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Encyclopedia > Anthrax
Anthrax
Classification and external resources
Microphotograph of a Gram stain the bacterium Bacillus anthracis which causes anthrax.
ICD-10 A22.minor
ICD-9 022
OMIM [2] 606410 608041
DiseasesDB 1203
MedlinePlus 001325
eMedicine med/148 
MeSH 68000881

Anthrax is an acute disease in humans and animals caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis which is highly lethal in some forms. There are effective vaccines against anthrax, and some forms of the disease respond well to antibiotic treatment. Anthrax may refer to several articles: The highly contagious disease. ... Image File history File links Bacillus_anthracis_Gram. ... Gram staining is a method for staining samples of bacteria that differentiates between the two main types of bacterial cell wall. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs (A00-A09) Intestinal infectious diseases (A00) Cholera (A01) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (A010) Typhoid fever (A02) Other Salmonella infections (A03) Shigellosis (A04) Other bacterial intestinal infections (A040) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection (A045) Campylobacter enteritis (A046) Enteritis due to Yersinia... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... In medicine, an acute disease is a disease with either or both of: a rapid onset; a short course (as opposed to a chronic course). ... This article is about the medical term. ... Binomial name Cohn 1872 Structure of Bacillus anthracis. ...


The anthrax bacillum is one of only a few that can form long-lived spores: in a hostile environment, caused perhaps by the death of an infected host or extremes of temperature, the bacteria become inactive dormant spores which can remain viable for many decades and perhaps centuries. Spores are found on all continents except Antarctica. When spores are inhaled, ingested, or come into contact with a skin lesion on a host they reactivate and multiply very rapidly. An endospore is a dormant, tough, non-reproductive structure produced by a small number of bacteria from the Firmicute family. ...


Anthrax most commonly infects wild and domesticated grass-eating mammals (ruminants) which ingest or inhale the spores while eating grass. Anthrax can also infect humans when they are exposed to dead infected pigs, eat tissue from infected animals, or are exposed to a high density of anthrax spores from an animal's fur, hide, or wool. A ruminant is any hooved animal that digests its food in two steps, first by eating the raw material and regurgitating a semi-digested form known as cud, then eating the cud. ... This article is about modern humans. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... An endospore is a dormant, tough, non-reproductive structure produced by a small number of bacteria from the Firmicute family. ... For other uses, see Fur (disambiguation). ... Hides are skins obtained from animals that are used for human use. ... For other uses, see Wool (disambiguation). ...


Anthrax spores can be grown in vitro and used as a biological weapon. Anthrax does not spread directly from one infected animal or person to another, but spores can be transported by clothing, shoes etc.; and the body of a mammal that died of anthrax can be a very dangerous source of anthrax spores.


The name anthrax comes from anthrakitis, the Greek word for anthracite (coal), in reference to the black skin lesions victims develop in a cutaneous skin infection. Anthracite coal Anthracite (Greek Ανθρακίτης, literally a form of coal, from Anthrax [Άνθραξ], coal) is a hard, compact variety of mineral coal that has a high luster. ... Skin lesions caused by Chickenpox A lesion is any abnormal tissue found on or in an organism, usually damaged by disease or trauma. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ...

Contents

Overview

Color-enhanced scanning electron micrograph shows splenic tissue from a monkey with inhalational anthrax; featured are rod-shaped bacilli (yellow) and an erythrocyte (red).
Color-enhanced scanning electron micrograph shows splenic tissue from a monkey with inhalational anthrax; featured are rod-shaped bacilli (yellow) and an erythrocyte (red).

Anthrax is one of the oldest recorded diseases of grazing animals such as sheep and cattle and is believed to be the Sixth Plague mentioned in the Book of Exodus in the Bible[1]. Anthrax is also mentioned by Greek and Roman authors such as Homer (in The Iliad), Virgil (Georgics), and Hippocrates. Anthrax can also infect humans, usually as the result of coming into contact with infected animal hides, fur, wool ("Woolsorter's disease"), leather or contaminated soil. Anthrax ("siberian ulcer" [2]) is now fairly rare (5 confirmed fatalities in 2006) in humans although it still occasionally occurs in ruminants, such as cattle, sheep, goats, camels, wild buffalo, and antelopes. SEM Cambridge S150 at Geological Institute, University Kiel, 1980 SEM opened sample chamber The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of electron microscope capable of producing high-resolution images of a sample surface. ... The spleen is an organ located in the abdomen, where it functions in the destruction of old red blood cells and holding a reservoir of blood. ... Approximate worldwide distribution of monkeys. ... This page is about the bacterial class. ... Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and are the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen to body tissues via the blood. ... The Plagues of Egypt (Hebrew: ), the Biblical Plagues or the Ten Plagues (Hebrew: ) are the ten calamities foisted upon Egypt by God in the Bible (as recounted in the book of Exodus, chapters 7 - 12), in order to convince Pharaoh[1] to let the Israelite slaves go. ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Greek poet Homer and the works attributed to him. ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... Georgics Book III, Shepherd with Flocks, Vatican The Georgics, published in 29 BC, is the second major work by the Latin poet Virgil. ... For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ... A ruminant is any hooved animal that digests its food in two steps, first by eating the raw material and regurgitating a semi-digested form known as cud, then eating the cud. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... Species See text. ... This article is about the domestic species. ... For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ... Subfamilies Bovinae Cephalophinae Hippotraginae Antilopinae Caprinae A bovid is any of almost 140 species of cloven-hoofed mammals belonging to the family Bovidae. ... This article is about the herbivorous mammals. ...


