly known as either the acronym URTI or URI, is the disease characterised by an acute infection which involves the upper respiratory tract: nose, sinuses, pharynx, or larynx. ... Lyme disease is a bacterial infection with a spirochete from the species complex Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, which is most often acquired from the bite of an infected Ixodes tick. ... Jaundice, also known as icterus (attributive adjective: icteric), is a yellowing of the skin, conjunctiva (clear covering over the sclera, or whites of the eyes) and mucous membranes caused by increased levels of bilirubin in the human body (or the body of another red blooded animal). ... Clarithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic used to treat pharyngitis, tonsillitis, acute maxillary sinusitis, acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, pneumonia (especially atypical pneumonias associated with Chlamydia pneumoniae or TWAR), skin and skin structure infections, and, in HIV and AIDS patients to prevent, and to treat, disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex or... Clarithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic used to treat pharyngitis, tonsillitis, acute maxillary sinusitis, acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, pneumonia (especially atypical pneumonias associated with Chlamydia pneumoniae or TWAR), skin and skin structure infections, and, in HIV and AIDS patients to prevent, and to treat, disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex or... Dirithromycin is a macrolide glycopeptide antibiotic. ... Erythromycin is a macrolide antibiotic which has an antimicrobial spectrum similar to or slightly wider than that of penicillin, and is often used for people who have an allergy to penicillins. ... Roxithromycin is a semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic. ... Aztreonam. ... Categories: Stub | Monobactam antibiotics ... Penicillin is a β-lactam antibiotic used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. ... Amoxicillin (INN) or amoxycillin (former BAN) is a moderate-spectrum β-lactam antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections caused by susceptible microorganisms. ... Species S. pneumoniae S. pyogenes S. viridans Streptococcus is a genus of spherical, Gram-positive bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Lyme disease is a bacterial infection with a spirochete from the species complex Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, which is most often acquired from the bite of an infected Ixodes tick. ... Anaphylaxis is a severe and rapid systemic allergic reaction to a trigger substance, called an allergen. ... Ampicillin is a beta-lactam antibiotic that has been used extensively to treat bacterial infections since 1961. ... Azlocillin, similar to mezlocillin and piperacillin, is an acylampicillin with an extended spectrum of activity and greater in vitro potency than the carboxy penicillins. ... Carbenicillin is an antibiotic chemically similar to ampicillin. ... Cloxacillin is a semisynthetic antibiotic in the same class as penicillin. ... Dicloxacillin (INN) is a narrow spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic. ... Flucloxacillin (INN) or floxacillin (USAN) is a narrow spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic. ... Mezlocillin is a penicillin antibiotic. ... Nafcillin sodium is an beta-lactam antibiotic related to penicillin. ... Penicillin nucleus Penicillin (sometimes abbreviated PCN) refers to a group of β-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. ... Piperacillin is an extended spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic of the ureidopenicillin class. ... Ticarcillin, almost invariably sold and used in combination with clavulanate as Timentin, is a Beta-lactam antibiotic similar to penicillin. ... Bacitracin is a mixture of related cyclic polypeptides produced by organisms of the licheniformis group of Bacillus subtilis var Tracy. ... Colistin (polymyxin E) is a polymyxin antibiotic produced by certain strains of Bacillus polymyxa var. ... Polymyxin B (also referred to as PMB) are antibiotics primary used for resistant gram negative infections. ... Quinolones and fluoroquinolones form a group of broad-spectrum antibiotics. ... Ciprofloxacin is the generic international name for the synthetic antibiotic manufactured and sold by Bayer Pharmaceutical under the brand names Cipro and Ciproxin (and other brand names in other markets, e. ... Ciprofloxacin is the generic international name for the synthetic antibiotic manufactured and sold by Bayer Pharmaceutical under the brand names Cipro® and Ciproxin® (and other