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Encyclopedia > Anthracene
Anthracene
Systematic name Anthracene
Molecular formula C14H10
Molar mass 178.23 g/mol
CAS number [120-12-7]
Density 1.099 g/cm³
Melting point

217.5 °C Image File history File links Anthracene2. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a chemical element or chemical compound. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... In physics, Density is defined as mass m per unit volume V. Mathematically, it is expressed as where, in SI units: ρ (rho) is the density of the substance, measured in kg m-3 m is the mass of the substance, measured in kg v is the volume of the substance... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ...

Boiling point

340 °C The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which it can change its state from a liquid to a gas throughout the bulk of the liquid at a given pressure. ...

SMILES c23cc1ccccc1cc2cccc3
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

In chemistry, anthracene is a solid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon consisting of three benzene rings derived from coal-tar. Anthracene is used in the artificial production of the red dye alizarin. It is also used in wood preservatives, insecticides, and coating materials. Anthracene is colorless but exhibits a blue (400-500nm peak) fluorescence under ultraviolet light. The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals) and 25 degrees Celsius (298. ... An illustration of typical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - NASA Crystal structure of a hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene reported by Müllen and cooworkers in Chem. ... Benzene, also known as benzol, is an organic chemical compound with the formula C6H6. ... Coal tar is the liquid by-product of the distillation of coal to make coke. ... Red may be any of a number of similar colours at the lowest frequencies of light discernible by the human eye. ... Yarn drying after being dyed in the early American tradition, at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... Molecular structure of alizarin Alizarin, or 1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone or mordant red, is the red dye originally derived from the root of the madder plant. ... Trunks A tree trunk as found at the Veluwe, The Netherlands Wood is a solid material derived from woody plants, notably trees but also shrubs. ... A preservative is a natural or synthetic chemical that is added to products such as foods, pharmaceuticals, paints, biological samples, etc. ... An insecticide is a pesticide used against insects in all developmental forms. ... Commodity is a term with distinct meanings in both business and in Marxian political economy. ... Fluorescence induced by exposure to ultraviolet light in vials containing various sized Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots. ... The solar corona as seen in deep ultraviolet light at 17. ...

Contents

Synthesis

A classic method for the preparation of anthracene in the laboratory is by cyclodehydration of o-methyl- or o-methylene-substituted diarylketones in the so-called Elbs reaction (Karl Elbs, 1858-1933).


Reactions

Anthracene has the ability to photodimerize with irradiation by UV light. This results in considerable changes in the physical properties of the material. Anthracene dimer Photochemistry is the study of the interaction of light and chemicals. ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ... I drew it with a chemistry drawing program. ...


The dimer is connected by two covalent bonds resulting from the [4+4] cycloaddition. The dimer reverts to anthracene thermally or with UV irradiation below 300 nm. The reversible bonding and photochromic properties of anthracenes is the basis of many potential applications using poly and monosubstituted anthracene derivatives. The reaction is sensitive to oxygen. Sucrose, or common table sugar, is composed of glucose and fructose. ... Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding characterized by the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between atoms, in order to produce a mutual attraction, which holds the resultant molecule together. ... Sucrose, or common table sugar, is composed of glucose and fructose. ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ... Reversible photochromics (PCs) work by changing their chemical structure after absorbing UV light, usually from the sun or a UV light. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Atomic mass 15. ...


In most other reactions of anthracene, the central ring is also targeted, as it is the most highly reactive. Electrophilic substitution occurs at the "9" and "10" positions of the center ring, and oxidation of anthracene occurs readily, giving anthraquinone, C14H8O2 (below). Electrophilic substitution reactions are chemical reactions in which an electrophile displaces another group, typically but not always hydrogen. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... Anthraquinone (9,10-dioxoanthracene) is an aromatic organic compound whose structure is shown to the right. ...

Anthraquinone chemical structure. ...

Uses

Anthracene can also have a hydroxyl group to form 1-hydroxyanthracene and 2-hydroxyanthracene, homologous to phenol and napthol, and hydroxyanthracene is also called anthrol, and anthracenol.[1][2] Hydroxyanthracene derivatives are pharmacologically active, and are contained in aloe for example.[3][4] Hydroxide is a polyatomic ion consisting of oxygen and hydrogen: OH− It has a charge of −1. ... Phenol, also known under an older name of carbolic acid, is a colourless crystalline solid with a typical sweet tarry odor. ... Naphthol, Hydroxynaphthalene or Naphthalenol is either of two colorless crystaline solids with the formula C10H7OH. They are positional isomers differing by the location of the hydroxyl group on naphthalene. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon (φάρμακον) meaning drug, and logos (λόγος) meaning science) is the study of how substances interact with living organisms to produce a change in function. ... Species See Species For other uses, see Aloe (disambiguation). ...


Anthracene is an organic semiconductor. An organic semiconductor is an organic compound that exhibits similar properties to inorganic semiconductors, specifically the presence of a hole and electron conduction layer and a band gap. ...


Anthracene is used as a scintillator for detectors of high energy photons, electrons and alpha particles. Plastics such as polyvinyltolulene can be doped with Anthracene to produce a plastic scintillator that is aproximately water equivalent for use in radiation therapy dosimetry. Anthracenes emission spectrum peaks at between 400nm and 440nm. A scintillator is a device or substance that absorbs high energy (ionizing) electromagnetic or charged particle radiation then, in response, fluoresces photons at a characteristic Stokes-shifted (longer) wavelength, releasing the previously absorbed energy. ... The word light is defined here as electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength; thus, X-rays, gamma rays, ultraviolet light, microwaves, radio waves, and visible light are all forms of light. ... e- redirects here. ... An alpha particle is deflected by a magnetic field Alpha particles (named after the first letter in the Greek alphabet, α) are a highly ionizing form of particle radiation which have low penetration. ... Clinac 2100 C100 accelerator Radiation therapy (or Radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ... Dosimetry is the measurement of absorbed dose in matter and tissue resulting from the exposure to ionizing radiations. ...


See also

Tetracene, also called naphthacene and 2,3-benzanthracene, is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. ...

External links

  • International Chemical Safety Card 0825
  • IARC Monograph "Anthracene."
  • National Pollutant Inventory - Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Fact Sheet
  • NIST Chemistry WebBook Anthracene
  • Links to external chemical sources

 
 

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