Bacillus anthracis bacteria spores are soil-borne and because of their long lifetime they are still present globally and at animal burial sites of anthrax-killed animals for many decades; spores have been known to have reinfected animals over 70 years after burial sites of anthrax-infected animals were disturbed. [3]


Until the twentieth century anthrax infections killed many thousands of animals and thousands of people each year in Europe, Asia and North America. [3] French scientist Louis Pasteur developed the first effective vaccine for anthrax in 1881. [4][5][6] Thanks to over a century of animal vaccination programs, sterilization of raw animal waste materials and anthrax eradication programs in North America, Australia, New Zealand, Russia, Europe and parts of New Mexico and Asia anthrax infection is now rare in domestic animals with normally only a few dozen cases reported every year. Anthrax is even rarer in dogs and cats: there had only ever been one documented case in dogs in the USA by 2001, although the disease affects livestock.[4] Anthrax outbreaks do occur in a few wild animal populations with some regularity. [7] The disease is more common in developing countries without widespread veterinary or human public health programs. Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist and microbiologist best known for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and prevention of disease. ... This article is about the domestic dog. ... Cats may refer to: Felines, members of the animal family Felidae The domesticated animal, cat The musical, yeah right, I bet that this was really dumb. ...


There are 89 known strains of anthrax, the most widely recognized[citation needed] being the virulent Ames strain used in the 2001 anthrax attacks in the United States. The Ames strain is extremely dangerous, though not quite as virulent as the Vollum strain which was successfully developed as a biological weapon during the Second World War, but never used. The Vollum (also incorrectly referred to as Vellum) strain was isolated in 1935 from a cow in Oxfordshire, UK. This is the same strain that was used during the Gruinard bioweapons trials. A variation of Vollum known as "Vollum 1B" was used during the 1960s in the US and UK bioweapon programs. Vollum 1B was isolated from William A. Boyles, a 46-year-old USAMRIID scientist who died in 1951 after being accidentally infected with the Vollum strain. The Sterne strain, named after a South African researcher, is an attenuated strain used as a vaccine. In biology, Strain can be used two ways. ... The Ames strain is one of 89 strains from the anthrax bacteria (Bacillus anthracis). ... In biology, Strain can be used two ways. ... The 2001 anthrax attacks in the United States, also known as Amerithrax from its FBI case name, occurred over the course of several weeks beginning on September 18, 2001. ... Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of any organism (bacteria, virus or other disease_causing organism) or toxin found in nature, as a weapon of war. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... COW is an acronym for a number of things: Can of worms The COW programming language, an esoteric programming language. ... Oxfordshire (abbreviated Oxon, from the Latinised form Oxonia) is a county in the South East of England, bordering on Northamptonshire, Buckinghamshire, Berkshire, Wiltshire, Gloucestershire, and Warwickshire. ... Gruinard Island is a small Scottish island, located in Gruinard Bay, about halfway between Gairloch and Ullapool. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... The U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases is based at Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland. ...


Description of the bacterium

Main article: Bacillus anthracis

Bacillus anthracis is a rod-shaped Gram-positive bacterium, about 1 by 9 micrometers in size. It was shown to cause disease by Robert Koch in 1877. [8] The bacterium normally rests in endospore form in the soil, and can survive for decades in this state. Ruminants are often infected whilst grazing, especially when grazing rough, irritant or spiky vegetation: the vegetation causes wounds within the gastrointestinal tract permitting entry of the bacterial endo-spores into the tissues. Once ingested by a ruminant or placed in an open cut, the bacterium begins multiplying inside the animal or human and in a few days to a month kills it. The endo-spores germinate at the site of entry into the tissues and then spread via the circulation to the lymphatics, where the bacteria multiply. It is the production of a powerful exo-toxin by the bacteria that causes death. Veterinarians can often tell a possible anthrax-induced death by its sudden occurrence and by the blood and bloody fluids that oozes from the body orifices. Most anthrax bacteria inside the body are destroyed by anaerobic bacteria that can grow without oxygen. The greater danger lies in the bodily fluids and blood that spills from the body and spill into the soil where the anthrax bacteria turn into a dormant protective spore form. Once formed the spores are very hard to eradicate. Binomial name Cohn 1872 Structure of Bacillus anthracis. ... Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by gram staining, in contrast to gram-negative bacteria, which are not affected by the stain. ... For the American lobbyist, see Bobby Koch. ... An endospore is a dormant, tough, non-reproductive structure produced by a small number of bacteria from the Firmicute family. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ruminantia. ... Gut redirects here. ...


The infection of ruminants (and occasionally humans) normally proceeds as follows: once the spores are inhaled they are transported through the air passages into the tiny air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs. The spores are then picked up by scavenger cells (macrophages) in the lungs and are transported through small vessels (lymphatics) to the glands (lymph nodes) in the central chest cavity (mediastinum). Damage caused by the anthrax spores and bacilli to the central chest cavity lungs can cause chest pain and difficulty breathing. Once in the lymph glands, the spores germinate into active bacillus, that multiplies, and eventually bursts the macrophage cell, releasing many more bacilli into the bloodstream which are transferred to the entire body. Once in the blood stream these bacilli release a tripartite toxin (composed of lethal factor, oedema factor and protective antigen) which is known to be the primary agents of tissue destruction, bleeding, and death. If antibiotics are administered too late, even if the antibiotics eradicate the bacteria, some people will still die. This is because the toxins produced by the bacilli remain in their system at lethal dose levels. A macrophage of a mouse stretching its arms to engulf two particles, possibly pathogens Macrophages (Greek: big eaters, from makros large + phagein eat) are cells within the tissues that originate from specific white blood cells called monocytes. ... The lymphatic system is a complex network of lymphoid organs, lymph nodes, lymph ducts, lymphatic tissues, lymph capillaries and lymph vessels that produce and transport lymph fluid from tissues to the circulatory system. ... Lymph nodes are components of the lymphatic system. ... FIG. 967– Transverse section through the upper margin of the second thoracic vertebra The mediastinum is a non-delineated group of structures in the thorax (chest), surrounded by loose connective tissue. ...


