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Encyclopedia > Anterior cingulate cortex
Gray's FIG. 727– Medial surface of left cerebral hemisphere.
Gray's FIG. 727– Medial surface of left cerebral hemisphere.

The Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is the frontal part of the cingulate cortex, which resembles a "collar" form around the corpus callosum, the fibrous bundle that relays neural signals between the right and left cerebral hemispheres of the brain. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... An illustration from the 1918 edition Henry Grays Anatomy of the Human Body (or Grays Anatomy as it has more commonly become known) is an anatomy textbook widely regarded as a classic work on human anatomy. ... The cingulate cortex is a part of the brain situated in the medial aspect of the cortex. ... The corpus callosum is a structure of the mammalian brain in the longitudal fissure that connects the left and right cerebral hemispheres. ... This article is about cells in the nervous system. ... The human brain as viewed from above, showing the cerebral hemispheres. ... Human brain In animals, the brain (enkephale) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ...


It includes both the ventral and dorsal areas of the cingulate cortex, and appears to play a role in a wide variety of autonomic functions, such as regulating blood pressure and heart rate, as well as rational cognitive functions, such as reward anticipation, decision-making, empathy and emotion. 24 - ventral anterior cingulate (area cingularis anterior ventralis). ... In anatomy, the dorsum is the upper or back side of an animal, as opposed to the ventrum. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Anatomy and Physiology of the A.N.S. In contrast to the voluntary nervous system, the involuntary or autonomic nervous system is responsible for homeostasis, maintaining a relatively constant internal environment by controlling such involuntary functions as digestion, respiration, and metabolism, and by modulating energy needed to cope with stressful... A sphygmomanometer, a device used for measuring arterial pressure. ... Heart rate is a term used to describe the frequency of the cardiac cycle. ... Rational may be: the adjective for the state of rationality acting according to the philosophical principles of rationalism a mathematical term for certain numbers; the rational numbers the software company Rational Software; now owned by IBM, and formerly Rational Software Corporation This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which... Cognitive The scientific study of how people obtain, retrieve, store and manipulate information. ... This article is about the psychological term. ... Not to be confused with Pity, Sympathy, or Compassion. ... Look up Emotion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

Functions

The anterior cingulate cortex can be divided anatomically based on attributed functions into executive (anterior), evaluative (posterior), cognitive (dorsal), and emotional (ventral) components (Bush et al., 2000). The ACC is connected with the prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex as well as the motor system and the frontal eye fields (Posner & DiGirolamo, 1998) making it a central station for processing top-down and bottom-up stimuli and assigning appropriate control to other areas in the brain. The ACC seems to be especially involved when effort is needed to carry out a task such as in early learning and problem solving (Allman et al., 2001). Many studies attribute functions such as error detection, anticipation of tasks, motivation, and modulation of emotional responses to the ACC (Bush et al., 2000; Nieuwenhuis et al., 2001; Posner & DiGirolamo, 1998). In zootomy, several terms are used to describe the location of organs and other structures in the body of bilateral animals. ... The English word POSTERIOR is identical to the original Latin adjective, and has two different uses : as an ADJECTIVE, it indicates that someone or something is behind another, either spatially or chronologically it also became a SUBSTANTIVE, indicating the rear-end, especially of a person, i. ... In anatomy, the dorsum is the upper or back side of an animal, as opposed to the ventrum. ... In zootomy, several terms are used to describe the location of organs and other structures in the body of bilateral animals. ... “Prefrontal” redirects here. ... The parietal lobe is a lobe in the brain. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In computer science and information theory, error correction consists of using methods to detect and/or correct errors in the transmission or storage of data by the use of some amount of redundant data and (in the case of transmission) the selective retransmission of incorrect segments of the data. ...



ACC response in Stroop task experiments (designed to measure adherence to sequential decision-making paths) remains relatively elevated in typical human subjects, as the alternative - spontaneity - is sacrificed. Whereas most funded research is concentrated on reduced task focus - often diagnosed subjectively as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) - recent research using monkeys has revealed that heightened ACC activity (generally associated with reduced dopamine utilization) reduces capacity to learn how to use visual cues for anticipating rewards [1]. Demonstration Say the color of these words as fast as you can: According to the Stroop effect, the first set of colors would have had a faster reaction time. ... This article is about modern humans. ... DISCLAIMER Please remember that Wikipedia is offered for informational use only. ... For other uses, see Dopamine (disambiguation). ...


The anterior cingulate cortex contains cells known as spindle neurons, and have been found in the ACC and frontoinsular cortex of humans and other hominids (great apes)as well as humpback whales. Spindle neurons are a specific class of neurons that participate in signal transmission in the nervous system, and are characterized by a large spindle-shaped soma, gradually tapering into a single apical dendrite (axon) in one direction, with only a single dendrite facing opposite. ... Genera The hominids are the members of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes), which includes humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. ...


