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Encyclopedia > Anthony Giddens
Anthony Giddens

Giddens at the Progressive Governance Conference, Budapest 2004
Born 18 January 1938 (1938-01-18) (age 70)
London, England
Residence England
Nationality Flag of the United Kingdom British
Field Sociology
Institutions University of Leicester
University of Cambridge
London School of Economics
Alma mater University of Hull
London School of Economics
University of Cambridge
Known for Structuration
The Third Way

Anthony Giddens, Baron Giddens (born January 18, 1938) is a British sociologist who is renowned for his theory of structuration and his holistic view of modern societies. He is considered to be one of the most prominent modern contributors in the field of sociology, the author of at least 34 books, published in at least 29 languages, issuing on average more than one book every year. He has been described as Britain's best known social scientist since John Maynard Keynes.[1] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 482 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1329 × 1652 pixel, file size: 144 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This picture was taken at the Progressive Governance Conference at Budapest, 13 October, 2004. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the systematic and scientific study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social action, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... University of Leicester seen from Victoria Park - Left to right: the Department of Engineering, the Attenborough tower, the Charles Wilson building. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... Mascot: Beaver Affiliations: University of London Russell Group EUA ACU CEMS APSIA Universities UK U8 Golden Triangle G5 Group Website: http://www. ... The Venn Building The University of Hull, also known as Hull University, is an English university located in Hull (or Kingston upon Hull), a city in the East Riding of Yorkshire. ... Mascot: Beaver Affiliations: University of London Russell Group EUA ACU CEMS APSIA Universities UK U8 Golden Triangle G5 Group Website: http://www. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... The theory of structuration, proposed by Anthony Giddens (1984) in The Constitution of Society, (mentioned also in Central Problems of Social Theory, 1979) is an attempt to reconcile theoretical dichotomies of social systems such as agency/structure, subjective/objective, and micro/macro perspectives. ... Bill Clinton and Tony Blair, adherents of the Third Way The Third Way, or Radical center, is a centrist political philosophy of governance that embraces a mix of market and interventionist philosophies. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the systematic and scientific study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social action, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... The Theory of Structuration, proposed by Anthony Giddens (1984) in The Constitution of Society, (mentioned also in Central Problems of Social Theory, 1977) is an attempt to reconcile theoretical dichotomies of social systems such as agency/structure, subjective/objective, and micro/macro perspectives, which consider individuals as either acted upon... The Earth seen from Apollo 17. ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ... Keynes redirects here. ...


Three notable stages can be identified in his academic life. The first one involved outlining a new vision of what sociology is, presenting a theoretical and methodological understanding of that field, based on a critical reinterpretation of the classics. His major publications of that era include Capitalism and Modern Social Theory (1971) and New Rules of Sociological Method (1976). In the second stage Giddens developed the theory of structuration, an analysis of agency and structure, in which primacy is granted to neither. His works of that period, like Central Problems in Social Theory (1979) and The Constitution of Society (1984) brought him international fame on the sociological arena. The most recent stage concerns modernity, globalization and politics, especially the impact of modernity on social and personal life. This stage is reflected by his critique of postmodernity, and discussions of a new "utopian-realist"[2] third way in politics, visible in the Consequence of Modernity (1990), Modernity and Self-Identity (1991), The Transformation of Intimacy (1992), Beyond Left and Right (1994) and The Third Way: The Renewal of Social Democracy (1998). Giddens' ambition is both to recast social theory and to re-examine our understanding of the development and trajectory of modernity. Plato is credited with the inception of academia: the body of knowledge, its development and transmission across generations. ... The Theory of Structuration, proposed by Anthony Giddens (1984) in The Constitution of Society, (mentioned also in Central Problems of Social Theory, 1977) is an attempt to reconcile theoretical dichotomies of social systems such as agency/structure, subjective/objective, and micro/macro perspectives, which consider individuals as either acted upon... Agency considered in the philosophical sense is the capacity of an agent to act in a world. ... See Social structure of the United States for an explanation of concepts exsistance within US society. ... Modernity is a term used to describe the condition of being related to modernism. ... Puxi side of Shanghai, China. ... Social relation can refer to a multitude of social interactions, regulated by social norms, between two or more people, with each having a social position and performing a social role. ... Personal life (or everyday life or human existence) is an individual humans personal, private career (including, but not the same as, their employment career), and is a common notion in modern existence -- although more so in more prosperous parts of the world, such as Western Europe and North America... Postmodernity (also called post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is a term used to describe the social and cultural implications of postmodernism. ... For other uses, see Utopia (disambiguation). ... Bill Clinton and Tony Blair, adherents of the Third Way The Third Way, or Radical center, is a centrist political philosophy of governance that embraces a mix of market and interventionist philosophies. ... Social theory refers to the use of abstract and often complex theoretical frameworks to explain and analyze social patterns and large-scale social structures. ... Modernity is a term used to describe the condition of being related to modernism. ...


Currently Giddens serves as Emeritus Professor at the London School of Economics. Mascot: Beaver Affiliations: University of London Russell Group EUA ACU CEMS APSIA Universities UK U8 Golden Triangle G5 Group Website: http://www. ...

Contents

Biography

Giddens was born and raised in Edmonton, London, and grew up in a lower middle-class family, son of a clerk with London Transport. He was the first member of his family to go to university. He got his first academic degree from Hull University in 1959, and later took a Master's degree from the London School of Economics, followed by a PhD from the University of Cambridge in 1974. In 1961 he started working at the University of Leicester where he taught social psychology. At Leicester, which was considered to be one of the seedbeds of British sociology, he met Norbert Elias and began to work out his own theoretical position. In 1969 he was appointed to a position at the University of Cambridge, where he later helped create the Social and Political Sciences Committee (SPS), a sub-unit of the Faculty of Economics. Edmonton is a place in the eastern part of the London Borough of Enfield. ... This article is about the socio-economic class from a global vantage point. ... Look up Family in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The word clerk, derived from the Latin clericus meaning cleric, i. ... The transport of London has, since 1933, been under a single control with various names. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... A degree is any of a wide range of status levels conferred by institutions of higher education, such as universities, normally as the result of successfully completing a program of study. ... The University of Hull, also known as Hull University, is an English university in East Yorkshire which was founded in 1927. ... Mascot: Beaver Affiliations: University of London Russell Group EUA ACU CEMS APSIA Universities UK U8 Golden Triangle G5 Group Website: http://www. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... University of Leicester seen from Victoria Park - Left to right: the Department of Engineering, the Attenborough tower, the Charles Wilson building. ... The scope of social psychological research. ... Norbert Elias (born June 22, 1897 in Breslau, Germany (now Wrocław, Poland); died August 1, 1990 in Amsterdam) was a German sociologist of Jewish descent, who later became a British citizen. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ...