In order to enter the cells, the toxins use another protein produced by B. anthracis, protective antigen. Oedema factor inactivates neutrophils (a type of phagocytic cell) so that they cannot phagocytose bacteria. Historically, it was believed that lethal factor caused macrophages to make TNF-alpha and interleukin 1, beta (IL1B), both normal components of the immune system used to induce an inflammatory reaction, ultimately leading to septic shock and death. However, recent evidence indicates that anthrax also targets endothelial cells (cells that lines serous cavities, lymph vessels, and blood vessels), causing vascular leakage (similar to hemorrhagic bleeding), and ultimately hypovolemic shock (low blood volume), and not only septic shock. In other words, the patient bleeds to death internally. Neutrophil granulocytes (commonly referred to as neutrophils) are a class of white blood cells and are part of the immune system. ... In medicine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, cachexin or cachectin) is an important cytokine involved in systemic inflammation and the acute phase response. ... Expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location Interleukin 1, beta, also known as IL1B, is a human gene. ... Septic shock is a very serious medical condition caused by decreased tissue perfusion and oxygen delivery as a result of infection and sepsis. ... In physiology and medicine, hypovolemia is a state of decreased blood volume. ...


The virulence of a strain of anthrax is dependent on multiple factors, primarily the poly-D-glutamic acid capsule that protects the bacterium from phagocytosis by host neutrophils and its toxins, edema toxin and lethal toxin. Anthrax toxin refers to three proteins secreted by virulent strains of the bacteria Bacillus anthracis. ...


Exposure

Occupational exposure to infected animals or their products (such as skin wool and meat) is the usual pathway of exposure for humans. Workers who are exposed to dead animals and animal products are at the highest risk, especially in countries where anthrax is more common. Anthrax in livestock grazing on open range where they mix with wild animals still occasionally occurs in the United States and elsewhere. Many workers who deal with wool and animal hides are routinely exposed to low levels of anthrax spores but most exposures are not sufficient to develop anthrax infections. Presumably, the body’s natural defenses can destroy low levels of exposure. These people usually contract cutaneous anthrax if they catch anything. Historically, the most dangerous form of inhalation anthrax was called Woolsorters' disease because it was an occupational hazard for people who sorted wool. Today this form of infection is extremely rare as there are almost no infected animals any more. The last fatal case of natural inhalation anthrax in the United States occurred in California in 1976, when a home weaver died after working with infected wool imported from Pakistan. The autopsy was done at UCLA hospital. To minimize the chance of spreading the disease, the deceased was transported to UCLA in a sealed plastic body bag within a sealed metal container.[5] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Anthrax#Pulmonary (pneumonic, respiratory, or inhalation) anthrax. ...


In July 2006 an artist who worked with untreated animal skins became the first person in more than 30 years to die in the United Kingdom from anthrax.[6]


Mode of infection

Inhalational anthrax - Mediastinal widening
Inhalational anthrax - Mediastinal widening

Anthrax can enter the human body through the intestines (ingestion), lungs (inhalation), or skin (cutaneous) and causes distinct clinical symptoms based on its site of entry. An infected human will generally be quarantined. However, anthrax does not usually spread from an infected human to a noninfected human. But if the disease is fatal the person’s body and its mass of anthrax bacilli becomes a potential source of infection to others and special precautions should be used to prevent further contamination. Inhalation anthrax, if left untreated until obvious symptoms occur, will usually result in death, as treatment will have started too late. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... FIG. 967– Transverse section through the upper margin of the second thoracic vertebra The mediastinum is a non-delineated group of structures in the thorax (chest), surrounded by loose connective tissue. ...


Anthrax can be contracted in laboratory accidents or by handling infected animals or their wool or hides. It has also been used in biological warfare agents and by terrorists to intentionally infect humans. For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... Terrorist redirects here. ...


Pulmonary (pneumonic, respiratory, or inhalation) anthrax

Respiratory infection initially presents with cold or flu-like symptoms for several days, followed by severe (and often fatal) respiratory collapse. This disease can rarely be treated, even if caught in early stages of infection; mortality is nearly 100%.[7] A lethal infection is reported to result from inhalation of about 10,000–20,000 spores. [9] Like all diseases there is probably a wide variation to susceptibility with evidence that some people may die from much lower exposures; there is little documented evidence to verify the exact or average number of spores needed for infection. Inhalation anthrax is also known as woolsorters' disease or as ragpickers' disease since these people often caught it. Other practices associated with exposure include the slicing up of animal horns for the manufacture of buttons, the handling of hair bristles used for the manufacturing of brushes, and the handling of animal skins. Whether these animal skins came from animals that died of the disease or from animals that had simply laid on ground that had spores on it is unknown. This mode of infection is used as a bioweapon. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Anthrax#Pulmonary (pneumonic, respiratory, or inhalation) anthrax. ... Woolsorters Disease is a name for the inhalation variety of anthrax; it is so named because it was primarily experienced by workers exposed to Anthrax spores from animal hides and furs. ...


