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Encyclopedia > Antarctica

Antarctica Antarctica may refer to:the homo who fucked me Antarctica, a continent Antarctica (novel) Nankyoku Monogatari, a film also known as Antarctica Antarctica (band) Antarctica, from the album Sons of Northern Darkness Guaraná Antarctica The Moon and Antarctica, a Modest Mouse album Category: ...

A world map showing the continent of Antarctica. (See Politics section for a clickable map of individual countries.) Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 407 pixelsFull resolution (2759 × 1404 pixel, file size: 55 KB, MIME type: image/png) Antarctica is extremely cold, particularly in the winter where the temperature can reach -70 degrees. ...

Area (Overall)

(ice-free)

(ice-covered)
14,000,000 km² (5,405,430.2 sq mi)
280,000 km² (108,108.6 sq mi)
13,720,000 km² (5,297,321.6 sq mi)
Population
(permanent)
(non-permanent)
7th
≈0
≈1,000
Government governed by the Antarctic Treaty System
Territorial claims
Reserved the right to make claims
Time Zones None
UTC-3 (Graham Land only)
Internet TLD .aq
Calling Code Dependent on the parent country of each base
Adelie Penguin chicks in Antarctica, with MS Explorer and an iceberg in the background. The image was taken in January 1999. MS Explorer sank on November 23, 2007, after hitting an iceberg in Antarctica.
Adelie Penguin chicks in Antarctica, with MS Explorer and an iceberg in the background. The image was taken in January 1999. MS Explorer sank on November 23, 2007, after hitting an iceberg in Antarctica.

Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent, overlying the South Pole. It is situated in the southern hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At 14.4 million km² (5.4 million sq mi), it is the fifth-largest continent in area after Asia, Africa, North America, and South America. Some 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice, which averages at least 1.6 kilometres (1.0 mi) in thickness. This is a list of all major continents population, estimated for the year 2005. ... The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively called the Antarctic Treaty System or ATS, regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earths only continent without a native population. ... Territorial claims of Antarctica Antarctica territories Brazils Antarctica Territory Currently there are seven claimant nations who maintain a territorial claim on eight territories in Antarctica. ... −12 | −11 | −10 | −9:30 | −9 | −8 | −7 | −6 | −5 | −4 | −3:30 | −3 | −2:30 | −2 | −1 | −0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... Map of Antarctica Graham Land is that portion of the Antarctic Peninsula which lies north of a line joining Cape Jeremy and Cape Agassiz. ... “TLD” redirects here. ... .aq is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Antarctica. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... Binomial name (Hombron & Jacquinot, 1841) Adélie Penguins at Cape Adare The Adélie Penguin, Pygoscelis adeliae is common along the entire Antarctic coast and nearby islands. ... For the Microsoft desktop environment, see Windows Explorer. ... For other uses, see Iceberg (disambiguation). ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ... For other uses, see South Pole (disambiguation). ... southern hemisphere highlighted in yellow (Antarctica not depicted). ... Zoomable PDF of the map this is based on The Antarctic Circle is one of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of the Earth. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... North American redirects here. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... This article is about water ice. ... A mile is any of several units of distance, or, in physics terminology, of length. ...


On average, Antarctica is the coldest, driest and windiest continent, and has the highest average elevation of all the continents.[1] Since there is little precipitation, except at the coasts, the interior of the continent is technically the largest desert in the world. There are no permanent human residents and there is no evidence of any existing or pre-historic indigenous population. Only cold-adapted plants and animals survive there, including penguins, fur seals, mosses, lichen, and many types of algae. Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... This article is about arid terrain. ... Modern genera Aptenodytes Eudyptes Eudyptula Megadyptes Pygoscelis Spheniscus For prehistoric genera, see Systematics Some penguins are curious. ... Genera Callorhinus Arctocephalus Fur seals make up one of the two distinct groups of mammals called seals. Both the fur seals and the true seals are members of the Pinnipedia, which is usually regarded as a suborder of the order Carnivora but sometimes as an independent order. ... For other uses, see Moss (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lichen (disambiguation). ... For the programming language, see algae (programming language). ...


The name Antarctica is a romanized version of the Greek compound word Αntarktiké (Aνταρκτική), meaning "Opposite of the Arctic".[2] Although myths and speculation about a Terra Australis ("Southern Land") date back to antiquity, the first confirmed sighting of the continent is commonly accepted to have occurred in 1820 by the Russian expedition of Mikhail Lazarev and Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen. However, the continent remained largely neglected for the rest of the 19th century because of its hostile environment, lack of resources, and isolation. There are several methods for the romanization of Greek, especially depending whether the language written with Greek letters is Ancient Greek or Modern Greek and whether a phonetic transcription or a graphemic transliteration is intended. ... For the ships, see USS Arctic, SS Arctic, MV Arctic The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, sometimes used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic... Terra Australis is the large continent on the bottom of the map Terra Australis (also: Terra Australis Incognita, Latin for the unknown land of the South) was an imaginary continent, appearing on European maps from the 15th to the 18th century. ... Portrait of Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev (Лазарев, Михаил Петрович in Russian) (November 3, 1788 — April 11, 1851) was a Russian fleet commander and explorer, and Admiral (1843). ... A portrait of Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen (also known as Russian: ; Faddey Faddeyevich Bellinsgauzen) (September 20, 1778–January 13, 1852) served as a naval officer of the Russian Empire and commanded the second Russian expedition to circumnavigate the globe. ...


