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Encyclopedia > Anthropomorphism
7th millennium BC anthropomorphized rocks, with slits for eyes, found in modern-day Israel.
7th millennium BC anthropomorphized rocks, with slits for eyes, found in modern-day Israel.

Anthropomorphism is the attribution of uniquely human characteristics and qualities to nonhuman beings, inanimate objects, or natural or supernatural phenomena. Animals, forces of nature, games, and unseen or unknown sources of chance are frequent subjects of anthropomorphous. The term is derived from two Greek words, ἄνθρωπος (anthrōpos), meaning human, and μορφή (morphē), meaning shape or form. The suffix '-ism' originates from the morpheme -ισμός or -ισμα in the Greek language. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2576x1920, 1830 KB) Self Shot at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in NYC I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2576x1920, 1830 KB) Self Shot at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in NYC I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... During the 7th millennium BC, agriculture spreads from Anatolia to the Balkans. ... This article is about modern humans. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... This article is about the physical universe. ... In morpheme-based morphology, a morpheme is the smallest lingual unit that carries a semantic interpretation. ...


It is a common and seemingly natural tendency for humans to perceive nonhuman animals or inanimate objects as having human characteristics, one which some suggest provides a window into the way in which humans perceive themselves. Common examples of this tendency include naming cars or begging machines to work.


It is also probably true that humans have a natural tendency to deny common traits with other species, most particularly apes, feeling that humans are unique and "special." This tendency may be described as anthropomorphophobia and has been referred to as Anthropodenial by primatologist Frans de Waal, author of Our Inner Ape and other books and articles. Frans B.M. de Waal, PhD (b. ...

Contents

In religions and mythologies

An anthropomorphic character; a cat ascribed human characteristics.

In religion and mythology, anthropomorphism refers to the perception of a divine being or beings in human form, or the recognition of human qualities in these beings. Many mythologies are almost entirely concerned with anthropomorphic deities who express human characteristics such as jealousy, hatred, or love. The Greek gods, such as Zeus and Apollo, were often depicted in human form exhibiting both commendable and despicable human traits. Anthropomorphism in this case is sometimes referred to as Anthropotheism. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (487x766, 40 KB) Summary An anthropomorph. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (487x766, 40 KB) Summary An anthropomorph. ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Jealous redirects here. ... For other uses, see Hate (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Love (disambiguation). ... Another tree with color coding Hesiods Family of the Gods graphic of family tree of gods from Hesiods Theogony Categories: | | ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... Anthropotheism is ascribing human form and nature to gods, or the belief that gods are only deified human beings. ...


In Biblical literalism

Numerous sects throughout history have been called anthropomorphites, including a sect in Egypt in the 4th century, and a group in the Roman Catholic Church in the 10th century, who literally interpreted Genesis chapter 1, verse 27: "So God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female he created them."[1] This article is about religious groups. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ...


In Hinduism

The ten avatars of the Hindu supreme god Vishnu possess both human and divine forms and qualities, although their degrees of divinity vary. In Vaishnavism, a monotheistic faith, Vishnu is omniscient and benevolent, in contrast to gods of the Greek and Roman religions. See Conceptions of God in Hinduism. The ten avatars of Vishnu, copyright BBT In Hindu philosophy, an avatar (also spelt as avatara) (Sanskrit: , ), most commonly refers to the incarnation (bodily manifestation) of a higher being (deva), or the Supreme Being (God) onto planet Earth. ... Bhavna says there are 300 million gods in Hinduism. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being (i. ... Temple dedicated to the worship of Vishnu as Venkateswara. ... For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity, or in the oneness of God. ... Omniscience is the capacity to know everything infinitely, or at least everything that can be known about a character including thoughts, feelings, life and the universe, etc. ... For a characteristic of many gods, see omnibenevolence For the phrenological faculty, see Benevolence (Phrenology) Look up Benevolence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The term Roman religion may refer to: Ancient Roman religion Imperial cult (Ancient Rome), Sol Invictus Mithraism Roman Christianity Category: ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...