Gastrointestinal (gastroenteric) anthrax

Gastrointestinal infection is most often caused by eating anthrax-infected meat and is characterized by serious gastrointestinal difficulty, vomiting of blood, severe diarrhea, acute inflammation of the intestinal tract, and loss of appetite. Some lesions have been found in the intestines and in the mouth and throat. After the bacteria invades the bowel system, it spreads through the bloodstream throughout the body, making even more toxins on the way. Gastrointestinal infections can be treated but usually result in fatality rates of 25% to 60%, depending upon how soon treatment commences. [8] Heaving redirects here. ...


Cutaneous (skin) anthrax

Anthrax skin lesion.

Cutaneous (on the skin) anthrax infection shows up as a boil-like skin lesion that eventually forms an ulcer with a black centre(i.e., eschar). The black eschar often shows up as a large, painless necrotic ulcer (beginning as an irritating and itchy skin lesion or blister that is dark and usually concentrated as a black dot, somewhat resembling bread mold) at the site of infection. Cutaneous infections generally form within the site of spore penetration within 2 to 5 days after exposure. Unlike bruises or most other lesions, cutaneous anthrax infections normally do not cause pain. [8] Image File history File links Milzbrand. ... Image File history File links Milzbrand. ...


Cutaneous anthrax is rarely fatal if treated[7], but without treatment about 20% of cutaneous skin infection cases progress to toxemia and death. Toxemia is another term for blood poisoning, or the presence in the bloodstream of quantities of bacteria or bacterial toxins sufficient to cause serious illness. ...


Treatment and prevention

Direct person-to-person spread of anthrax is extremely unlikely; but a patient’s clothing and body may be contaminated with anthrax spores. Effective decontamination of people can be accomplished by a thorough wash down with anti-microbe effective soap and water. Waste water should be treated with bleach or other anti-microbial agent. Effective decontamination of articles can be accomplished by boiling contaminated articles in water for 30 minutes or longer and using common disinfectants. Chlorine is effective in destroying spores and vegetative cells on surfaces. Burning clothing is also effective. After decontamination, there is no need to immunize, treat or isolate contacts of persons ill with anthrax unless they were also exposed to the same source of infection. Early antibiotic treatment of anthrax is essential—delay seriously lessens chances for survival. Treatment for anthrax infection and other bacterial infections includes large doses of intravenous and oral antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones, like ciprofloxacin (cipro), doxycycline, erythromycin, vancomycin or penicillin. In possible cases of inhalation anthrax, early antibiotic prophylaxis treatment is crucial to prevent possible death. If death occurs from anthrax the body should be isolated to prevent possible spread of anthrax germs. Burial does not kill anthrax spores. Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... Nalidixic acid Ciprofloxacin Levofloxacin Trovafloxacin The quinolones are a family of broad-spectrum antibiotics. ... Ciprofloxacin is the generic international name for the synthetic antibiotic manufactured and sold by Bayer Pharmaceutical under the brand names Cipro, Ciproxin and Ciprobay (and other brand names in other markets, e. ... Doxycycline (INN) (IPA: ) is a member of the tetracycline antibiotics group and is commonly used to treat a variety of infections. ... Erythromycin is a macrolide antibiotic which has an antimicrobial spectrum similar to or slightly wider than that of penicillin, and is often used for people who have an allergy to penicillins. ... Crystal structure of a short peptide L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala (bacterial cell wall precursor, in green) bound to vancomycin (blue) through hydrogen bonds. ... Penicillin core structure Penicillin (abbreviated PCN) is a group of β-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. ... Prophylaxis refers to any medical or public health procedure whose purpose is to prevent, rather than treat or cure, disease. ...


If a person is suspected as having died from anthrax every precaution should be taken to avoid skin contact with the potentially contaminated body and fluids exuded through natural body openings. The body should be put in strict quarantine. A blood sample taken in a sealed container and analyzed in an approved lab should be used to ascertain if anthrax is the cause of death. Microscopic visualization of the encapsulated bacilli, usually in large numbers, in a blood smear stained with polychrome methylene blue (McFadyean reaction) is fully diagnostic. Full isolation of the body is important to prevent possible contamination of others. Protective, impermeable clothing and equipment such as rubber gloves, rubber apron, and rubber boots with no perforations should be used when handling the body. No skin, especially if it has any wounds or scratches, should be exposed. Disposable personal protective equipment is preferable, but if not available, decontamination can be achieved by washing any exposed equipment in hot water, bleach and detergent. Disposable personal protective equipment and filters should be burned and buried. Bacillus anthracis bacillii range from 0.5-5.0 μm in size. Anyone working with anthrax in a suspected or confirmed victim should wear respiratory equipment capable of filtering this size of particle or smaller. The US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and Mine Safety and Health Administration (MS.HA) approved high efficiency-respirator, such as a half-face disposable respirator with a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter, is recommended. All possibly contaminated bedding or clothing should be isolated in double plastic bags and treated as possible bio-hazard waste. The victim should be sealed in an airtight body bag. Dead victims that are opened and not burned provide an ideal source of anthrax spores. Cremating victims is the preferred way of handling body disposal. No embalming or autopsy should be attempted without a fully equipped biohazard lab and trained and knowledgable personnel. A PVC glove A rubber glove is a glove made out of rubber. ... The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness. ... The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor which administers the provisions of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 (Mine Act) to enforce compliance with mandatory safety and health standards as a means to eliminate fatal accidents; to...


Delays of only a few days may make the disease untreatable and treatment should be started even without symptoms if possible contamination or exposure is suspected. Animals with anthrax often just die without any apparent symptoms. Initial symptoms may resemble a common cold – sore throat, mild fever, muscle aches and malaise. After a few days, the symptoms may progress to severe breathing problems and shock and ultimately death. Death can occur from about two days to a month after exposure with deaths apparently peaking at about 8 days after exposure. [9] Antibiotic-resistant strains of anthrax are known.