Tasks

A typical task that activates the ACC involves eliciting some form of conflict within the participant that can potentially result in an error. One such task is called the Eriksen Flanker Task and simply consists of an arrow pointing to the left or right, which is flanked by two distractor arrows creating either compatible (<<<<<) or incompatible (>><>>) trials (Botvinick et al., 1999). Another very common conflict inducing stimulus is the Stroop task. Demonstration Say the color of these words as fast as you can: According to the Stroop effect, the first set of colors would have had a faster reaction time. ...


The classic Stroop task involves naming the color ink of words that are either congruent (RED written in red) or incongruent (RED written in blue). Conflict occurs because people’s reading abilities interfere with their attempt to correctly name the word’s ink color. A variation of this task is the Counting-Stroop during which people count either neutral stimuli (‘dog’ presented four times) or interfering stimuli (‘three’ presented four times) by pressing a button.


Another version of the Stroop task named the Emotional Counting Stroop is identical to the Counting Stroop test, except that it also uses segmented or repeated emotional words such as "murder", during the interference part of the task. Using different forms of conflict induction allows researchers to differentiate between the many functions of the ACC.


It is worth noting that all these contrasts involve a substraction between a more difficult type of trial and a less difficult one. There are reason to think that ACC responses reflect this difficulty (e.g. increased neural activity associated with signalling more blood flow to other brain regions) than the cognitive conflict per se See Review by Critchely related to this. If so, the ACC response is not the neural signature of a brain region that processes the conflict, it's the neural signature of a brain region that is correlated with conflict processing somewhere else.


Evidence from electrical studies

Evidence for the role of the ACC as having an error detection function comes from consistent observations of error related negativity (ERN) uniquely generated within the ACC upon error occurrences (Gehring et al., 1993; Bush et al., 2000; Holroyd et al., 2004; Luu & Pederson, 2004). A distinction has been made between an ERP following incorrect responses (response ERN) and a signal after subjects receive feedback after erroneous responses (feedback ERN). Ern is: An alternate spelling of Erne, another name for the White-tailed Eagle An Enochian cacodemon Category: ... An event-related potential (ERP) is any stereotyped electrophysiological response to an internal or external stimulus. ...


It is worth noting at this point that no-one has clearly demonstrated that the ERN comes from the ACC. Source localization of ERP components is a notoriously messy business. The ERN could come from any number of brain regions, perhaps several. In light of this, it is striking that patients with lateral PFC damage (not medial) showed reduced ERNs see Gehring and Knight.


Reinforcement learning ERN theory poses that there is a mismatch between actual response execution and appropriate response execution, which results in an ERN discharge (Bush et al., 2000; Holroyd et al., 2004). Furthermore, this theory predicts that when the ACC receives conflicting input from control areas in the brain, it determines and allocates which area should be given control over the motor system. Varying levels of dopamine are believed to influence the optimization of this filter system by providing expectations about the outcomes of an event. Ern is: An alternate spelling of Erne, another name for the White-tailed Eagle An Enochian cacodemon Category: ... Ern is: An alternate spelling of Erne, another name for the White-tailed Eagle An Enochian cacodemon Category: ...


The ERN then, serves as a beacon to highlight the violation of an expectation (Luu & Pederson, 2004). Research on the occurrence of the feedback ERN shows evidence that this potential has larger amplitudes when violations of expectancy are large. In other words, if an event is not likely to happen the feedback ERN will be larger if no error is detected. Other studies have examined if the ERN is elicited by varying the cost of an error and the evaluation of a response (Holroyd et al., 2004). Ern is: An alternate spelling of Erne, another name for the White-tailed Eagle An Enochian cacodemon Category: ... Ern is: An alternate spelling of Erne, another name for the White-tailed Eagle An Enochian cacodemon Category: ...


In these trials, feedback is given about whether the participant has gained or lost money after a response. Amplitudes of ERN responses with small gains and small losses were similar. No ERN was elicited for any losses as opposed to an ERN for no wins even though both outcomes are the same. The finding in this paradigm suggests that monitoring for wins and losses is based on the relative expected gains and losses. If you get a different outcome than expected, the ERN will be larger than for expected outcomes. ERN studies have also localized specific functions of the ACC (Luu & Pederson, 2004). Ern is: An alternate spelling of Erne, another name for the White-tailed Eagle An Enochian cacodemon Category: ... Ern is: An alternate spelling of Erne, another name for the White-tailed Eagle An Enochian cacodemon Category: ... Ern is: An alternate spelling of Erne, another name for the White-tailed Eagle An Enochian cacodemon Category: ... Ern is: An alternate spelling of Erne, another name for the White-tailed Eagle An Enochian cacodemon Category: ... Ern is: An alternate spelling of Erne, another name for the White-tailed Eagle An Enochian cacodemon Category: ...