Giddens worked for many years at Cambridge and was eventually promoted to a full professorship in 1987. He is cofounder of Polity Press (1985). From 1997 to 2003 he was director of the London School of Economics and a member of the Advisory Council of the Institute for Public Policy Research. He was also an adviser to former British Prime Minister Tony Blair; it was Giddens whose "third way" political approach has been Tony Blair's (and Bill Clinton's) guiding political idea. He has been a vocal participant in British political debates, supporting the center-left Labour Party with media appearances and articles (many of which are published in New Statesman). Giddens is a regular contributor to the research and activities of progressive think-tank Policy Network. He was given a life peerage in June 2004, as Baron Giddens, of Southgate in the London Borough of Enfield and sits in the House of Lords for Labour. A professor is a senior teacher and researcher, usually in a college or university. ... Mascot: Beaver Affiliations: University of London Russell Group EUA ACU CEMS APSIA Universities UK U8 Golden Triangle G5 Group Website: http://www. ... The Institute for Public Policy Research is a think tank in the United Kingdom, with close links to the ruling Labour Party. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... Bill Clinton and Tony Blair, adherents of the Third Way The Third Way, or Radical center, is a centrist political philosophy of governance that embraces a mix of market and interventionist philosophies. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... The New Statesman is a left-of-centre political weekly published in London. ... Policy Network is an international think tank based in London devoted to progressive centre-left policy reform. ... In the United Kingdom, Life Peers are appointed members of the Peerage whose titles may not be inherited (those whose titles are inheritable are known as hereditary peers). ... Southgate is an area in North London, in the Borough of Enfield. ... The London Borough of Enfield is the most northerly London borough and forms part of Outer London. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ...


Ideas

Giddens, the author of over 34 books and 200 articles, essays and reviews has contributed and written about most notable developments in the area of social sciences, with the exception of research design and methods. He has written commentaries on most leading schools and figures and has used most sociological paradigms in both micro and macrosociology. His writings range from abstract, metatheoretical problems to very direct and 'down-to-earth' textbooks for students. Finally, he is also known for his interdisciplinary approach: he has commented not only on the developments in sociology, but also in anthropology, psychology, philosophy, history, linguistics, economics, social work and most recently, political science. In view of his knowledge and works, one may view much of his life's work as a form of 'grand synthesis' of sociological theory. The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study human aspects of the world. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The specific methods used in any type of research depend on the type of research being performed. ... Sociological paradigm (also sociological perespectives or frameworks) are specific points of view used by social scientists in social research. ... Microsociology is one of the main branches of sociology (contrast with macrosociology) which concerns itself with the nature of human interaction on a small scale. ... Macrosociology is one of the main branches of sociology (contrast with microsociology) which deals with primarily with the statistical nature of society. ... Three textbooks. ... Interdisciplinary work is that which integrates concepts across different disciplines. ... This is about the social science. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... This article is about the study of the past in human terms. ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... Social Workers are concerned with social problems, their causes, their solutions and their human impacts. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... Synthesis (from the ancient Greek σύν (with) and θεσις (placing), is commonly understood to be an integration of two or more pre-existing elements which results in a new creation. ...


The nature of sociology

Before 1976, most Giddens's writings offered critical commentary on a wide range of writers, schools and traditions. Giddens took a stance against the then-dominant functionalism (represented by Talcott Parsons, exponent of Weber), as well as criticizing evolutionism and historical materialism. In Capitalism and Modern Social Theory (1971), he examined the work of Weber, Durkheim and Marx, arguing that despite their different approaches each was concerned with the link between capitalism and social life. Giddens emphasised the social constructs of power, modernity and institutions, defining sociology as "the study of social institutions brought into being by the industrial transformation of the past two or three centuries." Functionalism is a theory of the mind in contemporary philosophy, developed largely as an alternative to both the identity theory of mind and behaviorism. ... Talcott Parsons Talcott Edgar Frederick Parsons (December 13, 1902–May 8, 1979) was for many years the best-known sociologist in the United States, and indeed one of the best-known in the world. ... Weber is a surname of German origin, derived from the noun meaning weaver. The German pronunciation is IPA: , while in English it is more likely to be pronounced IPA: or . In some cases, following migration to English-speaking countries, it has been anglicised to the English surname Webber or even... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Historical materialism is the methodological approach to the study of society, economics, and history which was first articulated by Karl Marx (1818-1883), although Marx himself never used the term (he referred it as philosophical materialism, a term he used to distinguish it from what he called popular materialism). Historical... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Social relation can refer to a multitude of social interactions, regulated by social norms, between two or more people, with each having a social position and performing a social role. ... A social construction, social construct or social concept is an institutionalized entity or artifact in a social system invented or constructed by participants in a particular culture or society that exists because people agree to behave as if it exists, or agree to follow certain conventional rules, or behave as... Much of the recent sociological debate on power revolves around the issue of the constraining and/or enabling nature of power. ... Modernity is a term used to describe the condition of being related to modernism. ... This article is about institutions as social mechanisms. ...