Aerial spores can be trapped by a simple HEPA or P100 filter.[citation needed] Inhalation of anthrax spores can be prevented with a full-face mask using appropriate filtration. Unbroken skin can be decontaminated by washing with simple soap and water.[citation needed] These procedures do not actually kill the spores, which are very hardy and can only be destroyed by extensive treatment. Filters, clothes, etc. exposed to possible anthrax-contaminated environments should be treated with chemicals or destroyed by fire to minimize the possibility of spreading the contamination. HEPA (IPA: ) is a type of air filter. ...


In recent years there have been many attempts to develop new drugs against anthrax, but existing drugs are effective if treatment is started soon enough.


Early detection of sources of anthrax infection can allow preventative measures to be taken. In response to the anthrax attacks of October, 2001 the United States Postal Service (USPS) installed BioDetection Systems (BDS)in their large scale mail cancellation facilities. BDS response plans were formulated by the USPS in conjunction with local responders including fire, police, hospitals and public health. Employees of these facilities have been educated about anthrax, response actions and prophylactic medication. Because of the time delay inherent in getting final verification that anthrax has been used, prophylactic antibiotic treatment of possibly exposed personnel must be started as soon as possible. USPS and Usps redirect here. ... Prophylaxis refers to any medical or public health procedure whose purpose is to prevent, rather than treat or cure, disease. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ...


The most effective form of prevention is vaccination against infection but this must be done well in advance of exposure to the bacillus, and does not protect indefinitely. Anthrax vaccine is a vaccine against the infectious disease Anthrax. ...


Components of tea, such as polyphenols, have the ability to inhibit the activity of bacillus anthracis and its toxin considerably. However, the addition of milk to the tea completely inhibits its antibacterial activity against anthrax[10]. Activity against the anthrax bacillum in the laboratory does not prove that tea is effective against spores, or that drinking tea affects the course of an infection. For other uses, see Tea (disambiguation). ... Polyphenols are a group of chemical substances found in plants, characterized by the presence of more than one phenol unit or building block per molecule. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Anthrax vaccines

An FDA-licensed vaccine, produced from one non-virulent strain of the anthrax bacterium, is manufactured by BioPort Corporation, subsidiary of Emergent BioSolutions. The trade name is BioThrax, although it is commonly called Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA). It is administered in a six-dose primary series at 0,2,4 weeks and 6,12,18 months; annual booster injections are required thereafter to maintain immunity. The injections are typically very painful, and may leave the area of injection with swelling; this area may be painful for several days.


Unlike the West, the Soviets developed and used a live spore anthrax vaccine, known as the STI vaccine, produced in Tbilisi, Georgia. Its serious side effects restrict use to healthy adults.[10] Tbilisi (Georgian თბილისი) — is the capital city of the country Georgia, located on the shore of Kura (Mtkvari) river, at 41°43′N 44°47′E. Tbilisi is also known by its former Turkish name Tiflis. ...


Site cleanup

Anthrax spores can survive for long periods of time in the environment after release. Methods for cleaning anthrax-contaminated sites commonly use oxidizing agents such as peroxides, ethylene oxide, Sandia Foam [11], chlorine dioxide (used in Hart Senate office building), and liquid bleach products containing sodium hypochlorite. These agents slowly destroy bacterial spores. A bleach solution for treating hard surfaces has been approved by the EPA [12]. It can be prepared by mixing one part bleach (5.25%-6.00%) to one part white vinegar to eight parts water. Bleach and vinegar must not be combined together directly, as doing so could produce chlorine gas. Rather some water must first be added to the bleach (e.g., two cups water to one cup of bleach), then vinegar (e.g., one cup), and then the rest of the water (e.g., six cups). The pH of the solution should be tested with a paper test strip; and treated surfaces must remain in contact with the bleach solution for 60 minutes (repeated applications will be necessary to keep the surfaces wet). European Union Chemical hazard symbol for oxidizing agents Dangerous goods label for oxidizing agents Oxidizing agent placard An oxidizing agent (also called an oxidant or oxidizer) is A chemical compound that readily transfers oxygen atoms or A substance that gains electrons in a redox chemical reaction. ... Peroxide has three distinct meanings: Colloquial meaning In common usage, peroxide is an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide (HOOH or H2O2) sold for use as a disinfectant or mild bleach. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ...


Chlorine dioxide has emerged as the preferred biocide against anthrax-contaminated sites, having been employed in the treatment of numerous government buildings over the past decade. Its chief drawback is the need for in situ processes to have the reactant on demand. Chlorine dioxide is a chemical compound with the formula ClO2. ... In situ is a Latin phrase meaning in the place. ...


To speed the process, trace amounts of a non-toxic catalyst composed of iron and tetro-amido macrocyclic ligands are combined with sodium carbonate and bicarbonate and converted into a spray. The spray formula is applied to an infested area and is followed by another spray containing tertiary-butyl hydroperoxide.[citation needed] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... In chemistry, a ligand is an atom, ion, or molecule (see also: functional group) that generally donates one or more of its electrons through a coordinate covalent bond to, or shares its electrons through a covalent bond with, one or more central atoms or ions (these ligands act as a... Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda or soda ash), Na2CO3, is a sodium salt of carbonic acid. ... For baking soda, see Sodium bicarbonate In inorganic chemistry, a bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid. ...