Opposition to anthropomorphism

Many religions and philosophies have condemned anthropomorphism for various reasons. Some Ancient Greek philosophers did not approve of, and were often hostile to their people's mythology. These philosophers often developed monotheistic views. Plato's (427–347 BCE) Demiurge (craftsman) in the Timaeus and Aristotle's (384–322 BCE) prime mover in his Physics are notable examples. The Greek philosopher Xenophanes (570–480 BCE) said that "the greatest god" resembles man "neither in form nor in mind." (Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies V xiv 109.1-3). The similarity of these philosophers' concepts of god to the concepts found in the Bible facilitated the incorporation of much pre-Christian Greek philosophy into the Medieval Christian world view by the Scholastics, most notably Thomas Aquinas. Anthropomorphism of God is condemned by Islam, since Muslims feel that God is beyond human limits of physical comprehension. This conception is also championed by the doctrinal view of Nirguna Brahman. Greek philosophy focused on the role of reason and inquiry. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... BCE redirects here. ... The Demiurge, The Craftsman or Creator, in some belief systems, is the deity responsible for the creation of the physical universe. ... Timaeus (Greek: Τίμαιος, Timaios) is a theoretical treatise of Plato in the form of a Socratic dialogue, written circa 360 BC. The work puts forward speculation on the nature of the physical world. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... The cosmological argument is a metaphysical argument for the existence of God, or a first mover of the cosmos. ... Aristotles Physics, frontispice of an 1837 edition Physics (or Physica, or Physicae Auscultationes meaning lessons) is a key text in the philosophy of Aristotle. ... Xenophanes of Colophon (Greek: Ξενοφάνης, 570 BC-480 BC) was a Greek philosopher, poet, and social and religious critic. ... Clement of Alexandria (Titus Flavius Clemens), was the first member of the Church of Alexandria to be more than a name, and one of its most distinguished teachers. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... A world view (or worldview) is a term calqued from the German word Weltanschauung (pronounced ) Welt is the German word for world, and Anschauung is the German word for view or outlook. It implies a concept fundamental to German philosophy and epistemology and refers to a wide world perception. ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas, O.P.(also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Nirguna Brahman, (literally, the attributeless Brahman, Devanagari: निर्गुण ब्रह्म) refers to Supreme Reality which pervades through the universe. ...


From the perspective of adherents of religions in which the deity or deities have human characteristics, it may be more accurate to describe the phenomenon as theomorphism, or the giving of divine qualities to humans, rather than anthropomorphism, the giving of human qualities to the divine. According to their beliefs, the deity or deities usually existed before humans, therefore humans were created in the form of the divine. However, for those who do not believe in the doctrine of the religion, the phenomenon can be considered anthropomorphism. In fact, Stewart Elliott Guthrie, in his book Faces in the Clouds: A New Theory of Religion (1993), theorizes that all religions are simply anthropomorphisms that originate in the human brain's tendency to over-detect the presence or vestiges of other humans in the natural world. For other uses, see Phenomena (disambiguation). ... Theomorphism is a neologism that literally means God-shaped, corresponding to the Hebrew name Michael. ...


Interestingly, Charles Dodgson's novel Alice's Adventures in Wonderland was banned in Hunan because "animals should not use human language" and it "put animals and human beings on the same level." Photograph of Lewis Carroll taken by himself, with assistance Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (January 27, 1832 – January 14, 1898), better known by the pen name Lewis Carroll, was a British author, mathematician, Anglican clergyman, logician, and amateur photographer. ... “Alice in Wonderland” redirects here. ... This is an incomplete list, which may never be able to satisfy certain standards for completeness. ... Not to be confused with the unrelated provinces of Hainan, Henan, and Yunnan. ...