brand names in other markets, e. ... Ciprofloxacin is the generic international name for the synthetic antibiotic manufactured and sold by Bayer Pharmaceutical under the brand names Cipro® and Ciproxin® (and other brand names in other markets, e. ... Gonorrhea (gonorrhoea in British English) is among the most common sexually-transmitted diseases in the world and is caused by Gram-negative bacterium Neisseria gonorrheae. ... Enoxacin (Enroxil, Penetrex) is an oral broad-spectrum quinoline antibacterial agent used in the treatment of urinary tract infections and gonorrhea. ... Gatifloxacin is an antibiotic of the fluoroquinolone family, that like other members of that family, inhibits the bacterial enzymes DNA gyrase and Topoisomerase IV. Bristol-Myers Squibb introduced Gatifloxacin in 1999 under the proprietary name Tequin for the treatment of respiratory tract infections, having licensed the medication from Kyorin Pharmaceutical... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Levofloxacin is relatively new fluoroquinolone antibiotic, marketed by Ortho-McNeil under the brand name Levaquin. ... Levofloxacin is relatively new fluoroquinolone antibiotic, marketed by Ortho-McNeil under the brand name Levaquin. ... Lomefloxacin hydrochloride (Maxaquin) is a quinolone antibiotic, used to treat bacterial infections including bronchitis and urinary tract infections. ... Moxifloxacin is a synthetic fluoroquinolone antibiotic agent. ... Moxifloxacin is a synthetic fluoroquinolone antibiotic agent. ... Norfloxacin is an oral broad-spectrum quinoline antibacterial agent used in the treatment of urinary tract infections. ... Ofloxacin sold under the brand name Floxin in the US. It is a quinolone antibiotic. ... Trovafloxacin (sold as Trovan by Pfizer) is a broad spectrum antibiotic that inhibits DNA supercoiling in various bacteria by blocking the activity of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV [1]. It is not used widely due to the risk of hepatotoxicity. ... Trovafloxacin (sold as Trovan® by Pfizer) is a broad spectrum antibiotic that inhibits DNA supercoiling in various bacteria by blocking the activity of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV [1]. It is not used widely due to the risk of hepatotoxicity. ... There are several sulphonamide-based groups of drugs. ... Mafenide is a sulfonamide often used to treat severe burns. ... A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a bacterial infection that affects any part of the urinary tract. ... This article deals specifically with IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. ... Renal failure is the condition in which the kidneys fail to function properly. ... White blood cells or leukocytes are cells which form a component of the blood. ... Prontosil is the first successful oral antibiotic developed by Gerhard Domagk, who received the 1939 Nobel Prize in Medicine. ... Sulfacetamide is a sulfonamide antibiotic. ... Sulfamethizole is a sulfonamide antibiotic. ... Sulfonamides, also known as sulfa drugs, are synthetic antimicrobial agents derived from sulfonic acid. ... Sulfasalazine is a sulfa drug, a derivative of Mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid abbreviated as 5-ASA), used primarily as an anti-inflammatory agent in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease as well as for rheumatoid arthritis. ... Sulfisoxazole is a sulfa drug based upon sulfonamide with a substituted oxazole. ... Trimethoprim is a bacteriostatic antibiotic mainly used in the prophylaxis and treatment of urinary tract infections (cystitis). ... Trimethoprim is a bacteriostatic antibiotic mainly used in the prophylaxis and treatment of urinary tract infections (cystitis). ... Sulfamethoxazole is a sulfonamide antibiotic. ... Co-trimoxazole (abbreviated SXT) is a bacteriostatic antibiotic combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, in the ratio of 1 to 5, used in the treatment of a variety of bacterial infections. ... Co-trimoxazole (abbreviated SXT) is a bacteriostatic antibiotic combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, in the ratio of 1 to 5, used in the treatment of a variety of bacterial infections. ... Co-trimoxazole (abbreviated SXT) is a bacteriostatic antibiotic combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, in the ratio of 1 to 5, used in the treatment of a variety of bacterial infections. ... This article deals with the specific Tetracycline antibiotic. ... Demeclocycline (marketed as Declomycin®, Declostatin® and Ledermycin®) is a tetracycline antibiotic used in various types of bacterial infections. