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Encyclopedia > Anthracite coal
Anthracite coal
Anthracite coal

Anthracite (Greek Ανθρακίτης, literally "a form of coal", from Anthrax [Άνθραξ], coal) is a hard, compact variety of mineral coal that has a high luster. It has the highest carbon count and contains the fewest impurities of all coals, despite its lower calorific content. Anthracite coal This image is from: http://resourcescommittee. ... Anthracite coal This image is from: http://resourcescommittee. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel extracted from the ground by coal mining, either underground mining or open-pit mining (surface mining). ... Lustre (American English: luster) is a description of the way light interacts with the surface of a crystal, rock or mineral. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Atomic mass 12. ... Heating value (or calorific value) is used to define the amount of heat released during the combustion of a fuel or food. ...


Anthracite coal is the highest of the metamorphic rank, in which the carbon content is between 92% and 98%. The term is applied to those varieties of coal which do not give off tarry or other hydrocarbon vapours when heated below their point of ignition. Anthracite ignites with difficulty and burns with a short, blue, and smokeless flame. The term Metamorphic can be associated with a number of meanings:- Metamorphic rock The term for rocks that have been transformed by extreme heat and pressure. ... Tar is a viscous black liquid derived from the destructive distillation of organic matter. ... Hydrocarbons are refined at oil refineries and processed at chemical plants A hydrocarbon is a chemical compound that consists only of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H). ... Ignition occurs when the heat produced by a reaction becomes sufficient to sustain the reaction, whether it be a fire, an explosion, or nuclear fusion. ...


Other terms which refer to anthracite are blue coal, hard coal, stone coal (not to be confused with the German Steinkohle), blind coal (in Scotland), Kilkenny coal (in Ireland), crow coal (or craw coal from its shiny black appearance), and black diamond. The imperfect anthracite of north Devon and north Cornwall (around Bude), used as a pigment, is known as culm. Culm is also the term used in geological classification to distinguish the strata in which it is found and similar strata in the Rhenish hill countries are known as the Culm Measures. In America, culm is used as an equivalent for waste or slack in anthracite mining. Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots 2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I... Devon is a large county in South West England, bordered by Cornwall to the west, Dorset and Somerset to the east. ... Cornwall (Cornish: Kernow) is a county in South West England on the peninsula that lies to the west of the River Tamar. ... Bude (Cornish: Bud) is a small resort town and watering-place in Cornwall, England, UK, on the north coast at the mouth of the river Neet. ... For animal and plant pigments, see Pigment, biology. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...

Contents

Properties

Anthracite is similar in appearance to the mineraloid jet and is sometimes used as a jet imitation. A mineraloid is a mineral-like substance that does not demonstrate crystallinity. ... A sample of jet Jet is a geological material that is not considered a mineral in the true sense of the word, but rather, a mineraloid derived from decaying wood under extreme pressure, thus organic in origin. ...


Physically, anthracite differs from ordinary bituminous coal by its greater hardness, its higher relative density of 1.3-1.4, and lustre, which is often semi-metallic with a mildly brown reflection. It contains a high percentage of fixed carbon and a low percentage of volatile matter. It is also free from included soft or fibrous notches and does not soil the fingers when rubbed. Anthracitization is the transformation of bituminous coal into anthracite coal. Bituminous coal Bituminous coal is a relatively hard coal containing a tar-like substance called bitumen. ... Relative density (also known as specific gravity) is a measure of the density of a material. ... Look up volatile in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The moisture content of fresh-mined anthracite generally is less than 15 percent. The heat content of anthracite ranges from 22 to 28 million Btu per short ton (26 to 33 MJ/kg) on a moist, mineral-matter-free basis. The heat content of anthracite coal consumed in the United States averages 25 million Btu/ton (29 MJ/kg), on the as-received basis (i.e., containing both inherent moisture and mineral matter). Note: Since the 1980s, anthracite refuse or mine waste has been used for steam electric power generation. This fuel typically has a heat content of 15 million Btu/ton (17 MJ/kg) or less. The British thermal unit (BTU or Btu) is a unit of energy used in the United States. ... The short ton is a unit of mass equal to 907. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude we list here energies between 107 joules and 108 joules. ... The U.S. National Prototype Kilogram, which currently serves as the primary standard for measuring mass in the U.S. It was assigned to the United States in 1889 and is periodically recertified and traceable to the primary international standard, The Kilogram, held at the Bureau International des Poids et... Mohave Generating Station, a 1,580 MW coal power plant near Laughlin, Nevada A fossil fuel power plant is an energy conversion center that combusts fossil fuels to produce electricity, designed on a large scale for continuous operation. ...


