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Encyclopedia > Antenna (biology)
Insects display a wide variety of antennal shapes.
Insects display a wide variety of antennal shapes.

Antennae (singular antenna) are paired appendages connected to the front-most segments of arthropods. In crustaceans, they are biramous and present on the first two segments of the head, with the smaller pair known as antennules. All other arthropod groups, except chelicerates and proturans which have none, have a single, uniramous pair of antennae. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (300x1800, 391 KB) Photos of various w:insect w:antennae, combined into a single image to show some of the variety. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (300x1800, 391 KB) Photos of various w:insect w:antennae, combined into a single image to show some of the variety. ... Insects (Class Insecta) are a major group of arthropods and the most diverse group of animals on the Earth, with over a million described species—more than all other animal groups combined. ... An appendage is, in general, an external body part that projects from the body, or a natural prolongation or projection from a part of any organism. ... Morphogenesis (from the Greek morphê shape and genesis creation) is one of three fundamental aspects of developmental biology along with the control of cell growth and cellular differentiation. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Classes & Subclasses Branchiopoda Phyllopoda Sarsostraca Remipedia Cephalocarida Maxillopoda Thecostraca Tantulocarida Branchiura Pentastomida Mystacocarida Copepoda Ostracoda Myodocopa Podocopa Malacostraca Phyllocarida Hoplocarida Eumalacostraca The nauplius larva of a dendrobranchiate Porcellio scaber, the common rough woodlouse, a terrestrial crustacean Pollicipes polymerus, the gooseneck barnacle Glyphea pseudastacus, a fossil glypheoid The crustaceans (Crustacea) are... Biramous is a term used for branched arthropod appendages. ... Classes Arachnida- spiders, scorpions, etc. ... Families [1] Acerentomata Hesperentomidae Protentomidae Acerentomidae Eosentomata Antelientomidae Eosentomidae Sinentomata Sinentomidae The Protura, or proturans, are an order of hexapods previously treated as insects, and sometimes treated as a class [2]. They are very small (<2 mm long) soil-dwelling animals and are unique among arthropods for showing anamorphic development... The limb of an arthropod is said to be uniramous when it has only one branch. ...


Antennae are jointed, at least at the base, and generally extend forward from the head. They are sensory organs, although the exact nature of what they sense and how they sense it is not the same in all groups, nor always clear. Functions may variously include sensing touch, air motion, heat, vibration (sound), and especially olfaction (smell) or gustation (taste). This article or section may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to be clearer or more simplified. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Young boy smelling a flower Olfaction, which is also known as Olfactics is the sense of smell, and the detection of chemicals dissolved in air. ... Taste is one of the most common and fundamental of the senses in life on Earth. ...

Contents

Insects

Terms used to describe antennae shapes
Terms used to describe antennae shapes
Antennal shape in the Lepidoptera from C. T. Bingham (1905)
Antennal shape in the Lepidoptera from C. T. Bingham (1905)

In insects, olfactory receptors on the antennae bind to odour molecules, including pheromones. The neurons that possess these receptors signal this binding by sending action potentials down their axons to the antennal lobe in the brain. From there, neurons in the antennal lobes connect to mushroom bodies that identify the odour. The sum of the electrical potentials of the antenna to a given odor can be measured using an electroantenogram. Image File history File links Insect_antennae. ... Image File history File links Insect_antennae. ... Image File history File links Antennae_ctb. ... Image File history File links Antennae_ctb. ... Superfamilies Butterflies Hesperioidea Papilionoidea Moths Acanthopteroctetoidea Alucitoidea Axioidea Bombycoidea Calliduloidea Choreutoidea Cossoidea Drepanoidea Epermenioidea Eriocranioidea Galacticoidea Gelechioidea Geometroidea Gracillarioidea Hedyloidea Hepialoidea Heterobathmioidea Hyblaeoidea Immoidea Incurvarioidea Lasiocampoidea Lophocoronoidea Micropterigoidea Mimallonoidea Mnesarchaeoidea Neopseustoidea Nepticuloidea Noctuoidea Palaephatoidea Pterophoroidea Pyraloidea Schreckensteinioidea Sesioidea Simaethistoidea Thyridoidea Tineoidea Tischerioidea Tortricoidea Urodoidea Whalleyanoidea Yponomeutoidea Zygaenoidea The order Lepidoptera... Insects (Class Insecta) are a major group of arthropods and the most diverse group of animals on the Earth, with over a million described species—more than all other animal groups combined. ... Olfactory receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor in olfactory receptor neurons. ... Odor receptors on the antennae of a Luna moth An odor or odour (see spelling differences) is a chemical dissolved in air, generally at a very low concentration, which we perceive by the sense of olfaction. ... Fanning honeybee exposes Nasonov gland (white-at tip of abdomen) releasing pheromone to entice swarm into an empty hive A pheromone is a chemical that triggers an innate behavioural response in another member of the same species. ... Drawing by Santiago Ramón y Cajal of neurons in the pigeon cerebellum. ... A. A schematic view of an idealized action potential illustrates its various phases as the action potential passes a point on a cell membrane. ... An axon or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that conducts electrical impulses away from the neurons cell body or soma. ... Antennal Lobe is the deutocerebral neuropil of the insect which receive the input from the sensory neurons on the antenna. ... In animals, the brain or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behaviour. ... The mushroom bodies or corpora pedunculata are a pair of structures in the brain of insects and other arthropods. ... Electroantennogram or EAG is a technique by which we measure the average output of the antenna to the brain for a given odor. ...