In literature

Main article: Personification
Anthropomorphic rabbit characters created by Beatrix Potter

Anthropomorphism is a well-established device in literature. Aesop's Fables, a collection of short tales written or recorded by the ancient Greek citizen Aesop, make extensive use of anthropomorphism, in which animals and weather illustrate simple moral lessons. The Indian books Panchatantra (The Five priniciples) and The Jataka tales employ anthropomorphized animals to illustrate various principles of life. Phillipp Veits Germania (1877), a personification of Germany. ... Download high resolution version (785x916, 124 KB)Peter Rabbit + Benjamin and Flopsy Bunny - Beatrix Potter characters - Project Gutenberg eText 14220 - http://www. ... Download high resolution version (785x916, 124 KB)Peter Rabbit + Benjamin and Flopsy Bunny - Beatrix Potter characters - Project Gutenberg eText 14220 - http://www. ... Helen Beatrix Potter (28 July 1866 – 22 December 1943) was an English author and illustrator, botanist, and conservationist, best known for her childrens books, which featured animal characters such as Peter Rabbit. ... Aesop, as conceived by Diego Velázquez Aesop, as depicted in the Nuremberg Chronicle by Hartmann Schedel in 1493. ... For the geological process, see Weathering or Erosion. ... The Panchatantra [1][2][3] (also spelled Pañcatantra, Sanskrit पञ्चतन्त्र Five Chapters) or Kelileh va Dimneh or Anvar-i-Suhayli [4][5] or The Lights of Canopus (in Persian)[6] or Kalilag and Damnag (in Syriac)[7] or Kalila and Dimna (also Kalilah and Dimnah, Arabic كليلة و دمنة Kalila wa Dimna)[8... The Jataka is a voluminous body of folklore and mythic literature, primarily associated with the Theravada Buddhist tradition, as written in the Pali language (from about the 3rd century, A.D.); however, the stories found in the Jataka have been found in numerous other languages and media — many of them...


Anthropomorphism is commonly employed in books for children, such as those by Lewis Carroll, Roald Dahl, Brian Jacques, C.S. Lewis, and Beatrix Potter. Rev. W. Awdry's Railway Series depicts steam locomotives and diesel locomotives with human-like faces and personalities, which lead to the popular television series Thomas the Tank Engine. A particularly famous example from Edwardian England, with an enduring appeal, is The Wind in the Willows by Kenneth Graham, with the characters of Rat, Mole, Badger, Toad and the Weasels. Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (IPA: ) (27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by the pen name Lewis Carroll (), was an English author, mathematician, logician, Anglican clergyman and photographer. ... Roald Dahl (IPA: ) (13 September 1916 – 23 November 1990) was a British novelist, short story author and screenwriter of Norwegian parentage, famous as a writer for both children and adults. ... Brian Jacques (James) Brian Jacques (born June 15, 1939) is an English author, best known for his Redwall series of novels, as well as the Tribes of Redwall and Castaways of the Flying Dutchman series. ... Clive Staples Lewis (November 29, 1898 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an author and scholar. ... Helen Beatrix Potter (28 July 1866 – 22 December 1943) was an English author and illustrator, botanist, and conservationist, best known for her childrens books, which featured animal characters such as Peter Rabbit. ... Wilbert Vere Awdry, OBE, (June 15, 1911 – March 21, 1997), better known as the Reverend W. Awdry, was a clergyman, railway enthusiast and childrens author. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: The Railway Series The Railway Series is a set of story books about a fictional railway system located on the fictional Island of Sodor and the engines that lived on it. ... Thomas the Tank Engine This article is about the fictional tank engine. ... The Edwardian period or Edwardian era in the United Kingdom is the period 1901 to 1910, the reign of King Edward VII. It is sometimes extended to include the period to the start of World War I in 1914 or even the end of the war in 1918. ... Ratty and Mole, as interpreted by E. H. Shepard The Wind in the Willows is a classic of childrens literature written in 1908 by Kenneth Grahame. ... Kenneth Grahame (March 8, 1859 – July 6, 1932) was a British writer, mainly of the sort of fiction and fantasy written for children but enjoyed equally if not more by adults. ...