In New Rules of Sociological Method (1976) (the title of which alludes to Durkheim's Rules of the Sociological Method of 1895) Giddens attempted to explain 'how sociology should be done' and addressed a long-standing divide between those theorists who prioritise 'macro level' studies of social life - looking at the 'big picture' of society - and those who emphasise the 'micro level' - what everyday life means to individuals. In New Rules... he noted that the functionalist approach, invented by Durkheim, treated society as a reality unto itself, not reducible to individuals. He rejected Durkheim's sociological positivism paradigm, which attempted to identify laws which will predict how societies will operate, without looking at the meanings understood by individual actors in society. He contrasted Durkheim with Weber's approach - interpretative sociology - focused on understanding agency and motives of individuals. Giddens is closer to Weber then Durkheim, but in his analysis he rejects both of those approaches, stating that while society is not a collective reality, nor should the individual be treated as the central unit of analysis.[3] "Society only has form, and that form only has effects on people, insofar as structure is produced and reproduced in what people do".[4] Rather he uses the logic of hermeneutic tradition (from interpretative sociology) to argue for the importance of agency in sociological theory, claiming that human social actors are always to some degree knowledgeable about what they are doing. Social order is therefore a result of some pre-planned social actions, not automatic evolutionary response. Sociologists, unlike natural scientists, have to interpret a social world which is already interpreted by the actors that inhabit it. Thus, there is a "Duality of structure", according to Giddens. With that he means that social practice, which is the principal unit of investigation, has both a structural and an agency-component: The structural environment constrains individual behaviour, but also makes it possible. He also notes the existence of a specific form of a social cycle: once sociological concepts are formed, they filter back into everyday world and change the way people think. Because social actors are reflexive and monitor the ongoing flow of activities and structural conditions, they adapt their actions to their evolving understandings. As a result, social scientific knowledge of society will actually change human activities. Giddens calls this two-tiered, interpretive and dialectical relationship between social scientific knowledge and human practices the "double hermeneutic". Macrosociology is one of the main branches of sociology (contrast with microsociology) which deals with primarily with the statistical nature of society. ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ... Microsociology is one of the main branches of sociology (contrast with macrosociology) which concerns itself with the nature of human interaction on a small scale. ... As commonly used, individual refers to a person or to any specific object in a collection. ... This article describes the term positivism as used in social sciences, especially within the science of sociology. ... For other uses, see Paradigm (disambiguation). ... Verstehen (also known as Interpretative Sociology, German for understanding, pronounced as though it rhymes with fair-stain) was used by Max Weber to describe a process in which outside observers of a culture (such as anthropologists) relate to an indigenous people on the observers own terms. ... Human agency is the capacity for human beings to make choices and to impose those choices on the world on a collective basis, usually through democratic means. ... Look up Motivation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The unit of analysis is the major entity that is being analyzing in the study. ... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... Hermeneutics (Hermeneutic means interpretive), is a branch of philosophy concerned with human understanding and the interpretation of texts. ... Human agency is the capacity for human beings to make choices and to impose those choices on the world on a collective basis, usually through democratic means. ... In sociology, AI and programming language theory, Actants, or more commonly actors, are the principal concern of the actor-network theory. ... Social order is a concept used in sociology, history and other social sciences. ... In sociology, social action refer to any action that takes into account actions and reactions of another individuals (real or imagined) and is modified based on those events. ... The Michelson–Morley experiment was used to disprove that light propagated through a luminiferous aether. ... Social reality is distinct from biological or individual cognitive reality, and consists of the accepted social tenets of a community. ... Duality of structure is one of Anthony Giddens coined phrases and main propositions in his explanation of Structuration theory. ... Social cycle theory is one of the earliest social theories in sociology. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Giddens also stressed the importance of power, which is means to ends, and hence is directly involved in the actions of every person. Power, the transformative capacity of people to change the social and material world, is closely shaped by knowledge and space-time.[5] For other uses, see Knowledge (disambiguation). ... In special relativity and general relativity, time and three-dimensional space are treated together as a single four-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian manifold called spacetime. ...


In New Rules... Giddens specifically wrote[6] that:

  • Sociology is not about a 'pre-given' universe of objects, the universe is being constituted -or produced by- the active doings of subjects.
  • The production and reproduction of society thus has to be treated as a skilled performance on the part of its members.
  • The realm of human agency is bounded. Individuals produce society, but they do so as historically located actors, and not under conditions of their own choosing.
  • Structures must be conceptualized not only as constraints upon human agency, but also as enablers.
  • Processes of structuration involve an interplay of meanings, norms and power.
  • The sociological observer cannot make social life available as 'phenomenon' for observation independently of drawing upon his knowledge of it as a resource whereby he constitutes it as a 'topic for investigation'.
  • Immersion in a form of life is the necessary and only means whereby an observer is able to generate such characterizations.
  • Sociological concepts thus obey a double hermeneutic.
  • In sum, the primary tasks of sociological analysis are the following: (1) The hermeneutic explication and mediation of divergent forms of life within descriptive metalanguages of social science; (2) Explication of the production and reproduction of society as the accomplished outcome of human agency.

Human agency is the capacity for human beings to make choices and to impose those choices on the world on a collective basis, usually through democratic means. ... In logic and linguistics, a metalanguage is a language used to make statements about other languages (object languages). ...

Structuration

For more details on this topic, see Theory of structuration.

Social scientists generally agree that none of the early sociologists (Marx, Weber, Durkheim, Simmel) provided satisfactory ways of connecting micro and macro analysis or agency and structure. It was in 1976 when Giddens published his ontological analysis in New rules... that this view shifted, elevating Giddens to the role of one of the most important figures in that debate. Giddens continued his development of this line of thought in Central Problems in Social Theory (1979) and The Constitution of Society (1984).[1] The Theory of Structuration, proposed by Anthony Giddens (1984) in The Constitution of Society, (mentioned also in Central Problems of Social Theory, 1977) is an attempt to reconcile theoretical dichotomies of social systems such as agency/structure, subjective/objective, and micro/macro perspectives, which consider individuals as either acted upon... Microsociology is one of the main branches of sociology (contrast with macrosociology) which concerns itself with the nature of human interaction on a small scale. ... Macrosociology is one of the main branches of sociology (contrast with microsociology) which deals with primarily with the statistical nature of society. ... Human agency is the capacity for human beings to make choices and to impose those choices on the world on a collective basis, usually through democratic means. ... See Social structure of the United States for an explanation of concepts exsistance within US society. ... This article is about ontology in philosophy. ...