The rostral ACC seems to be active after an error commission indicating an error response function, whereas the dorsal ACC is active after both an error and feedback suggesting a more evaluative function (for fMRI evidence see also (Bush et al., 2002; Polli et al., 2005; Taylor et al., 2006). This evaluation is emotional in nature and highlights the amount of distress associated with a certain error (Bush et al., 2000). Summarizing the evidence found by ERN studies it appears to be the case that ACC receives information about a stimulus, selects an appropriate response, monitors the action, and adapts behavior if there is a violation of expectancy (Luu & Pederson, 2004).


Theory based on imaging studies

The range of functions attributed to the ACC has been synthesized from many fMRI studies. Some theories focus strictly on the error detection properties of the ACC, while others incorporate conflict monitoring, emotional effects, and reward-based learning. None of the current theories can fully explain the complete picture of the ACC, but each contributes to a piece of the puzzle. Some of the main theories will be discussed in this section.


Error detection theory

The most basic form of ACC theory states that the ACC is involved with error detection (Bush et al., 2000). Evidence for this theory has been derived from studies involving a Stroop task (Posner & DiGirolamo, 1998). However, ACC activation is also active during correct response and this has been shown using a letter task whereby participants had to respond to the letter X after an A was presented and ignore all other letter combinations with some letters being more competitive than others (Carter et al., 1998). They found that for more competitive stimuli ACC activation was greater. This study highlights the important notion that the ACC is not merely involved with detecting an error, but actually evaluates the degree of conflict. In computer science and information theory, error correction consists of using methods to detect and/or correct errors in the transmission or storage of data by the use of some amount of redundant data and (in the case of transmission) the selective retransmission of incorrect segments of the data. ... Demonstration Say the color of these words as fast as you can: According to the Stroop effect, the first set of colors would have had a faster reaction time. ...


Conflict monitoring theory

This theory poses that the ACC’s primary function is the monitoring of conflict. In the example of the Eriksen Flanker Test, incompatible trials produce the most conflict and therefore the most activation by the ACC. Evidence for this theory has been demonstrated (Botvinick et al., 1999). Upon detection of a conflict the ACC then provides cues to other areas in the brain to cope with the conflicting control systems. One weakness of this theory is that it cannot explain some evidence obtained by electrical studies (Holroyd et al., 2004; Luu & Pederson, 2004; Nieuwenhuis et al., 2001) that demonstrate the effects of giving feedback after responses because the theory describes the ACC as strictly monitoring conflict, not as having evaluative properties.


Evidence against error detection and conflict monitoring theory

Several recent studies, particularly those examining task performance related to error and conflict processes in patients with ACC damage, cast doubt on the necessity of this region for these functions.


Baird et al. [2]propose that their data "may imply that the ACC does not have a central role in cognition"


Nachev et al. [3] state that "The highly influential notion of conflict monitoring by the anterior cingulate has been called into question by monkey single-cell neurophysiology and lesion studies in monkeys and humans."


The comprehensive Critchley review [4] states that "The cognitive consequences of anterior cingulate lesions remain rather equivocal, with a number of case reports of intact general neuropsychological and executive function in the presence of large anterior dorsal cingulate lesions (Cohen et al., [1999]; Swick and Turken, [2002]; Stemmer et al., 2004; Fellows and Farah [2005])."


And for an evolving and now quite detailed alternative view of anterior cingulate, see Rushworth's review (2007) [5]


Reward based learning theory

A more comprehensive and recent theory describes the ACC as a more active component and poses that it detects and monitors errors, evaluates the degree of the error, and then suggests an appropriate form of action to be implemented by the motor system. Earlier evidence from electrical studies indicate the ACC has an evaluative component and this is indeed confirmed by fMRI studies. The dorsal and rostral areas of the ACC both seem to be affected by rewards and losses associated with errors. During one study, participants received monetary rewards and losses for correct and incorrect responses respectively (Bush et al., 2002). Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (or fMRI) describes the use of MRI to measure hemodynamic signals related to neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans or other animals. ...


Largest activation in the dACC was shown during loss trials. This stimulus did not elicit any errors and thus error detection and monitoring theories cannot fully explain why this ACC activation would occur. The dorsal part of the ACC seems to play a key role in reward-based decision making and learning. The rostral part of the ACC, on the other hand, is believed to be more involved with affective responses to errors. In an interesting expansion of the previously described experiment, the effects of rewards and costs on ACC’s activation during error commission was examined (Taylor et al., 2006). Participants performed a version of the Eriksen Flanker Task using a set of letters assigned to each response button instead of arrows.