However, anthropomorphism is not exclusively used as a device in children's literature: Terry Pratchett is notable for having several anthropomorphic characters in his Discworld series, the best-known of which is the character Death. Piers Anthony also wrote a series regarding the seven Incarnations of Immortality, which are Death, Time, Fate, War, Nature, Evil, and Good. Neil Gaiman's Sandman series anthropomorphizes seven aspects of the living experience: Destiny, Death, Dream, Destruction, Desire, Despair, and Delirium. Perhaps most famously, George Orwell converted several key actors in the Russian Revolution into anthropomorphic animals in his satire Animal Farm. These are only a few examples; anthropomorphism is not an uncommon device in adult literature. Terence David John Pratchett, OBE (born 28 April 1948) is a British fantasy and science fiction author, best known for his Discworld series. ... This article is about the novels. ... Death is a fictional character in Terry Pratchetts Discworld series. ... Piers Anthony Dillingham Jacob (born August 6, 1934 in Oxford, England) is an American writer in the science fiction and fantasy genres, publishing under the name Piers Anthony. ... Incarnations of Immortality is the name of a seven-book fantasy series by Piers Anthony. ... Neil Richard Gaiman (IPA: ) (born November 10, 1960[2]) is an English author of science fiction and fantasy short stories and novels, graphic novels, comics, and films. ... The Sandman was a comic book series written by Neil Gaiman and published by DC Comics for 75 issues from 1988 until 1996. ... Destiny is one of the Endless, fictional characters from Neil Gaimans comic book series, The Sandman. ... Death is a fictional character from the DC comic book series, The Sandman (1988 - 1996). ... Cover of The Sandman #1, by Dave McKean. ... Destruction is one of the Endless, fictional characters from Neil Gaimans comic book series The Sandman. ... Desire is one of the Endless, a fictional character from Neil Gaimans comic book series, The Sandman. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Delirium amid fish Delirium is one of the Endless, fictional characters from Neil Gaimans comic book series The Sandman. ... Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 [1] [2] – 21 January 1950), better known by the pen name George Orwell, was an English author and journalist. ... Russian Revolution can refer to the following events in the history of Russia: The Russian Revolution of 1905 was a series of strikes and anti-government violence against Tsar Nicholas II The Russian Revolution of 1917, which included: February Revolution, which resulted in the abdication of Nicholas II of Russia... For other uses, see Animal Farm (disambiguation). ...


In fiction and popular culture

Because anthropomorphism is well-established as a device in literature, it naturally also lends itself well in fiction (particularly science fiction) and popular culture. The most common way of anthropomorphise non-humans in science fiction is to create alien races and machines with human attributes. The Kilwrathi, a vicious, warlike alien race of anthropomorphic felines from the Wing Commander series, as well as the Wookiees (most notably Chewbacca) and Ewoks from Star Wars, are examples of such alien races. In the novelization of the Terminator series, the supercomputer Skynet is often described as having human emotions and creativity, including anger, paranoia, and fear. A further extension of this can be found in the final scene of Terminator 3, the T-X Terminator, Skynet's latest and most lethal creation, clearly displayed fear in "her" facial expression before being destroyed. Of course, many of the droids found in the Star Wars series, particularly C-3P0 and R2-D2, are also anthropomorphic. C-3P0 and R2-D2 are particularly notable because they are capable of human emotions and became close companions of the main characters in both trilogies, as well as being refered to by human pronouciation of their names, "Threepio" and "Artoo", respectively. This article is about the series. ... This article is about the fictional artificial intelligence in the Terminator series of films and games. ... Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines (commonly abbreviated T3) is a 2003 movie directed by Jonathan Mostow and starring Arnold Schwarzenegger, Nick Stahl, Claire Danes, and Kristanna Loken. ... C-3PO (also spelled See-Threepio, called 3PO for short) is a character from the fictional Star Wars universe. ... R2-D2 (called R2, or Artoo for short), is a fictional character in the Star Wars universe. ...