Giddens's theory of structuration explores the question of whether it is individuals or social forces that shape our social reality. He eschews extreme positions, arguing that although people are not entirely free to choose their own actions, and their knowledge is limited, they nonetheless are the agency which reproduces the social structure and leads to social change. His ideas find an echo in the philosophy of the modernist poet Wallace Stevens who suggests that we live in the tension between the shapes we take as the world acts upon us, and the ideas of order that our imagination imposes upon the world. Giddens writes that the connection between structure and action is a fundamental element of social theory, structure and agency are a duality that cannot be conceived of apart from one another and his main argument is contained in his expression "duality of structure". At a basic level, this means that people make society, but are at the same time constrained by it. Action and structure cannot be analysed separately, as structures are created, maintained and changed through actions, while actions are given meaningful form only through the background of the structure: the line of causality runs in both directions making it impossible to determine what is changing what. In Giddens own words (from New rules...) : "social structures are both constituted by human agency, and yet at the same time are the very medium of this constitution."[1] In this regard he defines structures as consisting of rules and resources involving human action: the rules constrain the actions, the resources make it possible. He also differentiates between systems and structures. Systems display structural properties but are not structures themselves. He notes in his article Functionalism: après la lutte (1976) that "To examine the structuration of a social system is to examine the modes whereby that system, through the application of generative rules and resources is produced and reproduced in social interaction."[1] This process of structures (re)producing systems is called structuration. Systems here mean to Giddens "the situated activities of human agents"[1] (The Constitution of Society.) and "the patterning of social relations across space-time"[1](ibid.). Structures are then "...sets of rules and resources that individual actors draw upon in the practices that reproduce social systems’"[7] (Politics, Sociology and Social Theory) and "systems of generative rules and sets, implicated in the articulation of social systems"[1] (The Constitution of Society.), existing virtually "out of time and out of space"[1] (New rules....). Structuration therefore means that relations that took shape in the structure, can exist "out of time and place": in other words, independent of the context in which they are created. An example is the relationship between a teacher and a student: when they come across each other in another context, say on the street, the hierarchy between them is still preserved. The Theory of Structuration, proposed by Anthony Giddens (1984) in The Constitution of Society, (mentioned also in Central Problems of Social Theory, 1977) is an attempt to reconcile theoretical dichotomies of social systems such as agency/structure, subjective/objective, and micro/macro perspectives, which consider individuals as either acted upon... Social reality is distinct from biological or individual cognitive reality, and consists of the accepted social tenets of a community. ... Social change (or Social development) is a general term which refers to: change in the nature, the social institutions, the social behaviour or the social relations of a society, community of people, or other social structures. ... Wallace Stevens Wallace Stevens (October 2, 1879 – August 2, 1955) was a major American Modernist poet. ... Social theory refers to the use of abstract and often complex theoretical frameworks to explain and analyze social patterns and large-scale social structures. ... Duality of structure is one of Anthony Giddens coined phrases and main propositions in his explanation of Structuration theory. ... Social structure (also referred to as a social system) is a system in which people forming the society are organized by a patterns of prelationships. ... Social interaction is a dynamic, changing sequence of social actions between individuals (or groups) who modify their actions and reactions due to the actions by their interaction partner(s). ... In special relativity and general relativity, time and three-dimensional space are treated together as a single four-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian manifold called spacetime. ... Look up ibid, idem in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Structure can act as a constraint on action, but it also enables action by providing common frames of meaning. Consider the example of language: structure of language is represented by the rules of syntax that rule out certain combinations of words. But the structure also provides rules that allow new actions to occur, enabling us to create new, meaningful sentences. Structures should not be conceived as "simply placing constrains upon human agency, but as enabling."[6] (New rules....) Giddens suggests that structures (traditions, institutions, moral codes, and other sets of expectations - established ways of doing things) are generally quite stable, but can be changed, especially through the unintended consequences of action, when people start to ignore them, replace them, or reproduce them differently. For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Word (disambiguation). ... In linguistics, a sentence is a unit of language, characterized in most languages by the presence of a finite verb. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Thus, actors (agents) employ the social rules appropriate to their culture, ones that they have learned through socialisation and experience. These rules together with the resources at their disposal are used in social interactions. Rules and resources employed in this manner are not deterministic, but are applied reflexively by knowledgeable actors, albeit that actors’ awareness may be limited to the specifics of their activities at any given time. Thus, the outcome of action is not totally predictable. In psychology, socialization is the process by which children and others adopt the behavior patterns of the culture that surrounds them. ... The term deterministic may refer to: the more general notion of determinism from philosophy, see determinism a type of algorithm as discussed in computer science, see deterministic algorithm scientific determinism as used by Karl Popper and Stephen Hawking deterministic system in mathematics deterministic system in philosophy deterministic finite state machine...


Connections between micro and macro

Structuration is very useful in synthesising micro and macro issues. On a micro scale, one of individuals' internal sense of self and identity, consider the example of a family: we are increasingly free to choose our own mates and how to relate with them, which creates new opportunities but also more work, as the relationship becomes a reflexive project that has to be interpreted and maintained. Yet this micro-level change cannot be explained only by looking at the individual level as people did not spontaneously changed their minds about how to live; neither can we assume they were directed to do so by social institutions and the state. On a macro scale, one of the state and social organizations like a multinational capitalist corporations, consider the example of globalization, which offers vast new opportunities for investment and development, but crises - like the Asian financial crisis - can impact the entire world, spreading far outside the local setting in which they first developed, and last but not least directly influences individuals. A serious explanation of such issues must lie somewhere within the network of macro and micro forces. Thus these different levels, which have traditionally been treated quite separately by sociologists, are in fact revealed as having significant influence upon each other, and cannot really be understood if studied in isolation. Microsociology is one of the main branches of sociology (contrast with macrosociology) which concerns itself with the nature of human interaction on a small scale. ... Macrosociology is one of the main branches of sociology (contrast with microsociology) which deals with primarily with the statistical nature of society. ... Look up Family in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... A social animal is a loosely defined term for an organism that is highly interactive with other members of its species to the point of having a recognizable and distinct society. ... The word multinational can refer to: A Multinational corporation A Multinational State This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Corporation (disambiguation). ... Puxi side of Shanghai, China. ... The Asian financial crisis was a financial crisis that started in July 1997 in Thailand and affected currencies, stock markets, and other asset prices in several Asian countries, many considered East Asian Tigers. ...


Giddens develops the example of a changes in our views regarding the marriage, noting that claiming that this change stems from micro or macro levels is nothing more than a circular cause and consequence logical fallacy. Social relationships and visible sexuality (micro-level change) are associated with the decline of religion and the rise of rationality (macro-level change), but also with changes in the laws relating to marriage and sexuality (macro), demand for which came from the level of everyday lives (micro). These, in turn, had been affected by the social movements of women's liberation and egalitarianism (macro); which themselves had grown out of dis-satisfactions within everyday life (micro).[8] Circular cause and consequence is a logical fallacy where the consequence of the phenomenon is claimed to be its root cause. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fallacy. ... Social relation can refer to a multitude of social interactions, regulated by social norms, between two or more people, with each having a social position and performing a social role. ... This article is about human sexual perceptions. ... Rationality as a term is related to the idea of reason, a word which following Websters may be derived as much from older terms referring to thinking itself as from giving an account or an explanation. ... American Civil Rights Movement is one of the most famous social movements of the 20th century. ... Feminism is a body of social theory and political movement primarily based on and motivated by the experiences of women. ... Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal or level) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals from birth. ...


All of this is increasingly tied in with mass media, one of our main providers of information. Yet information and ideas from the media do not merely reflect the social world, then, but contribute to its shape, and are central to modern reflexivity.[8] David Gauntlett writes in Media, Gender and Identity that: "The importance of the media in propagating many modern lifestyles should be obvious. [...] The range of lifestyles - or lifestyle ideals - offered by the media may be limited, but at the same time it is usually broader than those we would expect to just 'bump into' in everyday life. So the media in modernity offers possibilities and celebrates diversity, but also offers narrow interpretations of certain roles or lifestyles - depending where you look.".[4] Popular press redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint The Popular Press. Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ... David Gauntlett (b. ...