Targets were flanked by either a congruent or incongruent set of letters. Using an image of a thumb (up, down, or neutral) participants received feedback on how much money they gained or lost. The researchers found greater rostral ACC activation when participants lost money during the trials. The participants reported being frustrated when making mistakes. Because the ACC is intricately involved with error detection and affective responses, it may very well be that this area forms the bases of self-confidence. Taken together, these findings indicate that both the dorsal and rostral areas are involved in evaluating the extent of the error and optimizing subsequent responses. A study that confirming this notion explored the functions of both the dorsal and rostral areas of the ACC involved using a saccade task (Polli et al., 2005).


Participants were shown a cue that indicated whether they had to make either a post saccade or an anti-saccade. An anti-saccade requires suppression of a distracting cue because the target appears in the opposite location causing the conflict. Results showed differing activation for the rostral and dorsal ACC areas. Early correct anti-saccade performance was associated with rostral activation. The dorsal area, on the other hand, was activated when errors were committed, but also for correct responses.


Whenever the dorsal area was active, fewer errors were committed providing more evidence that the ACC is involved with effortful performance. The second finding showed that during error trials, the ACC activated later than for correct responses clearly indicating a kind of evaluative function.


Incorporating the findings of the previously discussed studies, the rostral and dorsal areas of the ACC seem to be monitoring for errors and, when they occur, evaluate their severity. The ACC can then send a form of affective response based on the severity of the error and so provides feedback about what just happened and what to do next.


Pathology

Stimulation of the anterior cingulate (also known as Area 25) with low dosages of electric current in neurosurgical studies has been shown to improve depression in a portion of test subjects. This box:      Electric current is the flow (movement) of electric charge. ...


Studying the effects of damage to the ACC provides insights into the type of functions it serves in the intact brain. Behavior that is associated with lesions in the ACC includes: inability to detect errors, severe difficulty with resolving stimulus conflict in a Stroop task, emotional instability, inattention, and akinetic mutism (Bush et al., 2000; Posner & DiGirolamo, 1998). There is evidence that damage to ACC is present in patients with schizophrenia, where studies have shown patients have difficulty in dealing with conflicting spatial locations in a Stroop-like task and having abnormal ERNs (Holroyd et al., 2004; Posner & DiGirolamo, 1998). Participants with ADHD were found to have reduced activation in the dorsal area of the ACC when performing the Stroop task (Bush et al., 1999). Together these findings corroborate results from imaging and electrical studies about the variety of functions attributed to the ACC. Demonstration Say the color of these words as fast as you can: According to the Stroop effect, the first set of colors would have had a faster reaction time. ... Akinetic mutism is a medical term describing patients who tend neither to speak (mutism) nor move (akinesia). ... DISCLAIMER Please remember that Wikipedia is offered for informational use only. ... Demonstration Say the color of these words as fast as you can: According to the Stroop effect, the first set of colors would have had a faster reaction time. ...


There is evidence that this area may have a role in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder due to the fact that what appears to be an unnaturally low level of glutamate activity in this region has been observed in patients with the disorder, [6] in strange contrast to many other brain regions which are thought to have excessive glutamate activity in OCD. For other things named OCD, see OCD (disambiguation). ... Glutamate is the anion of glutamic acid. ...


Helen S. Mayberg and two collaborators described how they cured 4 of 6 depressed people -- individuals virtually catatonic with depression despite years of talk therapy, drugs, even shock therapy -- with pacemakerlike electrodes in area 25. A decade earlier Mayberg had identified area 25 as a key conduit of neural traffic between the "thinking" frontal cortex and the phylogenetically older central limbic region that gives rise to emotion. She subsequently found that area 25 appeared overactive in these depressed people — "like a gate left open," as she puts it — allowing negative emotions to overwhelm thinking and mood. Inserting the electrodes closed this gate and rapidly alleviated the depression of two-thirds of the trial's patients [1]. Helen S. Mayberg was born in 1956 in California. ... Helen S. Mayberg was born in 1956 in California. ... In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: phylon = tribe, race and genetikos = relative to birth, from genesis = birth) is the study of evolutionary relatedness among various groups of organisms (e. ...


ACC and consciousness

The ACC area in the brain is associated with many functions that require conscious experience by the viewer. Higher ACC activation levels were found for more emotionally aware female participants when shown short ‘emotional’ video clips (Lane et al., 1998). Better emotional awareness is associated with improved recognition of emotional cues or targets which is reflected by ACC activation.


The idea of awareness being associated with the ACC has some evidence with it, in that it seems to be the case that when subject’s responses are not congruent with actual responses, a larger ERN is produced (Luu & Pederson, 2004).


One study found an ERN even when subjects were not aware of their error (Luu & Pederson, 2004). Awareness may not be necessary to elicit an ERN, but it could influence the effect of the amplitude of the feedback ERN. Relating back to the reward based learning theory, awareness could modulate expectancy violations. Increased awareness could result in decreased violations of expectancies and decreased awareness could achieve the opposite effect. Further research is needed to completely understand the effects of awareness on ACC activation.