The Antarctic Treaty was signed in 1959 by twelve countries; to date, forty-five countries have signed the treaty. The treaty prohibits military activities and mineral mining, supports scientific research, and protects the continent's ecozone. Ongoing experiments are conducted by more than 4,000 scientists of many nationalities and with different research interests.[3] The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively called the Antarctic Treaty System or ATS, regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earths only continent without a native population. ... An ecozone or biogeographic realm is the largest scale biogeographic division of the earths surface based on the historic and evolutionary distribution patterns of plants and animals. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Antarctica
See also: List of Antarctic expeditions
The snow surface at Dome C Station is representative of the majority of the continent's surface.
The snow surface at Dome C Station is representative of the majority of the continent's surface.
An Iceberg dwarfs a ship in this 1920s English magazine illustration of a whaler in the Antarctic
An Iceberg dwarfs a ship in this 1920s English magazine illustration of a whaler in the Antarctic

Belief in the existence of a Terra Australis—a vast continent in the far south of the globe to "balance" the northern lands of Europe, Asia and north Africa—had existed since the times of Ptolemy (1st century AD), who suggested the idea to preserve the symmetry of all known landmasses in the world. Depictions of a large southern landmass were common in maps such as the early 16th century Turkish Piri Reis map. Even in the late 17th century, after explorers had found that South America and Australia were not part of the fabled "Antarctica", geographers believed that the continent was much larger than its actual size. Antarctica has no indigenous population, and so the human history of Antarctica does not begin until the 19th century, when the continent was first seen. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (937x688, 137 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Antarctica Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (937x688, 137 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Antarctica Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Distance signs near the station-Courtesy of Paolo Calisse [1]. Dome C, also known as Dome Circe or Dome Charlie, located at at an altitude of 3,233 m or 10,607 ft above sea level, is one of several summits or domes of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. ... The station at initial state in January 2002 -Courtesy of Paolo Calisse[1] Concordia Research Station is a newly constructed facility located at 75°06′S 123°20′E, 3,233 m above sea level, on Dome C, Antarctic Plateau, Antarctica. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ... Sphere symmetry group o. ... A landmass is a large continuous area of land. ... The Piri Reis map The Piri Reis map is a famous premodern world map created by 16th century Ottoman-Turkish admiral and cartographer Piri Reis. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


European maps continued to show this hypothetical land until Captain James Cook's ships, HMS Resolution and Adventure, crossed the Antarctic Circle on January 17, 1773, in December 1773 and again in January 1774.[4] Cook in fact came within about 75 miles (121 km) of the Antarctic coast before retreating in the face of field ice in January 1773.[5] The first confirmed sighting of Antarctica can be narrowed down to the crews of ships captained by three individuals. According to various organizations (the National Science Foundation,[6] NASA,[7] the University of California, San Diego,[8] and other sources[9][10]), ships captained by three men sighted Antarctica in 1820: Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen (a captain in the Russian Imperial Navy), Edward Bransfield (a captain in the Royal Navy), and Nathaniel Palmer (an American sealer out of Stonington, Connecticut). Von Bellingshausen saw Antarctica on January 27, 1820, three days before Bransfield sighted land, and ten months before Palmer did so in November 1820. On that day the two-ship expedition led by Von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev reached a point within 32 kilometers (20 mi) of the Antarctic mainland and saw ice fields there. The first documented landing on mainland Antarctica was by the American sealer John Davis in Western Antarctica on February 7, 1821, although some historians dispute this claim. This article is about the British explorer. ... Resolution and Adventure with fishing craft in Matavai Bay by William Hodges, painted 1776, shows the two ships at anchor in Tahiti in August 1773. ... Resolution and Adventure with fishing craft in Matavai Bay by William Hodges, painted 1776, shows the two ships at anchor in Tahiti. ... Zoomable PDF of the map this is based on The Antarctic Circle is one of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of the Earth. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1773 (MDCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The logo of the National Science Foundation The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... The University of California, San Diego (popularly known as UCSD, or sometimes UC San Diego) is a highly selective, research-oriented[1] public university located in La Jolla, a seaside resort community of San Diego, California. ... A portrait of Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen (also known as Russian: ; Faddey Faddeyevich Bellinsgauzen) (September 20, 1778–January 13, 1852) served as a naval officer of the Russian Empire and commanded the second Russian expedition to circumnavigate the globe. ... Russian Navy Jack Russian Navy Ensign The Imperial Russian Navy refers to the Navy of Imperial Russia, before the Soviet Union. ... Edward Bransfield (1785 – 1852) was a master in the Royal Navy and arguably the discoverer of the continent of Antarctica. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Nathaniel Brown Palmer (1799 – 1877) was a seal hunter, explorer, sailing captain, and ship designer. ... Categories: Disambiguation | Stub ... The Town of Stonington, Connecticut is located located in New London County, Connecticut in the southeastern corner of the state. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Portrait of Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev (Лазарев, Михаил Петрович in Russian) (November 3, 1788 — April 11, 1851) was a Russian fleet commander and explorer, and Admiral (1843). ... John Davis an American and seal hunter who claimed to have set foot on Antarctica on February 7, 1821. ... The term Western Antarctica usually refers to that portion of Antarctica which Ross Sea and Weddell Sea separate from the main land mass of that continent. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1821 (MDCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