Another example explored by Giddens is the emergence of romantic love, which Giddens (The Transformation of Intimacy) links with the rise of the 'narrative of the self' type of self-identity: "Romantic love introduced the idea of a narrative into an individual's life."[9] Although history of sex clearly demonstrates that passion and sex are not modern phenomena, the discourse of romantic love is said to have developed from the late eighteenth century. Romanticism, the 18th and 19th century European macro-level cultural movement is responsible for the emergence of the novel - a relatively early form of mass media. The growing literacy and popularity of novels fed back into the mainstream lifestyle and the romance novel proliferated the stories of ideal romantic life narratives on a micro-level, giving the romantic love an important and recognised role in the marriage-type relationship. This article primarily discusses philosophical ideologies in relation to the subject of romantic love. ... // The social construction of sexual behavior—its taboos, regulation and social and political impact—has had a profound effect on the various cultures of the world since prehistoric times. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Discourse is a term used in semantics as in discourse analysis, but it also refers to a social conception of discourse, often linked with the work of French philosopher Michel Foucault (1926-1984) and Jürgen Habermas The Theory of Communicative Action (1985). ... Romantics redirects here. ... A cultural movement is a change in the way a number of different disciplines approach their work. ... This article is about the literary concept. ... The traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write, or the ability to use language to read, write, listen, and speak. ... For other uses, see Mainstream. ... A romance novel is a literary genre developed in Western culture, mainly in English-speaking countries. ...


Consider also the transformation of intimacy. Giddens asserts that intimate social relationships have become 'democratised', so that the bond between partners – even within a marriage – has little to do with external laws, regulations or social expectations, but is based on the internal understanding between two people – a trusting bond based on emotional communication. Where such a bond ceases to exist, modern society is generally happy for the relationship to be dissolved. Thus we have 'a democracy of the emotions in everyday life' (Runaway World, 1999).[4] Definition Intimacy is complex in that its meaning varies from relationship to relationship, and within a given relationship over time. ... Social relation can refer to a multitude of social interactions, regulated by social norms, between two or more people, with each having a social position and performing a social role. ... Democratization (British English: Democratisation) is the transition from an authoritarian or a semi-authoritarian political system to a democratic political system. ... Matrimony redirects here. ... Trust is the belief in the good character of one party, presumed to seek to fulfill policies, ethical codes, law and their previous promises. ... Look up Emotion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Inevitably, Giddens concludes that all social change stems from a mixture of micro- and macro-level forces. Social change (or Social development) is a general term which refers to: change in the nature, the social institutions, the social behaviour or the social relations of a society, community of people, or other social structures. ...


Self-identity

Giddens says that in the post-traditional order, self-identity is not inherited or static; rather, it becomes a reflexive project – an endeavour that we continuously work and reflect on. It is not a set of observable characteristics of a moment, but becomes an account of a person's life. Giddens writes (Modernity and Self-Identity: 54) that "A person's identity is not to be found in behaviour, nor - important though this is - in the reactions of others, but in the capacity to keep a particular narrative going. The individual's biography, if she is to maintain regular interaction with others in the day-to-day world, cannot be wholly fictive. It must continually integrate events which occur in the external world, and sort them into the ongoing 'story' about the self.".[8][4] The self-concept or self-identity is the mental and conceptual awareness and persistent regard that sentient beings hold with regard their own being. ...


More than ever before we have access to information that allows us to reflect on the causes and consequences of our actions. At the same time we are faced with dangers related to unintended consequences of our actions and by our reliance on the knowledge of experts. We create, maintain and revise a set of biographical narratives, social roles and lifestyles – the story of who we are, and how we came to be where we are now. We are increasingly free to choose what we want to do and who we want to be (although Giddens contends that wealth gives access to more options). But increased choice can be both liberating and troubling. Liberating in the sense of increasing the likelihood of one's self-fulfilment, and troubling in form of increased emotional stress and time needed to analyse the available choices and minimise risk of which we are increasingly aware (what Giddens sums up as "manufacturing uncertainty"). While in earlier, traditional societies we would be provided with that narrative and social role, in the post-traditional society we are usually forced to create one ourselves. As Giddens (Modernity and Self-Identity: 70) puts it: "What to do? How to act? Who to be? These are focal questions for everyone living in circumstances of late modernity - and ones which, on some level or another, all of us answer, either discursively or through day-to-day social behaviour."[4] The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... This article is about causality as it is used in many different fields. ... Consequence can refer to:a good or a bad result of your actions. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A function is part of an answer to a question about why some object or process occurred in a system that evolved or was designed with some goal. ... For the business meaning, see Wealth (economics). ... For the Parker Brothers board game, see Risk (game) For other uses, see Risk (disambiguation). ...


Modernity

Giddens' recent work has been concerned with the question of what is characteristic about social institutions in various points of history. Giddens agrees that there are very specific changes that mark our current era, but argues that it is not a "post-modern era", but just a "radicalised modernity era" (similar to Zygmunt Bauman's concept of liquid modernity), produced by the extension of the same social forces that shaped the previous age. Giddens nonetheless differentiates between pre-modern, modern and late (high) modern societies and doesn't dispute that important changes have occurred but takes a neutral stance towards those changes, saying that it offers both unprecedented opportunities and unparalleled dangers. He also stresses that we haven't really gone beyond modernity. It's just a developed, detraditionalized, radicalised, 'late' modernity. Thus the phenomena that some have called 'postmodern' are to Giddens nothing more than the most extreme instances of a developed modernity.[8] Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... A social institution is any institution in a socity that works to socialize the groups or people in it. ... Bauman in Warsaw, 2005 Zygmunt Bauman (born 19 November 1925 in Poznań) is a Polish-born sociologist who, since 1971, has resided in England after being driven there by an anti-Semitic purge organized by the communist party of Poland. ... Late modernity (or liquid modernity) is a term for the concept that some present highly developed societies are continuing developments of modernity. ...


Giddens concentrates on a contrast between traditional (pre-modern) culture and post-traditional (modern) culture. In traditional societies, individual actions are not matters that have to be extensively considered and thought about, because available choices are already predetermined (by the customs, traditions, etc.). In contrast, in post-traditional society people (actors, agents) are much less concerned with the precedents set by previous generations, and options are at least as open as the law and public opinion will allow. Therefore individual actions now require much more analysis and thought before they are taken. Society becomes much more reflexive and aware, something Giddens is fascinated with, illustrating it with examples ranging from formal government at one end of the scale to intimate sexual relationships at the other. Giddens examines three realms in particular: the experience of identity, connections of intimacy and political institutions.[8] For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... Public Opinion is a book on media and democracy by Walter Lippmann. ... // The concept of reflexivity In general, reflexivity is an act of self-reference where examination or action bends back on, refers to, and affects the entity instigating the action or examination. ... Identity is an umbrella term used throughout the social sciences for an individuals comprehension of him or herself as a discrete, separate entity. ... Definition Intimacy is complex in that its meaning varies from relationship to relationship, and within a given relationship over time. ... Political Institution is a web of relationships lasting over time, and an established structure of power. ...