References

  1. ^ Deep Brain Stimulation for Treatment-Resistant Depression. Helen S. Mayberg et al. in Neuron, Vol. 45, No. 5, pages 651-660; March 3, 2005.
  • Allman, J. M., Hakeem, A., Erwin, J. M., Nimchinsky, E., & Hof, P. (2001). The anterior cingulate cortex: The evolution of an interface between emotion and cognition. Annals New York Academy of Sciences, 935, 107-117.
  • Botvinick, M., Nystrom, L. E., Fissell, K., Carter, C. S., & Cohen, J. D. (1999). Conflict monitoring versus selection-for-action in anterior cingulate cortex. Nature, 402, 179-181.
  • Bush, G., Frazier, J. A., Rauch, S. L., Seidman, L. J., Whalen, P. J., Jenike, M. A., et al. (1999). Anterior cingulate cortex dysfunction in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder revealed by fMRI and the counting stroop. Society of Biological Psychiatry, 45, 1542-1552.
  • Bush, G., Luu, P., & Posner, M. I. (2000). Cognitive and emotional influences in anterior cingulate cortex. Trends in Cognitive Science, 4, 215-222.
  • Bush, G., Vogt, B. A., Holmes, A., Dale, A. M., Greve, D., Jenike, M. A., et al. (2002). Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex: A role in reward-based decision making. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 99(1), 523-528.
  • Carter, C. S., Braver, T. S., Barch, D. M., Botvinick, M., Noll, D., & Cohen, J. D. (1998). Anterior cingulate cortex, error detection, and on-line monitoring of performance. Science, 280, 747-749.
  • Holroyd, C. B., Nieuwenhuis, S., Mars, R. B., & Coles, M. G. H. (2004). Anterior cingulate cortex, selection for action, and error processing. In M. I. Posner (Ed.), Cognitive neuroscience of attention (pp. 219-231). New York: Guilford Publication, Inc.
  • Gehring, W. J., Goss, B., Coles, M.G.H., Meyer, D.E., Donchin, E. (1993). A neural system for error-detection and compensation. Psychological Science, 4 (6), 385-390.
  • Lane, R. D., Reiman, E. M., Axelrod, B., Yun, L., Holmes, A., & Schwartz, G. E. (1998). Neural correlates of levels of emotional awareness: Evidence of an interaction between emotion and attention in the anterior cingulate cortex. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 10(4), 525-535.
  • Luu, P., & Pederson, S. M. (2004). The anterior cingulate cortex: Regulating actions in context. In M. I. Posner (Ed.), Cognitive neuroscience of attention. New York: Guilford Publication, Inc.
  • Nieuwenhuis, S., Ridderinkhof, K. R., Blom, J., Band, G. P., & Kok, A. (2001). Error-related brain potentials are differentially related to awareness of response errors: evidence from an antisaccade task. Psychophysiology, 38, 752-760.
  • Polli, F. E., Barton, J. J. S., Cain, M. S., Thakkar, K. N., Rauch, S. L., & Manoach, D. S. (2005). Rostral and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex make dissociable contributions during antisaccade error commission. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 102(43), 700-705.
  • Posner, M. I., & DiGirolamo, G. J. (1998). Executive attention: Conflict, target detection, and cognitive control. In R. Parasuraman (Ed.), The Attentive Brain: MIT Press.
  • Taylor, S. F., Martis, B., Fitzgerald, K. D., Welsh, R. C., Abelson, J. L., Liberzon, I., et al. (2006). Medial frontal cortex activity and loss-related responses to errors. The Journal of Neuroscience, 26(15), 4063-4070.
  • Mayberg, H. S., et al. (2005). Deep Brain Stimulation for Treatment-Resistant Depression Neuron, 45(5), pages 651-660; 2005
  • Goldapple, K., et al., (2004) Modulation of Cortical-limbic Pathways in Major Depression, Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, pp34-41.

Helen S. Mayberg was born in 1956 in California. ... This article is about cells in the nervous system. ... Archives of General Psychiatry is a monthly professional medical journal published by the American Medical Association. ...

External links

  • The Anterior Cingulate Cortex: The Evolution of an Interface Between Emotion and Cognition, paper by John Allman et al
  • allmanlab.caltech.edu - John Allman Lab
  • TaipeiTimes.com - Know Thyself and Others
  • NeuroNames hier-143
  • Brain Implant Offers Hope for Severely Depressed
  • Deep Brain Stimulation for Treatment-Resistant Depression, paper by Helen S. Mayberg et al. March 3, 2005.
  • Modulation of Cortical-limbic Pathways in Major Depression, paper by K. Goldapple et al. January 1, 2004.
  • Scientific American, Volume 17, Number 4, pp26-31, article by David Dobbs, July 30, 2006.
  • Painful Stimuli Recorded Over the Human Anterior Cingulate Gyrus, Lenz, et al., J. Neurophysiol, 79: 2231-2234, 1998.