The three basic segments of the typical insect antenna are the scape (base), the pedicel (stem), and finally the flagellum, which often comprises many units known as flagellomeres. The scape is surrounded by a membranous region of the head. It pivots on a single marginal point called the antennifer, allowing it to move in any direction. The number of flagellomeres can vary greatly, and is often of diagnostic importance. True flagellomeres have a membranous articulation between them, but in many insects, especially the more primitive groups, the flagellum is entirely or partially composed of a flexible series of small annuli, which are not true flagellomeres. In many beetles and in the chalcidoid wasps, the apical flagellomeres form a club, and the collective term for the segments between the club and the antennal base is the funicle (or funiculus); for traditional reasons, in beetles it is the segments between the club and the scape, but in wasps, it is the segments between the club and the pedicel. In the groups with more uniform antennae (for example: Diplopoda), all segments are called antennomeres. Some groups have a simple or variously modified apical or subapical bristle called an arista (this may be especially well-developed in various Diptera). Suborders Adephaga Archostemata Myxophaga Polyphaga See subgroups of the order Coleoptera Beetles are the most diverse group of insects. ... Chalcidoidea is a superfamily of Hymenoptera There are nineteen families Agaonidae Walker, 1846 Aphelinidae Thomson, 1876 Chalcididae Latreille, 1817 Encyrtidae Walker, 1837 Eucharitidae Latreille, 1809 Eulophidae (including Elasmidae) Westwood, 1829 Eupelmidae Walker, 1833 Eurytomidae Walker, 1832 Leucospidae Fabricius, 1775 Mymaridae Haliday, 1833 Ormyridae Forster, 1856 Perilampidae Latreille, 1809 Pteromalidae Dalman... This page is about the creature known as the millipede. ... Suborders Nematocera (includes Eudiptera) Brachycera Diptera (di - two, ptera - wings), or true flies, is the order of insects possessing only a single pair of wings on the mesothorax; the metathorax bears a pair of drumstick like structures called the halteres, the remnants of the hind wings. ...


Crustaceans

Crustaceans bear two pairs of antennae. The first pair are uniramous and are often referred to an antennules, while the second pair are biramous, meaning that each antenna is composed of two parts, joined at their base [1]. In most adults, the antenna are sensory organs, but they are used by the nauplius larva for both feeding and swimming. In some groups of crustaceans, such as the spiny lobsters and slipper lobsters, the second antennae are enlarged, while in others, such as crabs, the antennae are reduced in size. Classes & Subclasses Branchiopoda Phyllopoda Sarsostraca Remipedia Cephalocarida Maxillopoda Thecostraca Tantulocarida Branchiura Pentastomida Mystacocarida Copepoda Ostracoda Myodocopa Podocopa Malacostraca Phyllocarida Hoplocarida Eumalacostraca The nauplius larva of a dendrobranchiate Porcellio scaber, the common rough woodlouse, a terrestrial crustacean Pollicipes polymerus, the gooseneck barnacle Glyphea pseudastacus, a fossil glypheoid The crustaceans (Crustacea) are... The limb of an arthropod is said to be uniramous when it has only one branch. ... Biramous is a term used for branched arthropod appendages. ... The nauplius larva of a prawn A nauplius is the larva of many kinds of crustaceans. ... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... Genera Jasus Linuparus Palinurus Panulirus Spiny lobsters, also known as rock lobsters are a family (Palinuridae) of about 45 species of achelate crustaceans, in the Decapoda Reptantia. ... Genera Acantharctus Antarctus Antipodarctus Bathyarctus Biarctus Chelarctus Crenarctus Eduarctus Galearctus Gibbularctus Ibacus Parribacus Petrarctus Remiarctus Scammarctus Scyllarus Scyllarides Thenus Slipper lobsters, sometimes called bulldozers, are a family of achelate (clawless) decapod crustaceans found in all warm oceans and seas. ... Superfamilies Dromiacea Homolodromioidea Dromioidea Homoloidea Eubrachyura Raninoidea Cyclodorippoidea Dorippoidea Calappoidea Leucosioidea Majoidea Hymenosomatoidea Parthenopoidea Retroplumoidea Cancroidea Portunoidea Bythograeoidea Xanthoidea Bellioidea Potamoidea Pseudothelphusoidea Gecarcinucoidea Cryptochiroidea Pinnotheroidea * Ocypodoidea * Grapsoidea * An asterisk (*) marks the crabs included in the clade Thoracotremata. ...

References

  1. ^ Superphylum Arthropoda. University of Arizona.

The University of Arizona (UA or U of A) is a land-grant and space-grant public institution of higher education and research located in Tucson, Arizona, United States. ...

External link

  • Antennae of Marine Planktonic Copepods

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