The most defining property of modernity, according to Giddens, is that we are disembedded from time and space. In pre-modern societies, space was the area in which one moved, time was the experience one had while moving. In modern societies, however, the social space is no longer confined by the boundaries set by the space in which one moves. One can now imagine what other spaces look like, even if he has never been there. In this regard, Giddens talks about virtual space and virtual time. Another distinctive property of modernity lies in the field of knowledge. In pre-modern societies, it were the elders who possessed the knowledge: they were definable in time and space. In modern societies we must rely on expert systems. These are not present in time and space, but we must trust them. Even if we trust them, we know that something could go wrong: there's always a risk we have to take. Also the technologies which we use, and which transform constraints into means, hold risks. Consequently, there is always a heightened sense of uncertainty in contemporary societies. It is also in this regard that Giddens uses the image of a 'juggernaut': modernity is said to be like an unsteerable juggernaut traveling through space. Look up time in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the idea of space. ... For other uses, see Knowledge (disambiguation). ... An expert system is a class of computer programs developed by researchers in artificial intelligence during the 1970s and applied commercially throughout the 1980s. ... The Car of Juggernaut, as depicted in the 1851 Illustrated London Reading Book The term juggernaut ( ) is used to describe any literal or metaphorical force regarded as unstoppable that will crush all in its path. ...


Humanity tries to steer it, but as long as the modern institutions, with all their uncertainty, endure, we will never be able to influence its course. The uncertainty can however be managed, by 'reembedding' the expert-systems into the structures which we are accustomed to. An example of this is Oprah Winfrey[citation needed], who uses expert-systems to guide people in their lives, but gives them a recognizability by being an ordinary woman, and not just a doctor in a white suit. Oprah Winfrey, (born January 29, 1954) is a multiple-Emmy Award winning host of The Oprah Winfrey Show, the highest rated talk show in television history. ...


Another characteristic is enhanced reflexivity, both at the level of individuals and at the level of institutions. The latter requires an explanation: in modern institutions there is always a component which studies the institutions themselves for the purpose of enhancing its effectiveness. This enhanced reflexivity was enabled as language became increasingly abstract with the transition from pre-modern to modern societies, becoming institutionalised into universities. It is also in this regard that Giddens talks about "double hermeneutica": every action has two interpretations. The one is from the actor himself, the other of the investigator who tries to give meaning to the action he is observing. The actor who performs the action, however, can get to know the interpretation of the investigator, and therefore change his own interpretation, or his further line of action. This is the reason that positive science, according to Giddens[citation needed], is never possible in the social sciences: every time an investigator tries to identify causal sequences of action, the actors can change their further line of action. The problem is, however, that conflicting viewpoints in social science result in a disinterest of the people. For example, when scientist don't agree about the greenhouse-effect, people will withdraw from that arena, and negate that there is a problem. Therefore, the more the sciences expand, the more incertitude there is in the modern society. In this regard, the juggernaut even gets more steerless. For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ...

In A Contemporary Critique of Historical Materialism Giddens concludes[1] that: Image File history File links Emblem-contradict. ...

  1. There exists no necessary overall mechanism of social change, no universal motor of history such as class conflict;
  2. There are no universal stages, or periodization, of social development, these being ruled out by intersocietal systems and "time-space edges" (the ever-presence of exogenous variables), as well as by human agency and the inherent "historicity" of societies;
  3. Societies do not have needs other than those of individuals, so notions such as adaptation cannot properly be applied to them;
  4. Pre-capitalism societies are class-divided, but only with capitalism are there class societies in which there is endemic class conflict, the separation of the political and economic spheres, property freely alienable as capital, and "free" labour and labour markets;
  5. While class conflict is integral to capitalist society, there is no teleology that guarantees the emergence of the working class as the universal class and no ontology that justifies denial of the multiple bases of modern society represented by capitalism, industrialism, bureaucratisation, surveillance and industrialization of warfare;
  6. Sociology, as a subject concerned pre-eminently with modernity, addresses a reflexive reality.

Reflexive modernity and radicalised modernity are another important concepts Giddens introduces in his studies of modernity, as an alternative to the conception of postmodernity. "The reflexivity of modern social life consists in the fact that social practices are constantly examined and reformed in the light of incoming information about those very practices, thus constitutively altering their character" (The Consequences of Modernity).[1] But contrary to Enlightenment expectations, that increased knowledge did not lead to peace and certitude, instead the intensification of individual and institutional reflexivity in the absence of sure foundations for knowledge has a chronic propensity to manufacture uncertainty and have resulted in a 'radicalised modernity'.[1] Social change (or Social development) is a general term which refers to: change in the nature, the social institutions, the social behaviour or the social relations of a society, community of people, or other social structures. ... Class conflict is both the friction that accompanies social relationships between members or groups of different social classes and the underlying tensions or antagonisms which exist in society. ... For other meanings of development used in and outside social sciences, see development. ... Exogenous (or exogeneous) (from the Greek words exo and gen, meaning outside and production) refers to an action or object coming from outside a system. ... Historicity refers to the historical authenticity of a person, event, or place. ... A need is the psychological feature that arouses an organism to action toward a goal and the reason for the action, giving purpose and direction to behavior. ... For other uses, see Adaptation (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... In biology and ecology endemic means exclusively native to a place or biota, in contrast to cosmopolitan or introduced. ... Class conflict is both the friction that accompanies social relationships between members or groups of different social classes and the underlying tensions or antagonisms which exist in society. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... In classical economics and all micro-economics labour is a measure of the work done by human beings and is one of three factors of production, the others being land and capital. ... Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning of the market for labour. ... Teleology (Greek: telos: end, purpose) is the philosophical study of design, purpose, directive principle, or finality in nature or human creations. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... Universal class is a category derived from the philosophy of Hegel, redefined and popularized by Karl Marx. ... This article is about ontology in philosophy. ... The Industrial Revolution is the name given to the massive social, economic, and technological change in 18th century and 19th century Great Britain. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Surveillance (disambiguation). ... Industrialisation (or industrialization) or an industrial revolution (in general, with lowercase letters) is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial to an industrial state . ... // The concept of reflexivity In general, reflexivity is an act of self-reference where examination or action bends back on, refers to, and affects the entity instigating the action or examination. ... Postmodernity (also called post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is a term used to describe the social and cultural implications of postmodernism. ... The Age of Enlightenment (French: ; Italian: ; German: ; Spanish: ; Swedish: ) was an eighteenth-century movement in Western philosophy. ...