John Allman is a neuroscientist at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, California and a well recognized expert on primates, cognition and brain evolution. ... NeuroNames is a system of nomenclature for the brain and related structures. ... Helen S. Mayberg was born in 1956 in California. ...

See also

The cingulate cortex is a part of the brain situated in the medial aspect of the cortex. ... Cingulate gyrus is a gyrus in the medial part of the brain. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Human brain In animals, the brain (enkephale) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... The telencephalon (te-len-seff-a-lon) is the technical name for a large region within the brain which is attributed many functions, which some groups would class as unique features which make humans stand out from other species. ... For other uses, see Cortex. ... Human brain viewed from above, showing cerebral hemispheres. ... A sulcus (pl. ... The medial longitudinal fissure is the deep groove which separates the two hemispheres of the vertebrate brain. ... The lateral sulcus (also called Sylvian fissure or lateral fissure) is one of the most prominent structures of the human brain. ... Central sulcus of the human brain. ... Only a small part of the Parietoöccipital Fissure (or parieto-occipital sulcus) is seen on the lateral surface of the hemisphere, its chief part being on the medial surface. ... The calcarine fissure (or calcarine sulcus) is an anatomical landmark located at the very caudal end of the medial surface of the brain. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... The callosal sulcus is a sulcus between the cingulate gyrus and corpus callosum, below the longitudinal cerebral fissure. ... The collateral fissure (or sulcus) is on the tentorial surface of the hemisphere and extends from near the occipital pole to within a short distance of the temporal pole. ... The frontal lobe is an area in the brain of mammals. ... The precentral gyrus (a. ... The primary motor area is a group of networked cells in mammalian brains that controls movements of specific body parts associated with cell groups in that area of the brain. ... Brodmann area 4 of human brain. ... Precentral sulcus of the human brain. ... Superior frontal gyrus of the human brain. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... // Human Brodmann area 8, or BA8, is part of the frontal cortex in the human brain. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Middle frontal gyrus of the human brain. ... // Where is it? Brodmann area 46, or BA46, is part of the frontal cortex in the human brain. ... Inferior frontal gyrus of the human brain. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... The Pars Opercularis is part of the inferior frontal gyrus and is part of the mirror neurons. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... The Pars triangularis is a portion of the inferior frontal gyrus. ... The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is a region of association cortex of the human brain involved in cognitive processes such as decision making. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... The term Brodmann area 12 refers to a subdivision of the cerebral cortex of the guenon defined on the basis of cytoarchitecture. ... Where is it? Brodmann area 47, or BA47, is part of the frontal cortex in the human brain. ... The parietal lobe is a lobe in the brain. ... The lateral postcentral gyrus is a prominent structure in the parietal lobe of the human brain and an important landmark. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Brodmann area 40, or BA40, is part of the parietal cortex in the human brain. ... Brodmann area 5 is part of the parietal cortex in the human brain. ... The precuneus is a structure in the brain positioned above the cuneus and located in the parietal lobe. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Figure one illustrates significant language areas of the brain. ... The superior parietal lobule is bounded in front by the upper part of the postcentral sulcus, but is usually connected with the posterior central gyrus above the end of the sulcus; behind it is the lateral part of the parietoöccipital fissure, around the end of which it is joined... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... The inferior parietal lobule (subparietal district or lobule) lies below the horizontal portion of the intraparietal sulcus, and behind the lower part of the postcentral sulcus. ... Brodmann area 40, or BA40, is part of the parietal cortex in the human brain. ... The angular gyrus is a region of the brain in the parietal lobe, that lies near the superior edge of the temporal lobe, and immediately posterior to the supramarginal gyrus; it is involved in a number of processes related to language and cognition. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... The lateral surface of the parietal lobe is cleft by a well-marked furrow, the intraparietal sulcus of Turner, which consists of an oblique and a horizontal portion. ... The marginal sulcus is the portion of the cingulate sulcus adjacent to the paracentral lobule and the precuneus. ... The occipital lobe is the visual processing center of the mammalian brain, containing most of the anatomical region of the visual cortex. ... Brodmann area 17 (primary visual cortex) is shown in red in this image which also shows area 18 (orange) and 19 (yellow) The visual cortex refers to the primary visual cortex (also known as striate cortex or V1) and extrastriate visual cortical areas such as V2, V3, V4, and V5. ... Cuneus (Latin for wedge; plural, cunei), the architectural term applied to the wedge-shaped divisions of the Roman theatre separated by the scalae or stairways; see Vitruvius v. ... The lingual gyrus of the occipital lobe lies between the calcarine fissure and the posterior part of the collateral fissure; behind, it reaches the occipital pole; in front, it is continued on to the tentorial surface of the temporal lobe, and joins the hippocampal gyrus. