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Encyclopedia > Anthropic rock

Anthropic rock is rock that is made, modified and moved by humans. Concrete is the most widely-known example of this [1]. The new category has been proposed to recognise that man-made rocks are likely to last for long periods of Earth's future geological time, and will be important in humanity's long-term future. Concrete being poured, raked and vibrated into place in residential construction in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... The table and timeline of geologic periods presented here is in accordance with the dates and nomenclature proposed by the International Commission on Stratigraphy. ...



Anthropogenic lithogenesis is a historically new event-process within the Earth. For millennia humans dug and piled only natural rocks. Archaeologists, during 1998, reported that artificial rock was made in ancient Mesopotamia [2]. British Victorians were very familiar with the durable mock-rock surface formations used in public parks, constructed of Pulhamite and Coade stone [3]. Concrete, as we know it today, dates from 1756. Worldwide, concrete's preparation adds at least 0.2 gigatonnes yearly to the atmosphere's CO2 gas stock and, thereby affects Earth's Greenhouse Effect. In 2007, about 7.5 - 8 cubic kilometers of concrete are created annually by humans. Look up anthropogenic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... Queen Victoria (shown here on the morning of her Ascension to the Throne, 20 June 1837) gave her name to the historic era The Victorian Era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British industrial revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... Coade stone was a type of artificial stone first created by Mrs Eleanor Coade (Elinor Coade, 1733-1821), and sold commercially from 1769 to 1833. ... 1756 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... A gigaton (or gigatonne) is a metric unit of mass, equal to 1,000,000,000 (1 billion) metric tons, 1,000,000,000,000 (1 trillion) kilograms, or 1 quadrillion grams. ... Carbon dioxide is an atmospheric gas composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... A schematic representation of the exchanges of energy between outer space, the Earths atmosphere, and the Earth surface. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... A cubic kilometre (symbol km³) is an SI derived unit of volume. ...

Classification and theory

The USA geologist Dr. James Ross Underwood, Jr., born 1927, has foreseen humanity's need for a Fourth Class of rocks to be added to Earth and planetary materials studies which would supplement geology's long-identified igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic groups. His practical proposal for an "Anthropic Rocks" category [4] recognizes the pervading spread of humankind and its industrial products. 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Igneous rocks are formed when molten rock (magma) cools and solidifies, with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. ... Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... The term Metamorphic can be associated with a number of meanings:- Metamorphic rock The term for rocks that have been transformed by extreme heat and pressure. ...

Dr. Underwood's theoretical innovation is a logical extension of the near-constant redefinition event-process that terms such as igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary have already undergone because of scientific progress.


Future macro-engineering of the Earth may involve the total envelopment of the planet with, among other materials, concrete [5]. NASA and others have offered many settlement proposals that entail the use of in-situ resources of the Moon and Mars, such as brick, by astronauts. The relatively inert nature of rocks has been exploited in many methods to immobilize chemical and/or radioactive wastes; the Australian researcher, A.E. Ringwood, developed a titanate ceramic called SYNROC, his acronym for "synthetic rock" [6]. D.J. Sheppard proposed Sun-orbiting space colonies, interplanetary and interstellar spaceships ought to be manufactured of concrete [7]. There have also been proposals for deep-diving submarines constructed of concrete [8]. This article needs to be wikified. ... Apparent magnitude: up to -12. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... An old brick wall in English bond laid with alternating courses of headers and Brick is an artificial stone made by forming clay into rectangular blocks which are hardened, either by burning in a kiln or sometimes, in warm countries, by sun-drying. ... For other uses, see Astronaut (disambiguation). ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... An illustration showing the various sources of nuclear waste Radioactive waste are waste types containing radioactive chemical elements that do not have a practical purpose. ... Fixed Partial Denture, or Bridge The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικός (keramikos). ... German UC-1 class World War I submarine A model of Günther Priens Unterseeboot 47 (U-47), German WWII Type VII diesel-electric hunter Typhoon class nuclear ballistic missile submarine USS Virginia, a Virginia-class nuclear attack (SSN) submarine A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate...


  1. ^ A. Bentur, "Cementitious Materials--Nine Millennia and a New Century: Past, Present, and Future", ASCE Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 14: 2-22 (February 2002).
  2. ^ E.C. Stone, "From shifting silt to solid stone: the manufacture of synthetic basalt in ancient Mesopotamia", Science 280: 2091-2093 (26 June 1998).
  3. ^ I. Freestone, "Forgotten but not lost: the secret of Coade Stone", Proceedings of the Geologist's Association 105: 141-143 (1994).
  4. ^ James R. Underwood, Jr., "Anthropic Rocks as a Fourth Basic Class", Environmental & Engineering Geoscience VII: 104-110 (February 2001).
  5. ^ Viorel Badescu and R.B. Cathcart, "Environmental thermodynamic limitations on global human population", International Journal of Global Energy Issues 25: 129-140 (2006).
  6. ^ A.E. Ringwood, Safe Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Reactor Waste: A New Strategy (1978).
  7. ^ D.J. Sheppard, "Concrete space colonies", Spaceflight 21: 3-8 (January 1979).
  8. ^ David Cohen, "Fantastic Voyager", New Scientist 173: 36-39 (9 March 2002).



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