In December 1839, as part of the United States Exploring Expedition of 1838–42 conducted by the United States Navy (sometimes called the "Ex. Ex.", or "the Wilkes Expedition"), an expedition sailed from Sydney, Australia, into the Antarctic Ocean, as it was then known, and reported the discovery "of an Antarctic continent west of the Balleny Islands". That part of Antarctica was later named "Wilkes Land", a name it maintains to this day. The United States Exploring Expedition was an exploring and surveying expedition of the Pacific Ocean (the Southern Seas) conducted by the United States Navy from 1838–1842. ... USN redirects here. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... The Southern Ocean is the body of water encircling the continent of Antarctica. ... The Balleny Islands (66°55′ S 163°45′ E) form a chain of uninhabited, mainly volcanic, islands in the Southern Ocean streching from 66°15 to 67°35S and 162°30 to 165°00E. The group contains three main islands: Young, Buckle and Sturge, which lie in a... Map of Antarctica, with Wilkes Land slightly to the right Wilkes Land is a large district of land in eastern Antarctica, formally claimed by Australia as part of the Australian Antarctic Territory, though this claim is not legally recognised by the signatories of the Antarctic Treaty, which includes Australia itself. ...


In 1841, explorer James Clark Ross passed through what is now known as the Ross Sea and discovered Ross Island (both of which were named for him). He sailed along a huge wall of ice that was later named the Ross Ice Shelf (also named for him). Mount Erebus and Mount Terror are named after two ships from his expedition: HMS Erebus and Terror.[11] Mercator Cooper landed in Eastern Antarctica on January 26, 1853.[12] Sir James Clark Ross (April 15, 1800 – April 3, 1862), was a British naval officer and explorer. ... Map of Antarctica (click to enlarge) Ice in the Ross Sea, Antarctica The Ross Sea is a deep bay of the Southern Ocean in Antarctica between Victoria Land and Marie Byrd Land. ... Map of Ross Island orthographic projection centred over Ross Island Ross Island is an island formed by three volcanoes in the Ross Sea by Antarctica, off the coast of Victoria Land in McMurdo Sound at . ... Ross Ice Shelf in 1997. ... Mount Erebus in Antarctica is the southernmost active volcano on Earth. ... For mountains named Mount Terror, see Mount Terror. ... HMS Erebus was a Hecla-class bomb vessel constructed by the Royal Navy in Pembroke Dockyard, Wales in 1826. ... HMS Terror in the Arctic HMS Terror was a bomb vessel designed by Sir Henry Peake and constructed by the Royal Navy in the Davy shipyard in Topsham, Devon. ... Mercator Cooper (September 29, 1803 - Spring 1872) was a captain who is credited with the first formal American visit to Tokyo and the first formal landing on the mainland East Antarctica. ... East Antarctica, also called Greater Antarctica, (80° S 80° E) is one of the two major regions of Antarctica, lying on the Indian Ocean side of the Transantarctic Mountains and comprising Coats Land, Queen Maud Land, Enderby Land, Mac. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...

The Endurance at night during Ernest Shackleton's Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition in 1914.
The Endurance at night during Ernest Shackleton's Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition in 1914.

During an expedition led by Ernest Shackleton in 1907, parties led by T. W. Edgeworth David became the first to climb Mount Erebus and to reach the South Magnetic Pole. Douglas Mawson, who assumed the leadership of the Magnetic Pole party on their perilous return, went on to lead several expeditions until retiring in 1931.[13] In addition, Shackleton himself and three other members of his expedition made several firsts in December 1908 – February 1909: they were the first humans to traverse the Ross Ice Shelf, the first to traverse the Transantarctic Mountain Range (via the Beardmore Glacier), and the first to set foot on the South Polar Plateau. On December 14, 1911, an expedition led by Norwegian polar explorer Roald Amundsen from the ship Fram became the first to reach the geographic South Pole, using a route from the Bay of Whales and up the Axel Heiberg Glacier.[14] One month later, the ill-fated Scott Expedition reached the pole. Image File history File links Shackleton_expedition. ... Image File history File links Shackleton_expedition. ... The Endurance was the three-masted barquentine in which Sir Ernest Shackleton sailed for the Antarctic on the 1914 Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition. ... Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton CVO, OBE (15 February 1874 – 5 January 1922) was an Anglo-Irish explorer who was knighted for the success of the 1907-09 British Antarctic Expedition under his command. ... The Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition was the fourth British Antarctic exploration of the 20th century, and aimed, but ultimately failed, to be the first to cross the Antarctic continent from one side to the other. ... Explorer redirects here. ... Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton CVO, OBE (15 February 1874 – 5 January 1922) was an Anglo-Irish explorer who was knighted for the success of the 1907-09 British Antarctic Expedition under his command. ... Sir Tannatt William Edgeworth David (January 28, 1858 - August 28, 1934) was an Australian geologist and explorer. ... Mount Erebus in Antarctica is the southernmost active volcano on Earth. ... The Earths South Magnetic Pole is the wandering point on the Earths surface where the geomagnetic field lines are directed vertically upwards. ... “Mawson” redirects here. ... Ross Ice Shelf in 1997. ... The Beardmore Glacier (83º45´S 171º00´E) in Antarctica is the largest glacier in the world, with a length exceeding 160 km (100 mi). ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen (July 16, 1872 – c. ... Fram (Forward) was a ship used in expeditions in the Arctic and Antarctic regions by the Norwegian explorers Fridtjof Nansen, Otto Sverdrup, Oscar Wisting, and Roald Amundsen between 1893 and 1912. ... For other uses, see South Pole (disambiguation). ... Ice breaker research vessel using the Whales Bay ice harbor. ... The Axel Heiberg Glacier is a valley glacier, 48 km (30 mi) long, descending from the polar plateau to the Ross Ice Shelf between the Herbert Range and Mount Don Pedro Christophersen, in the Queen Maud Mountains. ... Scott of the Antarctic redirects here. ...