The Third Way

In the age of late and reflexive modernity and post scarcity economy the political science is being transformed. Giddens notes that there is a possibility that "life politics" (the politics of self-actualisation) may become more visible than "emancipatory politics" (the politics of inequality); that new social movements may lead to more social change than political parties; and that the reflexive project of the self and changes in gender and sexual relations may lead the way, via the "democratisation of democracy", to a new era of Habermasian "dialogic democracy" in which differences are settled, and practices ordered, through discourse rather than violence or the commands of authority.[1] Post scarcity or post-scarcity describes a hypothetical form of economy or society, often explored in science fiction, in which things such as goods, services and information are free, or practically free. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Maslows hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology that Abraham Maslow proposed in his 1943 paper A Theory of Human Motivation, which he subsequently extended. ... This article is about inequalities in mathematics. ... American Civil Rights Movement is one of the most famous social movements of the 20th century. ... A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... Jürgen Habermas (IPA: ; born June 18, 1929) is a German philosopher and sociologist in the tradition of critical theory and American pragmatism. ... Discourse is a term used in semantics as in discourse analysis, but it also refers to a social conception of discourse, often linked with the work of French philosopher Michel Foucault (1926-1984) and Jürgen Habermas The Theory of Communicative Action (1985). ...


Giddens, relying on his past familiar themes of reflexivity and system integration, which places people into new relations of trust and dependency with each other and their governments, argues that the political concepts of 'left' and 'right' are now breaking down, as a result of many factors, most centrally the absence of a clear alternative to capitalism and the eclipse of political opportunities based on the social class in favour of those based on lifestyle choices. For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ...


In his most recent works Giddens moves away from explaining how things are to the more demanding attempt of advocacy about how they ought to be. In "Beyond Left and Right" (1994) Giddens criticizes the market socialism, and constructs a six point framework for a reconstituted radical politics:[1] Market socialism is a term used to define a number of economic system(s) in which the means of production are owned either by the state or by the workers collectively, however unlike traditional socialism there is market that is directed and guided by socialist planners. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...

  1. repair damaged solidarities
  2. recognize the centrality of life politics
  3. accept that active trust implies generative politics
  4. embrace dialogic democracy
  5. rethink the welfare state
  6. confront violence

The "The Third Way" (1998) provides not only the framework within which the 'third way' is justified, but a broad set of policy proposals aimed at what Giddens refers to as the 'progressive centre-left' in British politics. According to Giddens himself, "the overall aim of third way politics should be to help citizens pilot their way through the major revolutions of our time: globalisation, transformations in personal life and our relationship to nature".[1] Solidarity in sociology refers to the feeling or condition of unity based on common goals, interests, and sympathies among a groups members. ... There are three main interpretations of the idea of a welfare state: the provision of welfare services by the state. ... The United Kingdom is a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ... Globalization is a term used to describe the changes in societies and the world economy that are the result of dramatically increased trade and cultural exchange. ... This article is about the physical universe. ...


Giddens remains fairly optimistic about the future of humanity. "There is no single agent, group or movement that, as Marx's proletariat was supposed to do, can carry the hopes of humanity, but there are many points of political engagement which offer good cause for optimism".[1] (Beyond Left and Right) Giddens discards the possibility of a single, comprehensive, all-connecting ideology or political programme. Instead he advocates going after the 'small pictures', ones people can directly affect at their home, workplace or local community. This, to Giddens, is a difference between pointless utopianism and useful utopian realism,[2] which he defines as envisaging "alternative futures whose very propagation might help them be realised".[1] (The Consequences of Modernity). By 'utopian' he means that this is something new and extraordinary, and by 'realistic' he stresses that this idea is rooted in the existing social processes and can be viewed as their simple extrapolation. Such a future has at its centre a more socialized, demilitarised and planetary-caring global world order variously articulated within green, women's and peace movements, and within the wider democratic movement.[1] The opposite of pessimism, optimism is a lifeview where one looks upon the world as a positive place. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ... Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into utopia. ... A family posing for a group photo socializes together. ... In military terms, a demilitarized zone (DMZ) is an area, usually the frontier or boundary between two or more groups, where military activity is not permitted, usually by treaty or other agreement. ... The term New World Order has been used several times in recent history, referring to what appeared to be a dramatic change in world political thought and the balance of power. ... “Greens” redirects here. ... Suffrage parade in New York City on May 6, 1912 The Feminist movement (also known as the Womens Movement and Womens Liberation) campaigns on issues such as reproductive rights, domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, sexual harassment, discrimination and sexual violence. ... An Australian anti-conscription poster from World War One A peace movement is a social movement that seeks to achieve ideals such as the ending of a particular war (or all wars), minimize inter-human violence in a particular place or type of situation, often linked to the goal of... ...


Select Bibliography

Anthony Giddens is the author of over 34 books and 200 articles. This is a selection of some of the most important of his works:

  • Giddens, Anthony (1971) Capitalism and Modern Social Theory. An Analysis of the writings of Marx, Durkheim and Max Weber. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
  • Giddens, Anthony (1976) Functionalism: apres la lutte, Social Research, 43, 325-66
  • Giddens, Anthony (1976) New Rules of Sociological Method: a Positive Critique of interpretative Sociologies. London : Hutchinson.
  • Giddens, Anthony (1977) Studies in Social and Political Theory. London : Hutchinson.
  • Giddens, Anthony (1979) Central problems in Social Theory : Action, Structure and Contradiction in Social Analysis. London : Macmillan.
  • Giddens, Anthony (1981) A Contemporary Critique of Historical Materialism. Vol. 1. Power, Property and the State. London : Macmillan.
  • Giddens, Anthony (1981) The Class Structure of the Advanced Societies. London : Hutchinson.
  • Giddens, Anthony (1982) Sociology: a Brief but Critical Introduction. London : Macmillan.
  • Giddens, Anthony (1982) Profiles and Critiques in Social Theory. London : Macmillan.
  • Giddens, Anthony & Mackenzie, Gavin (Eds.) (1982) Social Class and the Division of Labour. Essays in Honour of Ilya Neustadt. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
  • Giddens, Anthony (1984) The Constitution of Society. Outline of the Theory of Structuration. Cambridge : Polity (publisher).
  • Giddens, Anthony (1985) A Contemporary Critique of Historical Materialism. Vol. 2. The Nation State and Violence. Cambridge : Polity (publisher).
  • Giddens, Anthony (1986) Durkheim. London : Fontana Modern Masters.
  • Giddens, Anthony (1990) The Consequences of Modernity. Cambridge: Polity (publisher).
  • Giddens, Anthony (1991) Modernity and Self-Identity. Self and Society in the Late Modern Age. Cambridge: Polity (publisher).
  • Giddens, Anthony (1992) The Transformation of Intimacy: Sexuality, Love and Eroticism in Modern Societies. Cambridge: Polity (publisher).
  • Beck, Ulrich & Giddens, Anthony & Lash, Scott (1994) Reflexive Modernization. Politics, Tradition and Aesthetics in the Modern Social Order. Cambridge : Polity (publisher).
  • Giddens, Anthony (1994) Beyond Left and Right — the Future of Radical Politics. Cambridge : Polity (publisher).
  • Giddens, Anthony (1995) Politics, Sociology and Social Theory: Encounters with Classical and Contemporary Social Thought. Cambridge : Polity (publisher).
  • Giddens, Anthony (1996) In Defence of Sociology. Cambridge : Polity (publisher).
  • Giddens, Anthony (1996) Durkheim on Politics and the State. Cambridge : Polity (publisher).
  • Giddens, Anthony (1998) The Third Way. The Renewal of Social Democracy. Cambridge : Polity (publisher).
  • Giddens, Anthony (1999) Runaway World: How Globalization is Reshaping Our Lives. London : Profile.
  • Hutton, Will & Giddens, Anthony (Eds.) (2000) On The Edge. Living with Global Capitalism. London : Vintage.
  • Giddens, Anthony (2000) The Third Way and Its Critics. Cambridge : Polity (publisher).
  • Giddens, Anthony (2000) Runaway World. London : Routledge.
  • Giddens, Anthony (2001) Sociology. Cambridge : Polity (publisher).
  • Giddens, Anthony (Ed.) (2001) The Global Third Way Debate. Cambridge : Polity (publisher).
  • Giddens, Anthony (2002) Where Now for New Labour? Cambridge : Polity (publisher).
  • Giddens, Anthony (Ed.) (2003) The Progressive Manifesto. New Ideas for the Centre-Left. Cambridge : Polity (publisher).
  • Giddens, Anthony (Ed.) (2005) The New Egalitarianism Cambridge : Polity (publisher).
  • Giddens, Anthony (2007) Europe In The Global Age. Cambridge : Polity (publisher)
  • Giddens, Anthony (2007) Over to You, Mr Brown - How Labour Can Win Again. Cambridge : Polity (publisher).