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Chlamydia is a common term for infection with any bacteria belonging to the phylum Chlamydiae. ... Lyme disease is a bacterial infection with a spirochete from the species complex Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, which is most often acquired from the bite of an infected Ixodes tick. ... Species Rickettsia felis Rickettsia prowazekii Rickettsia rickettsii Rickettsia typhi Rickettsia conorii etc. ... Doxycycline (INN) (IPA: ) is a member of the tetracycline antibiotics group and is commonly used to treat a variety of infections. ... Doxycycline (INN) (IPA: ) is a member of the tetracycline antibiotics group and is commonly used to treat a variety of infections. ... Minocycline hydrochloride, also known as minocycline, is a member of the broad spectrum tetracycline antibiotics, and has a broader spectrum than the other members. ... Minocycline hydrochloride, also known as minocycline, is a member of the broad spectrum tetracycline antibiotics, and has a broader spectrum than the other members. ... Oxytetracycline is known as a broad-spectrum antibiotic due to its activity against such a wide range of infections. ... Tetracycline (INN) (IPA: ) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by the streptomyces bacterium, indicated for use against many bacterial infections. ... Tetracycline (INN) (IPA: ) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by the streptomyces bacterium, indicated for use against many bacterial infections. ... Arsphenamine is a drug that was used to treat syphilis and trypanosomiasis. ... Arsphenamine, also known under its trade name Salvarsan, is a drug that was used to treat syphilis. ... Families Spirochaetaceae Brachyspiraceae    Brachyspira    Serpulina Leptospiraceae    Leptospira    Leptonema The spirochaetes (or spirochetes) are a phylum of distinctive bacteria, which have long, helically coiled cells. ... Chloramphenicol is a bacteriostatic antibiotic originally derived from the bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae, isolated by David Gottlieb, and introduced into clinical practice in 1949. ... Clindamycin (rINN) (IPA: ) is a lincosamide antibiotic used in the treatment of infections caused by susceptible microorganisms. ... Clindamycin (rINN) (IPA: ) is a lincosamide antibiotic used in the treatment of infections caused by susceptible microorganisms. ... A bacteriostatic antimycobacterial prescribed to treat Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium). ... Furazolidone (also marketed as Furoxone) is an antibiotic used to treat diarrhea and enteritis caused by bacteria or protozoan infections. ... Isoniazid (also called isonicotinyl hydrazine or isonicotinic acid hydrazide); abbreviated INH or just H. Isoniazid is a first-line antituberculous medication used in the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. ... Linezolid is a synthetic systemic antibiotic drug. ... Linezolid is a synthetic systemic antibiotic drug. ... Metronidazole (INN) (IPA: ) is a nitroimidazole antibiotic drug used in the treatment of infections caused by susceptible organisms particularly anaerobic bacteria and protozoa. ... Metronidazole is an antibiotic and antiparasitic drug classified as a nitroimidazole. ... Mupirocin (pseudomonic acid A, or Bactroban) is an antibiotic originally isolated from Pseudomonas fluorescens. ... Nitrofurantoin is an antibiotic. ... Nitrofurantoin (trade names Furadantin, Macrobid, Microdantina, and Macrodantinis) is an antibiotic drug. ... Nitrofurantoin is an antibiotic. ... Platensimycin is an experimental new drug being trialed in an effort to combat MRSA. Manufactured by a strain of Streptomyces platensis, it represents a previously unknown class of antibiotics, which acts by blocking enzymes involved in the synthesis of fatty acids, which bacteria need to construct cell membranes. ... Pyrazinamide is an antituberculosis agent used to treat tuberculosis in afflicted patients. ... Quinupristin-dalfopristin (Synercid®) is an antibiotic used to treat infections by staphylococci and by vancomycin-resistant enterococcus faecium. ... Rifampicin (INN) or rifampin (USAN) is an antibiotic drug of the rifamycin group. ... Spectinomycin hydrochloride (Trobicin®) is an aminocyclitol antibiotic produced by the bacteria Streptomyces spectabilis. ... Telithromycin is the first ketolide antibiotic to enter clinical use. ... Telithromycin is the first ketolide antibiotic to enter clinical use. ... Pneumonia is an illness of the lungs and respiratory system in which the alveoli (microscopic air-filled sacs of the lung responsible for absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere) become inflamed and flooded with fluid. ...