Richard Evelyn Byrd led several voyages to the Antarctic by plane in the 1930s and 1940s. He is credited with implementing mechanized land transport on the continent and conducting extensive geological and biological research.[15] However, it was not until October 31, 1956 that anyone set foot on the South Pole again; on that day a U.S. Navy group led by Rear Admiral George J. Dufek successfully landed an aircraft there.[16]
Rear Admiral Richard Evelyn Byrd, USN (October 25, 1888 – March 11, 1957) was a pioneering American polar explorer and famous aviator. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... George John Dufek (10 February 1903, Rockford, Illinois - 10 February 1977, Bethesda, Maryland[1]) was an American naval officer, naval aviator, and Arctic expert. ...


Geography

A satellite composite image of Antarctica.
A satellite composite image of Antarctica.
Maritime Antarctica.
Maritime Antarctica.
Size comparison Europe-Antarctica.
Size comparison Europe-Antarctica.

Centered asymmetrically around the South Pole and largely south of the Antarctic Circle, Antarctica is the southernmost continent and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean; alternatively, it may be considered to be surrounded by the southern Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans, or by the southern waters of the World Ocean. It covers more than 14 million km² (5.4 million sq mi), making it the fifth-largest continent, about 1.3 times larger than Europe. The coastline measures 17,968 kilometers (11,160 mi) and is mostly characterized by ice formations, as the following table shows: Continent Antarctica Geographic coordinates Area  - Total  - Water 14,000,000 km² 0 km² Coastline 17,968 km Land boundaries 0 km Highest point Vinson Massif, 4,897 m Lowest point Bentley Subglacial Trench, -2,555 m Longest river Largest inland body of water Land Use  - Arable land  - Permanent    crops  - Other... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (6400x6400, 3391 KB) Note: this image has been manually modified (after the ortho projection of the source data), to fill in an area of black pixels in the ocean, in the upper right quadrant. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (6400x6400, 3391 KB) Note: this image has been manually modified (after the ortho projection of the source data), to fill in an area of black pixels in the ocean, in the upper right quadrant. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2608x1951, 594 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2608x1951, 594 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Europe_antarctica_size. ... Image File history File links Europe_antarctica_size. ... For other uses, see South Pole (disambiguation). ... Zoomable PDF of the map this is based on The Antarctic Circle is one of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of the Earth. ... Pacific redirects here. ... Atlantic and North Atlantic redirect here. ... The term World Ocean refers to the interconnected system of the planet Earths marine waters. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about water ice. ...

Coastal types around Antarctica (Drewry, 1983)
Type Frequency
Ice shelf (floating ice front) 44%
Ice walls (resting on ground) 38%
Ice stream/outlet glacier (ice front or ice wall) 13%
Rock 4%
Total 100%

Antarctica is divided in two by the Transantarctic Mountains close to the neck between the Ross Sea and the Weddell Sea. The portion west of the Weddell Sea and east of the Ross Sea is called Western Antarctica and the remainder Eastern Antarctica, because they roughly correspond to the Western and Eastern Hemispheres relative to the Greenwich meridian. Ross Ice Shelf An ice shelf is a thick, floating platform of ice that forms where a glacier or ice sheet flows down to a coastline and onto the ocean surface. ... The Blue ice covering Lake Fryxell, in the Transantarctic Mountains, comes from glacial meltwater from the Canada Glacier and other smaller glaciers. ... Map of Antarctica (click to enlarge) Ice in the Ross Sea, Antarctica The Ross Sea is a deep bay of the Southern Ocean in Antarctica between Victoria Land and Marie Byrd Land. ... The Weddell Sea is part of the Southern Ocean. ... West Antarctica, or Lesser Antarctica () is one of the two major regions of Antarctica, lying on the Pacific Ocean side of the Transantarctic Mountains and comprising Marie Byrd Land, Ellsworth Land, and Antarctic Peninsula. ... East Antarctica, also called Greater Antarctica, (80° S 80° E) is one of the two major regions of Antarctica, lying on the Indian Ocean side of the Transantarctic Mountains and comprising Coats Land, Queen Maud Land, Enderby Land, Mac. ... The Prime Meridian, Greenwich The Prime Meridian is the meridian (line of longitude) passing through the Royal Greenwich Observatory, Greenwich, England; it is the meridian at which longitude is 0 degrees. ...