Using the catalyst method, a complete destruction of all anthrax spores takes 30 minutes.[citation needed] A standard catalyst-free spray destroys fewer than half the spores in the same amount of time. They can be heated, exposed to the harshest chemicals, and they do not easily die.


Cleanups at a Senate office building, several contaminated postal facilities and other U.S. government and private office buildings showed that decontamination is possible, but it is time-consuming and costly. Clearing the Senate office building of anthrax spores cost $27 million, according to the Government Accountability Office. Cleaning the Brentwood postal facility outside Washington cost $130 million and took 26 months. Since then newer and less costly methods have been developed. [13], [14]PDF (332 KiB) “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...


History

Discovery

Robert Koch, a German physician and scientist, first identified the bacteria which caused the anthrax disease in 1875.[11] His pioneering work in the late nineteenth century was one of the first demonstrations that diseases could be caused by microbes. In a groundbreaking series of experiments he uncovered the life cycle and means of transmission of anthrax. His experiments not only helped create an understanding of anthrax, but also helped elucidate the role of microbes in causing illness at a time when debates were still held over spontaneous generation versus cell theory. Koch went on to study the mechanisms of other diseases and was awarded the 1905 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the bacteria causing tuberculosis. Koch is today recognized as one of history's most important biologists and a founder of modern bacteriology. For the American lobbyist, see Bobby Koch. ... Abiogenesis, in its most general sense, is the hypothetical generation of life from non-living matter. ... A prokaryote Cell theory refers to the idea that cells are the basic unit of structure in all living things. ...


First vaccination

In May 1881 Louis Pasteur performed a public experiment to demonstrate his concept of vaccination. He prepared two groups of 25 sheep, one goat and several cows. The animals of one group were injected with an anti-anthrax vaccine prepared by Pasteur twice, at an interval of 15 days; the control group was left unvaccinated. Thirty days after the first injection both groups were injected with a culture of live anthrax bacteria. All the animals in the non-vaccinated group died, while all of the animals in the vaccinated group survived.[12] Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist and microbiologist best known for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and prevention of disease. ... Species See text. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ...


After mastering his method of vaccination Pasteur applied the concept to rabies. He went on to develop vaccines against small pox, cholera, and swine erysipelas. Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a highly contagious disease unique to humans. ... Distribution of cholera Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious gastroenteritis caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Erysipelas (Greek ερυσίπελας - red skin) is an acute streptococcus bacterial infection of the dermis, resulting in inflammation and characteristically extending into underlying fat tissue. ...


The human vaccine for anthrax became available in 1954. This was a cell-free vaccine instead of the live-cell Pasteur-style vaccine used for veterinary purposes. An improved cell-free vaccine became available in 1970.[13]


Biological warfare

Colin Powell holding a model vial of anthrax while giving a presentation to the United Nations Security Council.
Colin Powell holding a model vial of anthrax while giving a presentation to the United Nations Security Council.

Anthrax spores can and have been used as a biological warfare weapon. There is a long history of practical bioweapons research in this area. For example, in 1942 British bioweapons trials severely contaminated Gruinard Island in Scotland with anthrax spores of the Vollum-14578 strain, making it lethally dangerous to all mammals including humans, until it was decontaminated by 1990.[14] The Gruinard trials involved testing the effectiveness of a submunition of an "N-bomb"—a biological weapon. Additionally, five million "cattle cakes" impregnated with anthrax were prepared and stored at Porton Down in 'Operation Vegetarian'—an anti-livestock weapon intended for attacks on Germany by the Royal Air Force [15] The infected cattle cakes were to be dropped on Germany in 1944. However neither the cakes nor the bomb were used; the cattle cakes were incinerated in late 1945. Image File history File links Powell-anthrax-vial. ... Image File history File links Powell-anthrax-vial. ... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of any organism (bacteria, virus or other disease_causing organism) or toxin found in nature, as a weapon of war. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gruinard Island is a small Scottish island, located in Gruinard Bay, about halfway between Gairloch and Ullapool. ... This article is about the country. ... A submunition is the name given to a bomblet contained in a cluster bomb, generally 1% to 40% of this kind of bomblets explode, leting a large mine field. ... Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Porton Down, or often known more simply as Porton Down, is a United Kingdom government facility for military research, including CBRN defence. ... RAF redirects here. ...


More recently the Rhodesian government used anthrax against cattle and humans in the period 1978–1979 during its war with black nationalists.[15] This article is about the former British colony of Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ...


American military and British Army personnel are routinely vaccinated against anthrax prior to active service in places where biological attacks are considered a threat. The anthrax vaccine, produced by BioPort Corporation, contains non-living bacteria, and is approximately 93% effective in preventing infection.[citation needed] The United States Armed Forces are the overall unified military forces of the United States. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Anthrax vaccine is a vaccine against the infectious disease Anthrax. ... The Bioport Corporation is the only licensed supplier of the anthrax vaccine in the United States. ...


Weaponized stocks of anthrax in the US were destroyed in 1971–72 after President Nixon ordered the dismantling of US biowarfare programs in 1969 and the destruction of all existing stockpiles of bioweapons[16]. Research is known to continue in the United States on ways to counteract bioweapons attacks. Nixon redirects here. ...