Anthracite coal may be considered to be a transition stage between ordinary bituminous coal and graphite, produced by the more or less complete elimination of the volatile constituents of the former; and it is found most abundantly in areas that have been subjected to considerable earth-movements, such as the flanks of great mountain ranges. Anthracite coal is a product of metamorphism and is associated with metamorphic rocks, just as bituminous coal is associated with sedimentary rocks. For example, the compressed layers of anthracite that are deep mined in the folded (metamorphic) Appalachian Mountains of the Coal Region of northeastern Pennsylvania are extensions of the layers of bituminous coal that are strip mined on the (sedimentary) Allegheny Plateau of Kentucky and West Virginia, and Eastern Pennsylvania. In the same way the anthracite region of South Wales is confined to the contorted portion west of Swansea and Llanelli, the central and eastern portions producing steam, coking and house coals. Graphite (named by Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1789, from the Greek γραφειν: to draw/write, for its use in pencils) is one of the allotropes of carbon. ... Metamorphism can be defined as the mineralogical, chemical and crystallographic changes in a solid-state rock, i. ... Quartzite, a form of metamorphic rock, from the Museum of Geology at University of Tartu collection. ... Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... A rainy day in the Great Smoky Mountains, Western North Carolina Appalachia, the central and southern Appalachian Mountains of the United States, also including the Allegheny and Cumberland Plateaus The Appalachian Mountains (French: les Appalaches) are a vast system of North American mountains, partly in Canada, but mostly in the... Counties of the Coal Region of Pennsylvania, known for anthracite mining. ... Official language(s) None Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... The Allegheny Plateau is a large, dissected plateau area in southern New York, western Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and eastern Ohio. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... Swansea (Welsh: , mouth of the Tawe) is a city in Wales and a Welsh County. ... Parish Church of St. ...


Structurally it shows some alteration by the development of secondary divisional planes and fissures so that the original stratification lines are not always easily seen. The thermal conductivity is also higher, a lump of anthracite feeling perceptibly colder when held in the warm hand than a similar lump of bituminous coal at the same temperature. The chemical composition of some typical anthracites is given in the article coal. Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel extracted from the ground by coal mining, either underground mining or open-pit mining (surface mining). ...


Economic value

Anthracite coal history began in 1790 in Pottsville, Pennsylvania, with the discovery of coal made by the hunter Necho Allen in what is now known as the Coal Region. Legend has it that Allen fell asleep at the base of Broad Mountain and woke to the sight of a large fire because his campfire had ignited an outcropping of anthracite coal. By 1795, an anthracite-fired iron furnace had been built on the Schuylkill River. Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Motto: Nickname: Map [[Image:|px|center|Location of Pottsville, Pennsylvania]] Political Statistics Founded 1806 Incorporated February 19, 1828 Schuylkill County Mayor John D. W. Reiley Geographic Statistics Area  - Total  - Land  - Water 10. ... Counties of the Coal Region of Pennsylvania, known for anthracite mining. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Blast furnace in Sestao, Spain. ... The Schuylkill River, pronounced SKOO-kull (IPA: ), is a river in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. ...


Anthracite was first experimentally burned as a residential heating fuel on February 11, 1808, by Judge Jesse Fell in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, on an open grate in a fireplace. Anthracite differs from wood in that it needs a draft from the bottom, and Judge Fell proved with his grate design that it was a viable heating fuel. February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1808 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Early political leader in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. ... Nickname: The Diamond City Motto: Pattern After Us Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Luzerne Founded Incorporated  Borough  City 1769  1806  1871 Mayor Thomas M. Leighton (D) Area    - City 18. ...


In the spring of 1808, John and Abijah Smith shipped the first commercially-mined load of anthracite down the Susquehanna River from Plymouth, Pennsylvania, marking the birth of commercial anthracite mining in the United States. From that first mine, production rose to an all-time high of over 100 million tons in 1917. Current anthracite production averages around 5 million tons per year. The Susquehanna River is a river in the northeastern United States. ... Year 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ...


The principal use of anthracite today is for a domestic fuel in either hand-fired stoves or automatic stoker furnaces. It delivers high energy per its weight and burns cleanly with little soot, making it ideal for this purpose. Its high value makes it prohibitively expensive for power plant use. Other uses include the fine particles used as filter media.


Anthracite is processed into different sizes by what is commonly referred to as a breaker(see coal). The large coal is raised from the mine and passed through breakers with toothed rolls to reduce the lumps to smaller pieces. The smaller pieces are separated into different sizes by a system of graduated sieves, placed in descending order. Sizing is necessary for different types of stoves and furnaces. Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel extracted from the ground by coal mining, either underground mining or open-pit mining (surface mining). ...