Social research refers to research conducted by social scientists (primarily within sociology and social psychology), but also within other disciplines such as social policy, human geography, political science, social anthropology and education. ... Polity Press is an international publisher in the social sciences and humanities. ... Polity Press is an international publisher in the social sciences and humanities. ... Polity Press is an international publisher in the social sciences and humanities. ... Polity Press is an international publisher in the social sciences and humanities. ... Polity Press is an international publisher in the social sciences and humanities. ... Polity Press is an international publisher in the social sciences and humanities. ... Polity Press is an international publisher in the social sciences and humanities. ... Polity Press is an international publisher in the social sciences and humanities. ... Polity Press is an international publisher in the social sciences and humanities. ... Polity Press is an international publisher in the social sciences and humanities. ... Polity Press is an international publisher in the social sciences and humanities. ... Polity Press is an international publisher in the social sciences and humanities. ... Polity Press is an international publisher in the social sciences and humanities. ... Polity Press is an international publisher in the social sciences and humanities. ... Polity Press is an international publisher in the social sciences and humanities. ... Polity Press is an international publisher in the social sciences and humanities. ... Polity Press is an international publisher in the social sciences and humanities. ... Polity Press is an international publisher in the social sciences and humanities. ... Polity Press is an international publisher in the social sciences and humanities. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q George Ritzer (ed.), The Blackwell Companion to Major Contemporary Social Theorists, Blackwell Publishing, 2003, ISBN 1-4051-0595-X, Google Print
  2. ^ a b David Halpin, Hope and Education: The Role of the Utopian Imagination, Routledge, 2003, ISBN 0-415-23368-2, Google Print p.63
  3. ^ Resources at Theory.org.uk, site by David Gauntlett, last accessed on 19th February 2006
  4. ^ a b c d e David Gauntlett, Media Gender and Identity, Routledge, 2002. ISBN 0-415-18960-8. About Giddens' work on modernity and self-identity. Google Print
  5. ^ Anthony Giddens, The Nation-State and Violence, University of California Press, 1987, ISBN 0-520-06039-3, p.7 Google Print
  6. ^ a b Stjepan Mestrovic, Anthony Giddens: The Last Modernist, New York: Routledge, 1998, ISBN 0-415-09572-7, p.47 Google Prinet
  7. ^ John D. Bone, The Social Map & The Problem of Order: A Re-evaluation of ’Homo Sociologicus’, Theory & Science (2005), ISSN 1527-5558, online
  8. ^ a b c d e Resources at Theory.org.uk, site by David Gauntlett, last accessed on 19th February 2006
  9. ^ David R. Shumway, Modern Love: Romance, Intimacy, and the Marriage Crisis, NYU Press, 2003, ISBN 0-8147-9831-4, Google Print

George Ritzer (born 1940) is Distinguished University Professor at the University of Maryland, College Park. ... David Gauntlett (b. ... David Gauntlett (b. ... David Gauntlett (b. ...

Further reading

  • Christopher G. A. Bryant, David Jary ,The Contemporary Giddens : Social Theory in a Globalizing Age, Palgrave Macmillan, 2001, ISBN 0-333-77904-5
  • David Held, John B. Thompson, Social Theory of Modern Societies : Anthony Giddens and his Critics, Cambridge University Press, 1989, ISBN 0-521-27855-4
  • Anthony Giddens, Christopher Pierson, Conversations with Anthony Giddens, Stanford University Press, 1999, ISBN 0-8047-3569-7. A starting-point in which Giddens explains his work and the sociological principles which underpin it in clear, elegant language.

David Held (born 1951) is a British political theorist and a prominent figure within the field of international relations. ... There are two John B. Thompson entries: Jack Thompson (attorney) John Burton Thompson ...

External links

Persondata
NAME Giddens, Anthony, Baron Giddens
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION British sociologist
DATE OF BIRTH January 18, 1938
PLACE OF BIRTH Edmonton, London
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH
For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... The Reith Lectures are a series of annual radio lectures given by leading figures of the day, and broadcast by the BBC. They were begun in 1948, in honour of the first Director-General of the BBC, John Reith. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Edmonton is a place in the eastern part of the London Borough of Enfield. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Anthony Giddens - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5156 words)
Anthony Giddens, Baron Giddens (born January 18, 1938) is a British sociologist who is renowned for his theory of structuration and his holistic view of modern societies.
Giddens writes that the connection between structure and action is a fundamental element of social theory, structure and agency are a duality that cannot be conceived of apart from one another and his main argument is contained in his expression "duality of structure".
Giddens agrees that there are very specific changes that mark our current era, but argues that it is not a "post-modern era", but just a "radicalised modernity era" (similar to Zygmunt Bauman's concept of liquid modernity), produced by the extension of the same social forces that shaped the previous age.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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