Production

Since the first pioneering efforts of Florey and Chain in 1939, the importance of antibiotics to medicine has led to much research into discovering and producing them. The process of production usually involves screening of wide ranges of microorganisms, testing and modification. Production is carried out using fermentation; a process that is important in anaerobic conditions when there is no oxidative phosphorylation to maintain the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by glycolysis. ŇThe production of antibiotics has been widespread since the pioneering efforts of Florey and Chain in 1939. ... Howard Walter Florey, Baron Florey of Adelaide and Marston, OM, FRS, (September 24, 1898 – February 21, 1968) was a pharmacologist who shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1945 with Ernst Boris Chain and Sir Alexander Fleming for his role in the extraction of penicillin. ... Sir Ernst Boris Chain (June 19, 1906 – August 12, 1979) was a German-born British biochemist, and a 1945 co-recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his work on penicillin. ... medicines, see medication and pharmacology. ... Fermentation in progress Fermentation is a process of energy production in a cell in an anaerobic environment (with no oxygen present). ... Adenosine 5-triphosphate (ATP) is a multifunctional nucleotide that is most important as a molecular currency of intracellular energy transfer. ... Overview of glycolysis. ...


Side effects

Possible side effects are varied, and range from fever and nausea to major allergic reactions. One of the more common side effects is diarrhea, sometimes caused by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium difficile, which results from the antibiotic disrupting the normal balance of intestinal flora,[3] (which some people believe may be re-balanced by taking probiotics). Other side effects can result from interaction with other drugs, such as elevated risk of tendon damage from administration of a quinolone antibiotic with a systemic corticosteroid. Types 5-7 on the Bristol Stool Chart are often associated with diarrhea Diarrhea (in American English) or diarrhoea (in British English) is a generally unpleasant condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the ancient Greek word διαρροή = leakage; literally meaning to run through). Acute infectious... Binomial name Clostridium difficile Hall & OToole, 1935 Clostridium difficile or CDF/cdf (Template:Audo, alternatively ) (also referred to as C. diff or C-diff) is a species of bacteria of the genus Clostridium which are gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming rods (bacillus). ... numerous beneficial bacterial microorganisms found in the lower intestine ... Probiotics are dietary supplements containing potentially beneficial bacteria. ... A tendon (or fatty) is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone, or muscle to muscle and is designed to withstand tension. ... Quinolones and fluoroquinolones form a group of broad-spectrum antibiotics. ... In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. ...


It is a common assertion that some antibiotics can interfere with the efficiency of birth control pills. Although there remain few known cases of complication, the majority of antibiotics do not interfere with contraception, despite widespread misinformation to the contrary.[4]


Antibiotic misuse

Common forms of antibiotic misuse include failure to take the entire prescribed course of the antibiotic, or failure to rest usually because the patient feels better, but before the infecting organism is completely eradicated. In addition to treatment failure, these practices can result in antibiotic resistance in which the bacteria survive the abbreviated treatment. Taking antibiotics in inappropriate situations is another common form of antibiotic misuse. Common examples of this would be the use of antibacterials for viral infections such as the common cold. Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a micro-organism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic. ... // Acute viral nasopharyngitis, often known as the common cold, is a mild viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system (nose and throat). ...


Currently, it is estimated that greater than 50% of the antibiotics used in the U.S. are given to feed animals (e.g. chickens, pigs and cattle) in the absence of disease.[5] Antibiotic use in food animal production has been associated with the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria including Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus among others. There is substantial evidence from the US and the EU that these resistant bacteria cause antibiotic resistant infections in humans. The American Society for Microbiology (ASM), the American Public Health Association (APHA) and the American Medical Association (AMA) have called for substantial restrictions on antibiotic use in food animal production including an end to all non-therapeutic uses. The food animal and pharmaceutical industries have fought hard to prevent new regulations that would limit the use of antibiotics in food animal production. For example, in 2000 the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced their intention to rescind approval for fluoroquinolone use in poultry production because of substantial evidence linking it to the emergence of fluoroquinolone resistant Campylobacter infections in humans. The final decision to ban fluoroquinolones from use in poultry production was not made until 5 years later because of challenges from the food animal and pharmaceutical industries. Today, there are two federal bills (S.742 and H.R. 2562) aimed at phasing out non-therapeutic antibiotics in US food animal production. These bills are endorsed by many public health and medical organizations including the American Nurses Association (ANA), the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), and the American Public Health Association (APHA).


Excessive use of prophylactic antibiotics in travelers may also be classified as misuse. Prophylaxis refers to any medical or public health procedure whose purpose is to prevent, rather than treat or cure, disease. ...