A unique form of anthropomorphism in science fiction is presented by Warhammer 40,000, in which many of the machines operated by the Imperium of Man are believed to have a "Machine Spirit" residing in them (similar to the Japanese concept of "kami"), be it something as simple as a lasgun or a massive battleship. When a machine is disabled, typically for centuries, the Machine Spirit is said to be dormant. This belief is strongly preached by the Adeptus Mechanicus, or the Machine Cult. It is the responsibility of the Techpriests to "appease" the Machine Spirits through routine maintanence and "give tribunes" in lubricants. The Space Marine Land Raider is even said to have a powerful and active Machine Spirit which allows the tank to move and fire after the crew is killed (in reality, artificial intelligence, which the Imperium branded and banned as "abominable intelligence"). The anthropomorphism of machines in Warhammer 40,000 is evident in Winter Assault, where General Sturnn comments on the repairs on the Titan as it being "nursed back to health". Warhammer 40,000 (informally known as Warhammer 40K, WH40K, W40K or just 40K) is a science fantasy game produced by Games Workshop. ... The Imperium of Man is a fictional galactic empire that contains the majority of humanity, set in the Warhammer 40K universe created by Games Workshop. ...


Perhaps the most famous example of anthropomorphized machines is found in Transformers, where the robots of both Autobots and Decepticons are anthropomorphic machines in both their robot forms and their disguised forms. They even hold to human ideas, both good and evil: the Autobots, led by Optimus Prime, believes in protection of the weak and that "freedom is a right for all sentient life", where the Decepticons, led by Megatron believes that only the strong deserves to survive and strives for complete domination over those they deem inferior. This page is about the original Transformers animated series. ... The Autobots are the protagonists in the Transformers Universe, a collection of various toys, graphic novels, paperback books, cartoons and movies first introduced in 1984. ... The Decepticons (also known as Destrons in Japan) are the enemies of the Autobots, and the villains in the Transformers toyline and related spin-off comics and cartoons. ... This refers to the original character. ... This article is about the fictional Transformers character. ...


In addition to sci-fi aliens and robots, today's animated films and TV series also follow classic anthropomorphism in anthropomorphizing animals. In the Shrek trilogy, the Donkey is an anphropomorphic donkey who is a close companion of Shrek, and introduced in the second film is Puss in Boots, an anthropomorphic cat assassin who joins Shrek. Also, Chicken Run and Over the Hedge are films that feature predominately anthromorphic animals as main characters. Many of the characters in Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, such as Leonardo, Donatello, Michelangelo, Raphael, and Splinter are also anthropomorphic animals. More recently, the animated series Happy Tree Friends also features anthropomorphic animals, all engaging in normal human activities before being killed in either tragic accidents which suddenly happens, or murdered by Flippy, a war-veteran bear suffering from an extreme case of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. For other uses, see Shrek (disambiguation). ... This article is about the movie. ... Over the Hedge is a computer-animated film based on the United Media comic strip of the same name. ... TMNT redirects here. ... Happy Tree Friends is a Flash cartoon series by Mondo Mini Shows, created by Kenn Navarro, Aubrey Ankrum and Rhode Montijo. ...