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Brodmann area 19 is shown in yellow in this image which also shows ares 17 (red) and 18 (orange) Brodmann area 19, or BA19, is part of the occipital lobe cortex in the human brain. ... In the occipital lobe, the lateral occipital sulcus extends from behind forward, and divides the lateral surface of the occipital lobe into a superior and an inferior gyrus, which are continuous in front with the parietal and temporal lobes. ... The temporal lobes are part of the cerebrum. ... The primary auditory cortex is the region of the brain that is responsible for processing of auditory (sound) information. ... The primary auditory cortex the region of the brain which is responsible for processing of auditory (sound) information. ... The primary auditory cortex the region of the brain which is responsible for processing of auditory (sound) information. ... Superior temporal gyrus of the human brain. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... On the left side of the brain is an area called Brodmann’s area 22, that help generate and help the understanding of individual words, and on the right side of the brain it helps tell the difference between melody, pitch, and sound intensity. ... The location in the brain of the middle temporal gyrus Middle temporal gyrus is a gyrus in the brain on the Temporal lobe. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... Function of Inferior Temporal Gyrus The Inferior Temporal Gyrus, also known as Brocas area, carries out many tasks, and is mainly responsible for its task in phoenetical analysis for reading. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... The fusiform gyrus is part of the temporal lobe. ... Categories: Stub | Cerebrum ... The temporal lobes are part of the cerebrum. ... Look up Amygdala in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Hippocampus (disambiguation). ... The parahippocampal gyrus (or hippocampal gyrus) is a grey matter cortical region of the brain that surrounds the hippocampus. ... The term area 27 of Brodmann-1909 refers to a cytoarchitecturally defined cortical area that is a rostral part of the PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS of the guenon (Brodmann-1909). ... // Guenon The term Brodmann area 28 refers to a subdivision of the cerebral cortex of the guenon defined on the basis of cytoarchitecture. ... You have new messages. ... // Human This area is known as perirhinal area 35, and it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined hippocampal region of the cerebral cortex. ... This area is known as ectorhinal area 36, and it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined temporal region of cerebral cortex. ... The cingulate cortex is a part of the brain situated in the medial aspect of the cortex. ... Cingulate gyrus is a gyrus in the medial part of the brain. ... Brodmann area 25 (BA25) is an area in the cerebral cortex of the brain and delineated based on its cytoarchitectonic characteristics. ... // Human Brodmann area 25 (BA25) is an area in the cerebral cortex of the brain and delineated based on its cytoarchitectonic characteristics. ... 24 - ventral anterior cingulate (area cingularis anterior ventralis). ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... This area is known as pregenual area 33, and it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined cingulate region of cerebral cortex. ... The Cingulum is a collection of nerve fibres following a long, arcuate course superior to and around to posterior to the Corpus callosum. ... Brodmann area 23 (BA23) is a region in the brain corresponding to some portion of the posterior cingulate cortex. ... This area is known as dorsal posterior cingulate area 31, and it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined cingulate region of cerebral cortex. ... The retrosplenial region is a brain area part of the cingular cortex. ... This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. ... This area is known as granular retrolimbic area 29, and it refers to a cytoarchitecturally defined portion of the retrosplenial region of the cerebral cortex. ... This area is known as agranular retrolimbic area 30, and it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined retrosplenial region of the cerebral cortex. ... The supracallosal gyrus (indusium griseum; gyrus epicallosus) consists of a thin layer of gray substance in contact with the upper surface of the corpus callosum and continuous laterally with the gray substance of the cingulate gyrus. ... White matter is one of the two main solid components of the central nervous system. ... The corpus callosum is a structure of the mammalian brain in the longitudal fissure that connects the left and right cerebral hemispheres. ... The posterior end of the corpus callosum is the thickest part, and is termed the splenium. ... The anterior end of the corpus callosum is named the genu, and is bent downward and backward in front of the septum pellucidum; diminishing rapidly in thickness, it is prolonged backward under the name of the rostrum, which is connected below with the lamina terminalis. ... The anterior end of the corpus callosum is named the genu, and is bent downward and backward in front of the septum pellucidum; diminishing rapidly in thickness, it is prolonged backward under the name of the rostrum, which is connected below with the lamina terminalis. ... On either side of the corpus collosum, the fibers radiate in the white substance and pass to the various parts of the cerebral cortex; those curving forward from the genu into the frontal lobe constitute the forceps anterior, and those curving backward into the occipital lobe, the forceps posterior. ... The septum pellucidum, also called the septum lucidum, is a thin, triangular, vertical membrane that separates the lateral ventricles of the brain. ... The internal capsule is an area of white matter in the brain that