About 98% of Antarctica is covered by the Antarctic ice sheet, a sheet of ice averaging at least 1.6 kilometers (1.0 mi) thick. The continent has about 90% of the world's ice (and thereby about 70% of the world's fresh water). If all of this ice were melted, sea levels would rise about 60 meters (200 ft).[17] In most of the interior of the continent, precipitation is very low, down to 20 millimeters (0.8 in) per year; in a few "blue ice" areas precipitation is lower than mass loss by sublimation and so the local mass balance is negative. In the dry valleys the same effect occurs over a rock base, leading to a desiccated landscape. A satellite composite image of Antarctica The Antarctic ice sheet is the largest single mass of ice on Earth. ... An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than 50,000 km² (19,305 mile²).[1] The only current ice sheets are in Antarctica and Greenland; during the last ice age at Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) the Laurentide ice sheet covered much... For the village on the Isle of Wight, see Freshwater, Isle of Wight. ... Blue ice covering Lake Fryxell in the Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica Blue ice occurs when snow falls on a glacier, is compressed, and becomes part of a glacier that winds its way toward a body of water (river, lake, ocean, etc. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Map of the McMurdo Sound and the Dry Valleys The McMurdo Dry Valleys are a row of valleys in Antarctica located within Victoria Land west of McMurdo Sound. ...


Western Antarctica is covered by the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. The sheet has been of recent concern because of the real, if small, possibility of its collapse. If the sheet were to break down, ocean levels would rise by several meters in a relatively geologically short period of time, perhaps a matter of centuries. Several Antarctic ice streams, which account for about 10% of the ice sheet, flow to one of the many Antarctic ice shelves. The West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) blankets the continent of Antarctica west of the Transantarctic Mountains, covering the area called Lesser Antarctica. The WAIS is classified as a marine-based ice sheet, meaning that its bed lies well below sea level and its edges flow into floating ice shelves. ... Schematic of sea level (black) and rate of change (blue) over the last 25 kyr There are multiple complex factors may influence sea level change. ... The table and timeline of geologic periods presented here is in accordance with the dates and nomenclature proposed by the International Commission on Stratigraphy. ... An Ice stream is a region of an ice sheet that moves significantly faster than the surrounding ice. ... Ross Ice Shelf An ice shelf is a thick, floating platform of ice that forms where a glacier or ice sheet flows down to a coastline and onto the ocean surface. ...

Mount Erebus, an active volcano on Ross Island.
Mount Erebus, an active volcano on Ross Island.

Vinson Massif, the highest peak in Antarctica at 4,892 meters (16,050 ft), is located in the Ellsworth Mountains. Although Antarctica is home to many volcanoes, only Mount Erebus is known to be active. Located on Ross Island, Erebus is the southernmost active volcano. There is another famous volcano called Deception Island, which is famous for its giant eruption in 1970. Minor eruptions are frequent and lava flow has been observed in recent years. Other dormant volcanoes may potentially be active.[18] In 2004, an underwater volcano was found in the Antarctic Peninsula by American and Canadian researchers. Recent evidence shows this unnamed volcano may be active.[19] Image File history File links Mount Erebus, Antarctica Photo by Richard Waitt, 1972 (U.S. Geological Survey). ... Image File history File links Mount Erebus, Antarctica Photo by Richard Waitt, 1972 (U.S. Geological Survey). ... Mount Erebus in Antarctica is the southernmost active volcano on Earth. ... Map of Ross Island orthographic projection centred over Ross Island Ross Island is an island formed by three volcanoes in the Ross Sea by Antarctica, off the coast of Victoria Land in McMurdo Sound at . ... Vinson Massif is the highest mountain of Antarctica, located about 1,200 km (750 mi) from the South Pole. ... The Ellsworth Mountains are the highest mountain ranges in Antarctica, forming a 360 km (200 mi) long and 48 km (30 mi) chain of mountains in a north to south configuration on the western margin of the Ronne Ice Shelf. ... Mount Erebus in Antarctica is the southernmost active volcano on Earth. ... Map of Ross Island orthographic projection centred over Ross Island Ross Island is an island formed by three volcanoes in the Ross Sea by Antarctica, off the coast of Victoria Land in McMurdo Sound at . ... Deception Island is an island in the South Shetland Islands off the Antarctic Peninsula in Antarctica. ... Antarctic Peninsula map Booth Island and Mount Scott flank the narrow Lemaire Channel on the west side of the Antarctic Peninsula. ...


Antarctica is home to more than 70 lakes that lie thousands of meters under the surface of the continental ice sheet. Lake Vostok, discovered beneath Russia's Vostok Station in 1996, is the largest of these subglacial lakes. It is believed that the lake has been sealed off for 500,000 to one million years. There is some evidence, in the form of ice cores drilled to about 400 meters (1,300 ft) above the water line, that Vostok's waters may contain microbial life. The sealed, frozen surface of the lake shares similarities with Jupiter's moon Europa. If life is discovered in Lake Vostok, this would strengthen the argument for the possibility of life on Europa.[20][21] On February 7, 2008, a NASA team embarked on a mission to Lake Untersee, searching for extremophiles in its highly-alkaline waters. If found, these resilient creatures could further bolster the argument for extraterrestrial life in extremely cold, methane-rich environments.[22] For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... Lake Vostoks location within Antarctica (NASA) Lake Vostok is the largest of more than 70 subglacial lakes in Antarctica. ... Lake Vostok composite image (NASA) Vostok Station (Russian: ) is a Russian (formerly Soviet) research station located near the South Geomagnetic Pole, at the center of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. ... A subglacial lake is a lake that is permanently covered by ice. ... Ice Core sample taken from drill. ... A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ... For other uses, see Jupiter (disambiguation). ... Apparent magnitude: 5. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... An extremophile is an organism, usually unicellular, which thrives in or requires extreme conditions that would exceed optimal conditions for growth and reproduction in the majority of mesophilic terrestrial organisms. ...