In technical fields

ASIMO, an anthropomorphic robot created by Honda
ASIMO, an anthropomorphic robot created by Honda

Hackers and programmers are known to anthropomorphize technology, mostly as a time-saving metaphorical device. Complex technology, specifically computers, can exhibit complicated behaviors that can be lengthy to describe in purely inanimate terms. (Note that describing computer systems as having behaviors may itself be considered a kind of anthropomorphism). Therefore, hackers may use human actions and emotions to describe the behavior of a computer system. For example, if a program encounters minor errors but can still accomplish its task, it may do so but send the user an error message. Especially in instances where the error encountered is considered trivial, a hacker might describe the computer as "complaining." This human action (complaining) conveys that there is a difficulty, while acknowledging the trivial nature of the difficulty, and perhaps the fact that the program did what was required despite the difficulty. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (960x1280, 970 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: ASIMO ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (960x1280, 970 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: ASIMO ... Press release photo of the most recent ASIMO model ASIMO ) is a humanoid robot created by Honda Motor Company. ... This article is about computer hacking. ... In computing, a programmer is someone who does computer programming and develops computer software. ... The tower of a personal computer. ...


Anthropomorphism particularly effects the field of robotics, especially in instances of robots that are given human forms. For other uses, see robot (disambiguation). ...


See the section on anthropomorphism in the Jargon File for more information, including the self-referentially hackish joke on the topic "Don't anthropomorphize computers: they hate that". The Jargon File is a glossary of hacker slang. ...


This form of anthropomorphism is also common in other technical fields. For example, a chemist might casually explain a covalent bond between carbon and hydrogen by asserting that the carbon atom "shares" electrons with the hydrogen atom, although the chemist knows that atoms are incapable of the human connotative meaning of sharing. A similar example in biology is the selfish gene theory. A chemist pours from a round-bottom flask. ... Covalent redirects here. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Similarly, in finance, a financial market that rises and falls might be described as "fickle." However, because it is a process made possible by humans, and directly effected by human actions (particularly reactions to market forces), the market is theoretically capable of reflecting human emotions. If the criterion for anthropomorphism is that the subject is ascribed human attributes it does not have, financial markets and other demographic forces may not qualify. However, they might be considered true personifications of human emotion, and qualify much like the personification of desire. Finance studies and addresses the ways in which individuals, businesses, and organizations raise, allocate, and use monetary resources over time, taking into account the risks entailed in their projects. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In artificial intelligence

The study and development of artificial intelligence identifies the tendency to see human characteristics in inanimate objects as potentially more significant, especially as computers begin to reach the point at which they can recognize spoken language. Some computers display very specific and specialized categories of simulated human behaviour, such as learning from mistakes, anticipating input, playing chess and other games which require human-like intelligence. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... AI redirects here. ... This article is about the machine. ... This article is about the Western board game. ...


In rhetoric and logical reasoning

Anthropomorphism in the form of personification consists of creating imaginary persons who are the embodiment of an abstract concept such as lust, war, or death. This is common in many mythologies, of which the best known are Greek and Roman, and fantasy fiction. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Phillipp Veits Germania (1877), a personification of Germany. ... Lust is any intense desire or craving for self gratification. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... Grim Reaper redirects here. ... A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ...


See Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Four horsemen...


In classical rhetoric, personification is a figure of speech, or more specifically, a trope, that employs the deliberate use of anthropomorphism, usually in attempt to make an emotional appeal. In rhetorical theory, a distinction is often drawn between personification (anthropomorphism of inanimate, but real, objects) and figures such as apostrophe, in which an absent people or abstract concepts are addressed. Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... A figure of speech, sometimes termed a rhetoric, or elocution, is a word or phrase that departs from straightforward, literal language. ... In literature, a trope is a familiar and repeated symbol, meme, theme, motif, style, character or thing that permeates a particular type of literature. ... For the apostrophe as a punctuation mark, see apostrophe. ...


An example of rhetorical personification:

A tree whose hungry mouth is prest
Against the earth's sweet-flowing breast.

Joyce Kilmer, Trees Alfred Joyce Kilmer (6 December 1886 – 30 July 1918) was an American journalist, poet, literary critic, lecturer and editor. ...

An example of rhetorical apostrophe:

O eloquent, just, and mighty Death!

Walter Raleigh, History of the World This article is about the sixteenth-century explorer. ...