Antibiotic resistance

Main article: Antibiotic resistance

Use or misuse of antibiotics may result in the development of antibiotic resistance by the infecting organisms, similar to the development of pesticide resistance in insects. Evolutionary theory of genetic selection requires that as close as possible to 100% of the infecting organisms be killed off to avoid selection of resistance; if a small subset of the population survives the treatment and is allowed to multiply, the average susceptibility of this new population to the compound will be much less than that of the original population, since they have descended from those few organisms which survived the original treatment. This survival often results from an inheritable resistance to the compound which was infrequent in the original population but is now much more frequent in the descendants thus selected entirely from those originally infrequent resistant organisms. Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a micro-organism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2835x1927, 406 KB) Summary from http://phil. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2835x1927, 406 KB) Summary from http://phil. ... SEM Cambridge S150 at Geological Institute, University Kiel, 1980 SEM opened sample chamber The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of electron microscope capable of producing high resolution images of a sample surface. ... Binomial name Staphylococcus aureus Rosenbach 1884 Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a specific strain of the Staphylococcus aureus bacterium that has developed antibiotic resistance to all penicillins, including methicillin and other narrow-spectrum β-lactamase-resistant penicillin antibiotics. ... the plane is spreading pesticide. ... This article is about biological evolution. ... Selection is hierachically classified into natural and artificial selection. ...

An abscess caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria (MRSA).
An abscess caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteria (MRSA).

Antibiotic resistance has become a serious problem in both the developed and underdeveloped nations. By 1984 half of the people with active tuberculosis in the United States had a strain that resisted at least one antibiotic. In certain settings, such as hospitals and some child-care locations, the rate of antibiotic resistance is so high that the normal, low cost antibiotics are virtually useless for treatment of frequently seen infections. This leads to more frequent use of newer and more expensive compounds, which in turn leads inexorably to the rise of resistance to those drugs, and a race to discover new and different antibiotics ensues, just to keep us from losing ground in the battle against infection. The fear is that we will eventually fail to keep up in this race, and the time when people did not fear life-threatening bacterial infections will be just a memory of a golden era. Image File history File links Cutaneous_abscess_MRSA_staphylococcus_aureus_7826_lores. ... Image File history File links Cutaneous_abscess_MRSA_staphylococcus_aureus_7826_lores. ... Look up Abscess in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for Tubercle Bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by the mycobacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Mycobacterium bovis. ... Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a micro-organism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic. ...


Another example of selection is Staphylococcus aureus, which could be treated successfully with penicillin in the 1940s and 1950s. At present, nearly all strains are resistant to penicillin, and many are resistant to nafcillin, leaving only a narrow selection of drugs such as vancomycin useful for treatment. The situation is worsened by the fact that genes coding for antibiotic resistance can be transferred between bacteria via plasmids, making it possible for bacteria never exposed to an antibiotic to acquire resistance from those which have. The problem of antibiotic resistance is worsened when antibiotics are used to treat disorders in which they have no efficacy, such as the common cold or other viral complaints, and when they are used widely as prophylaxis rather than treatment (as in, for example, animal feeds), because this exposes more bacteria to selection for resistance. Binomial name Staphylococcus aureus Rosenbach 1884 Staphylococcus aureus, the most common cause of staph infections, is a spherical bacterium, frequently living on the skin or in the nose of a healthy person, that can cause a range of illnesses from minor skin infections (such as pimples, boils, and cellulitis) and... Penicillin nucleus Penicillin (sometimes abbreviated PCN) refers to a group of β-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. ... Nafcillin sodium is an beta-lactam antibiotic related to penicillin. ... Vancomycin (INN) (IPA: ) is a glycopeptide antibiotic used in the prophylaxis and treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. ... Figure 1 : Schematic drawing of a bacterium with plasmids enclosed. ...