separates the caudate nucleus and the thalamus from the lenticular nucleus. ... The corona radiata surround an ovum or unfertilized egg cell, and consist of two or three strata (layers) of follicular cells. ... The external capsule is a series of white matter fiber tracts in the brain. ... The olfactory tract is a narrow white band, triangular on coronal section, the apex being directed upward. ... The fornix is also the name of part of the cervix (fornix vaginae). ... The lateral portions of the body of the fornix are joined by a thin triangular lamina, named the psalterium (lyra). ... The Anterior Commissure (precommissure) is a bundle of white fibers, connecting the two cerebral hemispheres across the middle line, and placed in front of the columns of the fornix. ... The posterior commissure is a rounded band of white fibers crossing the middle line on the dorsal aspect of the upper end of the cerebral aqueduct. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... The superior longitudinal fasciculus (also called the superior longitudinal fascicle or SLF) is a pair of long bi-directional bundles of neurons connecting the front and the back of the cerebrum. ... The inferior longitudinal fasciculus connects the temporal lobe and occipital lobe, running along the lateral walls of the inferior and posterior cornua of the lateral ventricle. ... The uncinate fasciculus passes across the bottom of the lateral fissure, and unites the gyri of the frontal lobe with the anterior end of the temporal lobe. ... The cingulum is a collection of white matter fibers projecting from the cingulate gyrus to the entorhinal cortex in the brain, allowing for communication between components of the limbic system. ... The occipitofrontal fasciculus passes backward from the frontal lobe, along the lateral border of the caudate nucleus, and on the mesial aspect of the corona radiata; its fibers radiate in a fan-like manner and pass into the occipital and temporal lobes lateral to the posterior and inferior cornua. ... Neurotransmitter systems are systems of neurons in the brain expressing certain types of neurotransmitters, and thus form distinct systems. ... The mesocortical pathway is a neural pathway which connects the ventral tegmentum to the cortex, particularly the frontal lobes. ... The mesolimbic pathway is one of the neural pathways in the brain that link the ventral tegmentum in the midbrain to the nucleus accumbens in the limbic system. ... The nigrostriatal pathway is a neural pathway which connects the substantia nigra with the striatum. ... The tuberoinfundibular pathway is a neural pathway which runs between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. ... The basal ganglia (or basal nuclei) are a group of nuclei in the brain interconnected with the cerebral cortex, thalamus and brainstem. ... Coronal slices of human brain showing the basal ganglia, the striatum and pallidum globus pallidus: external segment (GPe), subthalamic nucleus (STN), globus pallidus: internal segment (GPi), and substantia nigra (SN). ... The putamen is a structure in the middle of the brain, forming the striatum together with the caudate nucleus. ... Grays Fig. ... The nucleus accumbens (NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus or as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus leaning against the septum), is a collection of neurons located where the head of the caudate and the anterior portion of the putamen meet just lateral to the septum pellucidum. ... The globus pallidus (Latin for pale body) is a sub-cortical structure in the brain. ... The claustrum is a thin layer of grey matter lying between the extreme capsule and external capsule in the brain. ... Coronal slices of human brain showing the basal ganglia, globus pallidus: external segment (GPe), subthalamic nucleus (STN), globus pallidus: internal segment (GPi), and substantia nigra (SN). ... The substantia nigra, (Latin for black substance, Soemering) or locus niger is a heterogeneous portion of the midbrain, separating the pes (foot) from the tegmentum (covering), and a major element of the basal ganglia system. ... The insular cortex (also often referred to as just the insula) is a structure of the human brain. ... The olfactory bulb is a structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, the perception of odors. ... The anterior olfactory nucleus is a cranial nucleus for the olfactory nerve. ... The septal nuclei are structures in the middle anteroventral cerebrum that are composed of medium-sized neurons and which are grouped into medial, lateral, and posterior groups. ... In the lateral part of the tuber cinereum is a nucleus of nerve cells, the basal optic nucleus of Meynert. ... Lateral surface of the brain with Brodmanns areas numbered. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Cingulate cortex - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (340 words)
The cingulate cortex is part of the brain and situated roughly in the middle of the cortex.
Anterior cingulate cortex can further be divided in the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex and midcingulate cortex.
Four Regions of Cingulate Cortex and Disease Vulnerability, Brent A. Vogt.
Anterior cingulate cortex - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (579 words)
Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is the frontal part of the cingulate cortex and includes Brodmann's area 24 (ventral ACC) and 32 (dorsal ACC).
The ACC appears to play a role in a wide variety of autonomic functions, such as regulating heart rate and blood pressure, and is vital to cognitive functions, such as reward anticipation, decision-making, empathy, and emotion.
ACC response in Stroop task experiments (designed to measure adherence to sequential decision-making paths) remains relatively elevated in typical human subjects, as the alternative - spontaneity - is sacrificed.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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