Using anthropomorphized caricatures or projecting human qualities on conceptual entities or inanimate objects in reasoning is also known as committing a pathetic fallacy (in logical reasoning, this is not a pejorative term). For the book of comics by Daniel Clowes see Caricature (Daniel Clowes collection) A caricature of film comedian Charlie Chaplin. ... Reasoning is the mental (cognitive) process of looking for reasons to support beliefs, conclusions, actions or feelings. ... The pathetic fallacy or anthropomorphic fallacy is the description of inanimate natural objects in a manner that endows them with human feelings, thoughts and sensations. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with pejoration. ...


See also

YOU SUCK ... Animal cognition, is the title given to a modern approach to the mental capacities of animals other than humans. ... Anthropopathy (Greek ανθρωπος, anthropos, human, παθος, pathos, suffering) is the attribution of human emotion to a non-human being, generally a god. ... The fusion of cognitive science and classical ethology into cognitive ethology emphasizes observing animals under more-or-less natural conditions, with the objective of understanding the evolution, adaptation (function), causation, and development of the species-specific behavioral repertoire - (Tinbergen 1963). ... A figure of speech, sometimes termed a rhetoric, or elocution, is a word or phrase that departs from straightforward, literal language. ... Some furry fans create and wear costumes of their characters, commonly known as fursuits Furry fandom is a fandom distinguished by its enjoyment of anthropomorphic, often humanoid, animal characters. ... The term humanoid refers to any being whose body structure resembles that of a human. ... Kemono-Taiheiki, a work of Japanese art from the Muromachi period. ... All of these are common aspects of emotions, the natural world, or the elements, which have, through centuries, gained anthropomorphic qualities. ... Louis Wain at his drawing table in the 1890s Louis Wain (1860-1939) was an English artist best known for his drawings, which consistently featured anthropomorphised large-eyed cats and kittens. ... Wikipe-tan, a moé anthropomorphization of Wikipedia. ... Britannia arm-in-arm with Uncle Sam symbolizes the British-American alliance in World War I. Germania representing Germany, from 1848. ... A group image of the OS-tans. ... The pathetic fallacy or anthropomorphic fallacy is the description of inanimate natural objects in a manner that endows them with human feelings, thoughts and sensations. ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... WPA poster by Kenneth Whitley, 1939 The talking animal or speaking animal term, in general, refers to any form of animal which can talk or conduct speech. ... Repliee Q2 The Uncanny Valley is a hypothesis about robotics concerning the emotional response of humans to robots and other non-human entities. ...

References

  1. ^ This article incorporates content from the 1728 Cyclopaedia, a publication in the public domain. Anthropomorphite.
  • Shipley, Orby. ed. A glossary of ecclesiastical terms. 1872.

Table of Trigonometry, 1728 Cyclopaedia Cyclopaedia, or, A Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences (folio, 2 vols. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

External links

Look up Anthropomorphism in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Anthropomorphism (1112 words)
In this sense, Anthropomorphism is the ascription to the Supreme Being of the
The charge of Anthropomorphism can be urged against our way of thinking and speaking of God by those only who, despite the protestations of theologians and philosophers, persist in assuming that terms are used univocally of God and of creatures.
The error was revived in northern Italy during the tenth century, but was effectually suppressed by the bishops, notably by the learned Ratherius, Bishop of Verona.
Anthropomorphism, Anthropomorphites (1215 words)
In this sense, Anthropomorphism is the ascription to the Supreme Being of the form, organs, operations, and general characteristics of human nature.
At the same time, when the theologian or philosopher employs these and similar terms with reference to God, he understands them to be predicated not in exactly the same sense that they bear when applied to man, but in a sense controlled and qualified by the principles laid down in the doctrine of analogy.
The charge of Anthropomorphism can be urged against our way of thinking and speaking of God by those only who, despite the protestations of theologians and philosophers, persist in assuming that terms are used univocally of God and of creatures.
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