Soviet accident: April 2, 1979

Despite signing the 1972 agreement to end bioweapon production the government of the Soviet Union had an active bioweapons program that included the production of hundreds of tons of weapons-grade anthrax after this period. On April 2, 1979 some of the over one million people living in Sverdlovsk (now called Ekaterinburg, Russia), about 850 miles east of Moscow, were exposed to an accidental release of anthrax from a biological weapons complex located near there. At least 94 people were infected, of whom at least 68 died. One victim died four days after the release, ten over an eight-day period at the peak of the deaths, and the last six weeks later. Extensive cleanup, vaccinations and medical interventions managed to save about 30 of the victims. [16] Extensive cover-ups and destruction of records by the KGB continued from 1979 until Russian President Boris Yeltsin admitted this anthrax accident in 1992. Jeanne Guillemin reported in 1999 that a combined Russian and United States team investigated the accident in 1992[17] [17], [18] Yekaterinburg (Russian: , also romanized Ekaterinburg or Jekaterinburg, formerly Sverdlovsk) is a major city in the central part of Russia, the administrative center of Sverdlovsk Oblast. ... Spores of anthrax were accidentally released from a military facility in the city of Sverdlovsk (formerly, and now again, Yekaterinburg) 900 miles East of Moscow on April 2, 1979. ... “Yeltsin” redirects here. ...


Nearly all of the night shift workers of a ceramics plant directly across the street from the biological facility (compound 19) became infected, and most died. Since most were men, there were suspicions by Western governments that the Soviet Union had developed a sex-specific weapon (Alibek, 1999). The government blamed the outbreak on the consumption of anthrax-tainted meat and ordered the confiscation of all uninspected meat that entered the city. They also ordered that all stray dogs be shot and that people not have contact with sick animals. There was also a voluntary evacuation and anthrax vaccination program established for people from 18–55 (Meselson et al., 1994). Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


To support the cover-up story Soviet medical and legal journals published articles about an outbreak in livestock that caused GI anthrax in people who consumed infected meat, and cutaneous anthrax in people who came into contact with the animals. All medical and public health records were confiscated by the KGB (Meselson et al., 1994). In addition to the medical problems that the outbreak caused, it also prompted Western countries to be (justifiably) more suspicious of a covert Soviet Bioweapons program and to increase their surveillance of suspected sites. In 1986 the US government was allowed to investigate the incident, and concluded that the exposure was from aerosol anthrax from a military weapons facility (Sternbach, 2002). In 1992, President Yeltsin admitted that he was "absolutely certain" that "rumors" about the Soviet Union violating the 1972 Bioweapons Treaty were true. The Soviet Union, like the US and UK, had agreed to submit information to the UN about their bioweapons programs but omitted known facilities and never acknowledged their weapons program (Alibek, 1999). This article is about a short-lived television series. ...


Anthrax bioterrorism

Theoretically anthrax spores can be cultivated with minimal special equipment and a first-year collegiate microbiological education, but in practice the procedure is difficult and dangerous. To make large amounts of an aerosol form of anthrax suitable for biological warfare extensive practical knowledge, training and highly advanced equipment are required. An agar plate streaked with microorganisms Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are unicellular or cell-cluster microscopic organisms. ... Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), aerosols or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. ...


Concentrated anthrax spores were used for bioterrorism in the 2001 anthrax attacks in the United States, delivered by mailing postal letters containing the spores. Only a few grams of material were used in these attacks and it is unknown if this material was produced by a single individual or by a state sponsored bioweapons program. These events also spawned many anthrax hoaxes. For the use of biological agents in warfare, see Biological warfare. ... The 2001 anthrax attacks in the United States, also known as Amerithrax from its FBI case name, occurred over the course of several weeks beginning on September 18, 2001. ... The following hoaxes have been perpetrated using anthrax as an implied threat. ...


Decontaminating mail

In response to the postal anthrax attacks and hoaxes the US Postal Service sterilized some mail using a process of gamma irradiation and treatment with a proprietary enzyme formula supplied by Sipco Industries Ltd.[18] A USPS Truck at Night A U.S. Post Office sign The United States Postal Service (USPS) is the United States government organization responsible for providing postal service in the United States and is generally referred to as the post office. ... Irradiation is the process by which an item is exposed to radiation. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Sipco Industries Ltd. ...


A scientific experiment performed by a high school student, later published in The Journal of Medical Toxicology, suggested that a domestic electric iron at its hottest setting (at least 400 °F (204 °C)) used for at least 5 minutes should destroy all anthrax spores in a common postal envelope. [19] An iron Ironing or smoothing is the work of using a heated tool to remove wrinkles from washed clothes. ...


See also

The 2001 anthrax attacks in the United States, also known as Amerithrax from its FBI case name, occurred over the course of several weeks beginning on September 18, 2001. ... The following hoaxes have been perpetrated using anthrax as an implied threat. ... The Ames strain is one of 89 strains from the anthrax bacteria (Bacillus anthracis). ... Gruinard Island is a small Scottish island, located in Gruinard Bay, about halfway between Gairloch and Ullapool. ... Spores of anthrax were accidentally released from a military facility in the city of Sverdlovsk (formerly, and now again, Yekaterinburg) 900 miles East of Moscow on April 2, 1979. ... Anthrax toxin refers to three proteins secreted by virulent strains of the bacteria Bacillus anthracis. ... Anthrax Detection Devices - The BSM-2000 is a Bacterial spore detection system developed by Universal Detection Technology in collaboration with NASAs Jet Propulsion Laboratory, that can detect Anthrax Spores in the air. ... Anthrax vaccine is a vaccine against the infectious disease Anthrax. ... The Anthrax Vaccine Immunization Program (AVIP), is the name of the policy set forth by the United States government to immunize its military and specific civilian personnel with the anthrax vaccine. ... This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ... Body disposal at Unit 731 Unit 731 was a covert biological warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) and World War II. It was responsible for some of the most notorious war crimes carried...