During the American Civil War, Confederate blockade runners used anthracite to avoid giving away their position to the blockaders. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


In the early 20th century United States, the Lackawanna Railroad started using only the more expensive anthracite coal, dubbed themselves "The Road of Anthracite," and advertised widely that travelers on their line could make railway journeys without getting their clothing stained with soot. The advertisements featured a white-clad woman named Phoebe Snow and poems containing lines like "My gown stays white / From morn till night / Upon the road of Anthracite". (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad External links DL&W pages by the Erie Lackawanna Historical Society Employees Thomas Patrick Norton 1906 to 1960, Hoboken Terminus, Yardmaster Categories: Stub | Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad ... Phoebe Snow was a fictional character created to promote the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad. ...


Formerly, anthracite was largely used, both in America and South Wales, as blast-furnace fuel for iron smelting, but for this purpose it has been largely superseded by coke in the former country and entirely in the latter. An important application has, however, been developed in the extended use of internal combustion motors driven by the so-called "mixed," "poor," "semi-water" or "Dowson gas" produced by the gasification of anthracite with air and a small proportion of steam. This is probably the most economical method of obtaining power known; with an engine as small as 15 horse-power the expenditure of fuel is at the rate of only 1 lb per horse-power hour, and with larger engines it is proportionately less. Large quantities of anthracite for power purposes were formerly exported from South Wales to France, Switzerland and parts of Germany. Coke is a solid carbonaceous residue derived from low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal. ...


Anthracite coal mining today

Anthracite coal mining in Eastern Pennsylvania continues in the early 21st Century and contributes up to 1% of the Pennsylvania Gross State Product. Over 2,000 people were making their living mining anthracite coal as of 1995. Most of the mining currently involves reclaiming coal from slag heaps (waste piles from past coal mining) next to closed mines. Some underground anthracite coal mining is also taking place up to this day. As petroleum and natural gas grow more expensive, anthracite coal is growing more important as an energy source for an energy hungry country. Source


A vein of anthracite that caught fire in Centralia, Pennsylvania in 1962 has been burning ever since, turning the once thriving mining hamlet into a ghost town.[1] Centralia is a borough in Columbia County, Pennsylvania, United States. ... Bannack, Montana, a well preserved ghost town that is now a State Park. ...


Major reserves

The largest fields of anthracite coal in the United States are found in Northeastern Pennsylvania called the Coal Region, where there are 7 billion short tons (6.4 petagrams) of minable reserves. Deposits at Crested Butte, Colorado were mined historically. Anthracite deposits of an estimated 3 billion short tons (2.7 Pg) in Alaska have never been mined. Official language(s) None Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 280 miles (455 km)  - Length 160 miles (255 km)  - % water 2. ... Counties of the Coal Region of Pennsylvania, known for anthracite mining. ... Mount Crested Butte Resort Often called the last great Colorado ski town, Crested Butte is a small resort town located in Gunnison County in the U.S. state of Colorado. ... Official language(s) English Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,855 km²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ...


Anthracites of newer, tertiary or cretaceous age, are found in the Crow's Nest part of the Rocky Mountains in Canada, and at various points in the Andes in Peru.


Classifications

The common American classification is as follows:--


Lump, steamboat, egg and stove coals, the latter in two or three sizes, all three being above 1-1/2 in. size on round-hole screens.

Chestnut below 1-1/2 inch above 7/8 inch
Pea " 7/8 " " 9/16 "
Buckwheat " 9/16 " " 3/8 "
Rice " 3/8 " " 3/16 "
Barley " 3/16 " " 3/32 "

The primary sizes used in the United States for domestic heating are Chestnut, Pea, Buckwheat and Rice, Chestnut and Rice being the most popular. Chestnut and Pea are used in hand-fired furnaces while the smaller Rice and Buckwheat are used in automatic stoker furnaces. Rice is currently the most sought after size due to the ease of use and popularity of that type of furnace.


In South Wales a less elaborate classification is adopted; but great care is exercised in hand-picking and cleaning the coal from included particles of pyrites in the higher qualities known as best malting coals, which are used for kiln-drying malt and hops.


Anthracite dust can be made into briquettes and is sold in the United Kingdom under trade names such as: Phurnacite, Ancit and Taybrite. A briquette (or briquet) is a block of flammable matter, such as escaillage, which can be used to start a fire. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Bellows, Alan (2006) "The Smoldering Ruins of Centralia" DamnInteresting.com (accessed August 29, 2006)

References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Encyclopædia Britannica, the 11th edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

See also

Bituminous coal Bituminous coal is a relatively hard coal containing a tar-like substance called bitumen. ... Counties of the Coal Region of Pennsylvania, known for anthracite mining. ...

External links


 
 

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