See also: Extreme points of Antarctica, Antarctic territories, and List of Antarctic and sub-Antarctic islands

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... // Territorial claims on the continent Territorial claims of Antarctica Antarctica territories Several nations, particularly those close to the continent, made territorial claims in the 20th century. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Geology

Main article: Geology of Antarctica

Antarcticas geological history. ...

Geological history and paleontology

More than 170 million years ago, Antarctica was part of the supercontinent Gondwana. Over time, Gondwana gradually broke apart and Antarctica as we know it today was formed around 25 million years ago. In geology, a supercontinent is a land mass comprising more than one continental core, or craton. ... For other uses of Gondwana and Gondwanaland, see Gondwana (disambiguation). ...


Paleozoic era (540–250 mya)

Survey route
Survey route

During the Cambrian period, Gondwana had a mild climate. West Antarctica was partially in the Northern Hemisphere, and during this period large amounts of sandstones, limestones and shales were deposited. East Antarctica was at the equator, where sea floor invertebrates and trilobites flourished in the tropical seas. By the start of the Devonian period (416 mya), Gondwana was in more southern latitudes and the climate was cooler, though fossils of land plants are known from this time. Sand and silts were laid down in what is now the Ellsworth, Horlick and Pensacola Mountains. Glaciation began at the end of the Devonian period (360 mya), as Gondwana became centered around the South Pole and the climate cooled, though flora remained. During the Permian period, the plant life became dominated by fern-like plants such as Glossopteris, which grew in swamps. Over time these swamps became deposits of coal in the Transantarctic Mountains. Towards the end of the Permian period, continued warming led to a dry, hot climate over much of Gondwana.[23] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2608x1952, 572 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2608x1952, 572 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Cambrian (disambiguation). ... Northern hemisphere highlighted in yellow. ... This article is about the geological formation. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... Shale Shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds. ... Invertebrate is an English word that describes any animal without a spinal column. ... For the robot vacuum cleaner, see Electrolux Trilobite. ... For the Celtic language, see Southwestern Brythonic language; for the residents of the English county, see Devon. ... For other uses of mya, see mya (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sand (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Silt (disambiguation). ... The Ellsworth Mountains are the highest mountain ranges in Antarctica, forming a 360 km (200 mi) long and 48 km (30 mi) chain of mountains in a north to south configuration on the western margin of the Ronne Ice Shelf. ... The Horlick Mountains (85º23´S 121º00´W) is a mountain range in the Transantarctic Mountains of Antarctica, lying eastward of Reedy Glacier and including the Wisconsin Range, Long Hills and Ohio Range. ... The Pensacola Mountains in Antartica are a large group of mountain ranges and peaks, extending 450 km (280 mi) in a NE-SW direction, comprising the Argentina Range, Forrestal Range, Dufek Massif, Cordiner Peaks, Neptune Range, Patuxent Range, Rambo Nunataks and Pecora Escarpment. ... A glaciation (a created composite term meaning Glacial Period, referring to the Period or Era of, as well as the process of High Glacial Activity), often called an ice age, is a geological phenomenon in which massive ice sheets form in the Arctic and Antarctic and advance toward the equator. ... For other uses, see South Pole (disambiguation). ... Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale Minke whale... The Permian is a geologic period that extends from about 299. ... This article is about the group of pteridophyte plants. ... Species see text Glossopteris (Greek glossa, meaning tongue, because the leaves were tongue-shaped) is the largest and best-known genus of the extinct order of seed ferns known as Glossopteridales (or in some cases as Arberiales or Dictyopteridiales). ... The Blue ice covering Lake Fryxell, in the Transantarctic Mountains, comes from glacial meltwater from the Canada Glacier and other smaller glaciers. ...


Mesozoic era (250–65 mya)