References

  1. ^ [H.W. Blanc , Anthrax: the disease of the Egyptian plagues. New Orleans Med Surg J 18 (1890), pp. 1–25.]
  2. ^ Jeanne Guillemin. Anthrax. The Investigation of a Deadly Outbreak
  3. ^ "Anthrax" by Jeanne Guillemin, University of California Press, 2001, ISBN 0-520-22917-7, pg. 3
  4. ^ Can Dogs Get Anthrax? Canine Nation, 30 October 2001. Retrieved 17 February 2007.
  5. ^ Human Pathology (Volume 9, pages 594-597, September, 1978)
  6. ^ Artist dies from anthrax caught from animal skins Independent News and Media Limited, 17 August 2006. Retrieved 6 October 2006.
  7. ^ a b Bravata DM, Holty JE, Liu H, McDonald KM, Olshen RA, Owens DK (2006), Systematic review: a century of inhalation anthrax cases from 1900 to 2005, Annals of Internal Medicine; 144(4): 270–80.
  8. ^ a b Anthrax Q & A: Signs and Symptoms. Emergency Preparedness and Response. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2003). Retrieved on 2007-04-19.
  9. ^ ANTHRAX, the investigation of a Deadly Outbreak, Jeanne Guillemin, University of California Press, 1999, ISBN 0=520-22917-7, chart of Russian deaths at Sverdlovsk, 1979, pg 27
  10. ^ ANTHRAX, the investigation of a Deadly Outbreak, Jeanne Guillemin, University of California Press, 1999, ISBN 0=520-22917-7, pg 34
  11. ^ Madigan M; Martinko J (editors). (2005). Brock Biology of Microorganisms, 11th ed., Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-144329-1. 
  12. ^ Decker, Janet. Deadly Diseases and Epidemics, Anthrax. Chelesa House Publishers, 2003. ISBN 0-7910-7302-5 p 27–28.
  13. ^ "Anthrax and Anthrax Vaccine - Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases", National Immunization Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, January 2006, http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd-vac/anthrax/downloads/ed-vpd2006-anthrax.ppt (PPT format)
  14. ^ The Times Newspaper:Saddam's germ war plot is traced back to one Oxford cow
  15. ^ Southern African News Feature : the plague wars
  16. ^ ANTHRAX, the investigation of a Deadly Outbreak, Jeanne Guillemin, University of California Press, 1999, ISBN 0=520-22917-7, names of victims, pg 275-277
  17. ^ Guillmin, op. cit.
  18. ^ USPS - DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS AND COMMUNICATIONS [1]
  19. ^ Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, February 2006 HAHA:high school research findings
  • Alibek, K. Biohazard. New York, New York: Dell Publishing, 1999.
  • Bacillus anthracis and anthrax. Todar's Online Textbook of Bacteriology (University of Wisconsin-Madison Department of Bacteriology). Retrieved on June 17, 2005.
  • Anthrax. CDC Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases. Retrieved on June 17, 2005.
  • Focus on anthrax. Nature.com. Retrieved on June 17, 2005.
  • Chanda, A., S. Ketan, and C.P. Horwitz. 2004. Fe-TAML catalysts: A safe way to decontaminate an anthrax simulant. Society of Environmental Journalists annual meeting. October 20–24. Pittsburgh.
  • Meselson, M. et al. (1994). "The Sverdlovsk Outbreak of 1979". Science 266(5188) 1202–1208
  • Sternbach, G. (2002). "The History of Anthrax". The Journal of Emergency Medicine 24(4) 463–467.

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External links

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Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria is also the fictional name of a warring nation under Benzino Napaloni as dictator, in the 1940 film The Great Dictator... Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by gram staining, in contrast to gram-negative bacteria, which are not affected by the stain. ... Classes Bacilli Clostridia Mollicutes The Firmicutes are a division of bacteria, most of which have Gram-positive cell wall structure. ... Species Clostridium acetobutylicum Clostridium aerotolerans Clostridium botulinum Clostridium colicanis Clostridium difficile Clostridium formicaceticum Clostridium novyi Clostridium perfringens Clostridium sordelli Clostridium tetani Clostridium piliforme Clostridium tyrobutyricum etc. ... Pseudomembranous colitis is an infection of the colon often, but not always, caused by the bacterium Clostridium difficile. ... Botulism (Latin, botulus, sausage) is a rare, but serious paralytic illness caused by a nerve toxin, botulin, that is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. ... Tetanus is a medical condition that is characterized by a prolonged contraction of skeletal muscle fibers. ... Gas gangrene is a bacterial infection that produces gas within tissues in gangrene. ... The group A streptococcus bacterium (Streptococcus pyogenes, or GAS) is a form of Streptococcus bacteria responsible for most cases of streptococcal illness. ... 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  Results from FactBites:
 
Anthrax Information (774 words)
Anthrax is an infectious disease caused by spores of the bacterium, Bacillus anthracis.
The mortality rates from anthrax vary, depending on exposure, and are approximately 20% for cutaneous anthrax without antibiotics and 25 - 75% for gastrointestinal anthrax; inhalation anthrax has a fatality rate that is 80% or higher.
During the trial, 26 cases of anthrax were reported at the mills - five inhalation and 21 cutaneous cases.
2001 anthrax attacks - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4909 words)
The anthrax sent to the Senators caused the more dangerous form of infection known as inhalation anthrax, as did the anthrax sent to AMI in Florida.
Although the anthrax preparations were of different grades, all of the material derived from the same bacterial strain.
Although his doctors believe that the illness was caused by anthrax exposure, blood tests did not find anthrax bacteria or antibodies, and therefore the CDC does not recognize it as a case of inhalation anthrax.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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