Beyond antibiotics

Unfortunately, the comparative ease of finding compounds which safely cured bacterial infections proved much harder to duplicate with respect to fungal and viral infections. Antibiotic research led to great strides in our knowledge of basic biochemistry and to the current biological revolution; but in the process it was discovered that the susceptibility of bacteria to many compounds which are safe to humans is based upon significant differences between the cellular and molecular physiology of the bacterial cell and that of the mammalian cell. In contrast, despite the seemingly huge differences between fungi and humans, the basic biochemistries of the fungal cell and the mammalian cell are much more similar; so much so that there are few therapeutic opportunities for compounds to attack a fungal cell which will not harm a human cell. Similarly, we know now that viruses represent an incredibly minimal intracellular parasite, being stripped down to a few genes' worth of DNA or RNA and the minimal molecular equipment needed to enter a cell and actually take over the machinery of the cell to produce new viruses. Thus, the great bulk of viral metabolic biochemistry is not merely similar to human biochemistry, it actually is human biochemistry, and the possible targets of antiviral compounds are restricted to the relatively very few components of the actual virus itself. Subclasses Allotheria* Order Multituberculata (extinct) Order Volaticotheria (extinct) Order Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Order Triconodonta (extinct) Prototheria Order Monotremata Theria Infraclass Marsupialia Infraclass Eutheria The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in females for the nourishment of young, from mammary glands present on most species... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the development and function of living organisms. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Research into bacteriophages is ongoing at the moment. Bacteriophages are a specific type of virus that only targets bacteria. Research suggests that nature has evolved several types of bacteriophage for each type of bacteria. While research into bacteriophages is only in its infancy the results are promising and have already lead to major advances in microscopic imaging.[6] While bacteriophages provide a possible solution to the problem of antibacterial resistance there is as of yet no proof that we will actually be able to deploy these microscopic killers in humans. A bacteriophage (from bacteria and Greek phagein, to eat) is a virus that infects bacteria. ...


Phage therapy has been used in the past on humans in the US and Europe during the 1920s and 1930s, however due to not fully understanding the mechanism by which phage therapy worked, these treatments had mixed results. With the discovery of penicillin in the 1940s, Europe and the US changed to using antibiotics. However, in the former Soviet Union phage therapies continued to be studied. In the Republic of Georgia, the Eliava Institute of Bacteriophage, Microbiology & Virology continues to research the use of phage therapy. Various companies and foundations in North America and Europe are currently researching phage therapies. Phage therapy is the therapeutic use of lytic bacteriophages to treat pathogenic bacterial infections. ...


References

  1. ^ How Products Are Made: Antibiotics
  2. ^ Robert Berkow (ed.) The Merck Manual of Medical Information - Home Edition. Pocket (September 1999), ISBN 0-671-02727-1.
  3. ^ University of Michigan Health System: Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea, November 26, 2006
  4. ^ Planned Parenthood: Does taking antibiotics make the pill less effective?, July 15, 2004
  5. ^ Mellon, M et al. (2001) Hogging It!: Estimates of Antimicrobial Abuse in Livestock, 1st ed. Cambridge, MA: Union of Concerned Scientists.
  6. ^ Purdue University "Biologists build better software, beat path to viral knowledge", see Imaging of Epsilon 15, a virus that infects the bacterium Salmonella News report

The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy (often referred to simply as The Merck Manual) is one of the worlds most widely used medical textbooks. ... The Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) is an advocacy organization based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. ...

See also

An antiseptic solution of iodine applied to a cut Antiseptics (Greek αντί, against, and σηπτικός, putrefactive) are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. ... A bacteriocide or bactericide is a substance that kills bacteria and, preferably, nothing else. ... // Immune deficiency (physiologically or due to chemotherapy) in cancer patients, allows for serious exposure to opportunistic micro organisms that may cause death (2). ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Antibiotics

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

Resources

  • Alliance for the Prudent Use of Antibiotics

  Results from FactBites:
 
APUA: Q&A's about Antibacterials (1675 words)
Antibacterials may be divided into two groups according to their speed of action and residue production: The first group contains those that act rapidly to destroy bacteria, but quickly disappear (by evaporation or breakdown) and leave no active residue behind (referred to as non-residue-producing).
The non-residue producing agents (Table of Antibacterials) have been used for many years and continue to be effective agents for controlling disease organisms in a wide variety of healthcare and domestic settings.
Antibacterials are not discriminating and an all-out attack on bacteria in general is unjustified.
Antibacterial material for water - Patent 5011602 (4877 words)
When this antibacterial material for water is placed in water, microorganisms living in the water would pass through the fabric and approach the carrier, so that they are attacked by the antibacterial agent contained therein and die.
A known antibacterial material for water comprises a particulate antibacterial composition comprising zeolite as a carrier, wherein metal(s) capable of ion exchange contained in said zeolite are exchanged with at least one metal selected from among silver, copper and zinc (cf.
It is another object of the present invention to provide an antibacterial material for water capable of killing microorganisms living in water at the same efficiency when retained in water for a prolonged period of time, i.e., an antibacterial material for water showing a sustained antibiotic effect.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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