Bransfield Strait
Bransfield Strait

As a result of continued warming, the polar ice caps melted and much of Gondwana became a desert. In East Antarctica, the seed fern became established, and large amounts of sandstone and shale were laid down at this time. The Antarctic Peninsula began to form during the Jurassic period (206–146 mya), and islands gradually rose out of the ocean. Ginkgo trees and cycads were plentiful during this period, as were reptiles such as Lystrosaurus. In West Antarctica, coniferous forests dominated through the entire Cretaceous period (146–65 mya), though Southern beech began to take over at the end of this period. Ammonites were common in the seas around Antarctica, and dinosaurs were also present, though only two Antarctic dinosaur genera (Cryolophosaurus, from the Hanson Formation, and Antarctopelta) have been described to date.[24] It was during this period that Gondwana began to break up. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2608x1953, 367 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Antarctica ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2608x1953, 367 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Antarctica ... Pteridospermatophyta, also called seed ferns, is an extinct gymnosperm division of the Plantae kingdom. ... The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... Species G. biloba L. The Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba; 銀杏 in Chinese), frequently misspelled as Gingko, and also known as the Maidenhair Tree, is a unique tree with no close living relatives. ... Families Cycadaceae cycas family Stangeriaceae stangeria family Zamiaceae zamia family Leaves and male cone of Cycas revoluta Cycads are an ancient group of seed plants characterized by a large crown of compound leaves and a stout trunk. ... Species Lystrosaurus curvatus Lystrosaurus declivus Lystrosaurus mccaigi Lystrosaurus murrayi Lystrosaurus oviceps Lystrosaurus platyceps Distribution of Lystrosaurus (brown) in the Gondwana supercontinent. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... This article is about a community of trees. ... // The Cretaceous Period (pronounced ) is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... Species Nothofagus alpina - Rauli Beech Nothofagus antarctica - Antarctic Beech Nothofagus betuloides - Magellanes Beech Nothofagus cunninghamii - Myrtle Beech Nothofagus dombeyi - Coigüe Beech Nothofagus fusca - Red Beech Nothofagus gunnii - Tanglefoot Beech Nothofagus menziesii - Silver Beech Nothofagus moorei - Negrohead Beech Nothofagus obliqua - Roble Beech Nothofagus pumilio - Lenga Beech Nothofagus solanderi - Black Beech... For other uses, see Ammonite (disambiguation). ... In biology, a genus (plural genera) is a grouping in the classification of living organisms having one or more related and morphologically similar species. ... Binomial name Cryolophosaurus ellioti Hammer & Hickerson, 1994 Cryolophosaurus (// or //, meaning cold crest lizard) was a large bipedal dinosaur, with a bizarre crest on its head that looked like a Spanish comb. ... Cryolophosaurus - One of the dinosaurs that was discovered in the Hanson layer of the Mt. ... Binomial name Antarctopelta oliveroi Salgado & Gasparini, 2006 Antarctopelta (ant-ARK-to-PEL-ta; Antarctic shield) was a late Cretaceous genus of medium-sized ankylosaurian dinosaur that reached no more than than 4 meters (13 feet) in length. ...


Gondwana breakup (160–23 mya)

The cooling of Antarctica occurred stepwise by the continental spread changing the oceanic currents from longitudinal equator-to-pole temperature-equalizing currents to latitudinal currents that preserved and accentuated latitude temperature differences.


Africa separated from Antarctica around 160 mya, followed by the Indian subcontinent, in the early Cretaceous (about 125 mya). About 65 mya, Antarctica (then connected to Australia) still had a tropical to subtropical climate, complete with a marsupial fauna. About 40 mya Australia-New Guinea separated from Antarctica, so that latitudinal current could isolate Antarctica from Australia, and so the first ice began to appear. Around 23 mya, the Drake Passage opened between Antarctica and South America, which resulted in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. The ice spread, replacing the forests that then covered the continent. Since about 15 mya, the continent has been mostly covered with ice,[25] with the Antarctic ice cap reaching its present extension around 6 mya. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... This article is about mammals. ... Fauna is a collective term for animal life of any particular region or time. ... Drake Passage between South America and Antarctica. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is an ocean current that flows from west to east around Antarctica. ...


Geology of present-day Antarctica

Antarctica without its ice shield. This map does not consider that sea level would rise because of the melted ice, nor that the landmass would rise by several hundred meters over a few tens of thousands of years after the weight of the ice were no longer depressing the landmass.
Antarctica without its ice shield. This map does not consider that sea level would rise because of the melted ice, nor that the landmass would rise by several hundred meters over a few tens of thousands of years after the weight of the ice were no longer depressing the landmass.
Port Lockroy Museum.
Port Lockroy Museum.

The geological study of Antarctica has been greatly hindered by the fact that nearly all of the continent is permanently covered with a thick layer of ice. However, new techniques such as remote sensing, ground-penetrating radar and satellite imagery have begun to reveal the structures beneath the ice. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x800, 355 KB) Summary Description: Rock surface of Antarctica and sea ground, from 60 to 90 degrees South. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x800, 355 KB) Summary Description: Rock surface of Antarctica and sea ground, from 60 to 90 degrees South. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2608x1952, 680 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2608x1952, 680 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Port Lockroy has been renovated into a museum. ... For the purported psychic ability to sense remotely, see Remote viewing right Synthetic aperture radar image of Death Valley colored using polarimetry In the broadest sense, remote sensing is the short or large-scale acquisition of information of an object or phenomenon, by the use of either recording or real... A ground-penetrating radar data image, generated as part of the search for the head of Yagan within a grave site in Everton Cemetery in 1997. ... This is the first crude picture obtained from Explorer 6 Earth satellite. ...


Geologically, West Antarctica closely resembles the Andes mountain range of South America.[23] The Antarctic Peninsula was formed by uplift and metamorphism of sea bed sediments during the late Paleozoic and the early Mesozoic eras. This sediment uplift was accompanied by igneous intrusions and volcanism. The most common rocks in West Antarctica are andesite and rhyolite volcanics formed during the Jurassic period. There is also evidence of volcanic activity, even after the ice sheet had formed, in Marie Byrd Land and Alexander Island. The only anomalous area of West Antarctica is the Ellsworth Mountains region, where the stratigraphy is more similar to the eastern part of the continent. This article is about the mountain range in South America. ... Antarctic Peninsula map Booth Island and Mount Scott flank the narrow Lemaire Channel on the west side of the Antarctic Peninsula. ... Metamorphism can be defined as the solid state recrystallisation of pre-existing rocks due to changes in heat and/or pressure and/or introduction of fluids i. ... The Paleozoic Era (from the Greek palaio, old and zoion, animals, meaning ancient life) is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... The Mesozoic Era is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... Igneous rocks are formed when molten rock (magma) cools and solidifies, with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. ... This article is about volcanoes in geology. ... A sample of andesite (dark groundmass) with amygdaloidal vesicules filled with zeolite. ... This page is about a volcanic rock. ... Map of Antarctica Marie Byrd Land is the portion of Antarctica lying east of the Ross Ice Shelf and the Ross Sea and south of the Pacific Ocean, extending eastward approximately to a line between the head of the Ross Ice Shelf and Eights Coast. ... Alexander Island shown within Antarctica For the Canadian arctic island see Alexander Island, Nunavut. ... The Ellsworth Mountains are the highest mountain ranges in Antarctica, forming a 360 km (200 mi) long and 48 km (30 mi) chain of mountains in a north to south configuration on the western margin of the Ronne Ice Shelf. ... Stratigraphy, a branch of geology, studies rock layers and layering (stratification). ...


East Antarctica is geologically very varied, dating from the Precambrian era, with some rocks formed more than 3 billion years ago. It is composed of a metamorphic and igneous platform which is the basis of the continental shield. On top of this base are various modern rocks, such as sandstones, limestones, coal and shales laid down during the Devonian and Jurassic periods to form the Transantarctic Mountains. In coastal areas such as Shackleton Range and Victoria Land some faulting has occurred. The Precambrian (Pre-Cambrian) is an informal name for the supereon comprising the eons of the geologic timescale that came before the current Phanerozoic eon. ... Quartzite, a form of metamorphic rock, from the Museum of Geology at University of Tartu collection. ... Igneous rocks are formed when molten rock (magma) cools and solidifies, with or without crystallization, either below the surface as intrusive (plutonic) rocks or on the surface as extrusive (volcanic) rocks. ... Shields are shown in orange. ... This article is about the geological formation. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Shale Shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds. ... The Blue ice covering Lake Fryxell, in the Transantarctic Mountains, comes from glacial meltwater from the Canada Glacier and other smaller glaciers. ... The Shackleton Range (80º30´S 025º00´W) is a mountain range rising to 1,875 m (6,150 ft), extending in an east-west direction for about 160 km (100 mi) between the Slessor and Recovery glaciers. ... Categories: Antarctica geography stubs | Geography of Antarctica | Ross Dependency ... Geologic faults, fault lines or simply faults are planar rock fractures, which show evidence of relative movement. ...


The main mineral resource known on the continent is coal.[25] It was first recorded near the Beardmore Glacier by Frank Wild on the Nimrod Expedition, and now low-grade coal is known across many parts of the Transantarctic Mountains. The Prince Charles Mountains contain significant deposits of iron ore. The most valuable resources of Antarctica lie offshore, namely the oil and natural gas fields found in the Ross Sea in 1973. Exploitation of all mineral resources is banned until the year 2048 by the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty. For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... The Beardmore Glacier (83º45´S 171º00´E) in Antarctica is the largest glacier in the world, with a length exceeding 160 km (100 mi). ... Frank Wild was an Antarctica explorer with the Nimrod Expedition led by Ernest Shackleton. ... darn ... Prince Charles Mountains (72°0′S 67°0′E) is a major group of mountains in Mac. ... This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... Drilling rig in a small oil field Near Sarnia, Ontario, 2001 An oil field is an area with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (oil) from below ground. ... Natural gas rig Oil and natural gas are produced by the same geological process: anaerobic decay of organic matter deep under the Earths surface. ... Map of Antarctica (click to enlarge) Ice in the Ross Sea, Antarctica The Ross Sea is a deep bay of the Southern Ocean in Antarctica between Victoria Land and Marie Byrd Land. ... A ban is, generally, any decree that prohibits something. ... The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, also known as the Antarctic-Environmental Protocol is part of the Antarctic Treaty System. ...


Climate

Main article: Climate of Antarctica
The blue ice covering Lake Fryxell, in the Transantarctic Mountains, comes from glacial meltwater from the Canada Glacier and other smaller glaciers.
The blue ice covering Lake Fryxell, in the Transantarctic Mountains, comes from glacial meltwater from the Canada Glacier and other smaller glaciers.
Near the coast, December looks fairly temperate.
Near the coast, December looks fairly temperate.

Antarctica is the coldest place on Earth. At the 3-kilometer (2 mi)-high Vostok Station in Antarctica, scientists recorded the world's lowest temperature: −89 °C (−129 °F).[26] For comparison, this is 11 degrees colder than sublimating dry ice. Antarctica is a frozen desert with little precipitation; the South Pole itself receives less than 10 centimeters (4 in) per year, on average. Temperatures reach a minimum of between −80 °C and −90 °C (−112 °F and −130 °F) in the interior in winter and reach a maximum of between 5 °C and 15 °C (41 °F and 59 °F) near the coast in summer. Sunburn is often a health issue as the snow surface reflects almost all of the ultraviolet light falling on it.[27] Eastern Antarctica is colder than its western counterpart because of its higher elevation. Weather fronts rarely penetrate far into the continent, leaving the center cold and dry. Despite the lack of precipitation over the central portion of the continent, ice there lasts for extended time periods. Heavy snowfalls are not uncommon on the coastal portion of the continent, where snowfalls of up to 1.22 meters (48 in) in 48 hours have been recorded. Surface temperature of Antarctica in winter and summer The climate of Antarctica is the coldest on earth, with the lowest temperature ever recorded on earth being -89. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1560x1083, 670 KB) En: The blue ice covering Lake Fryxell, in the Transantarctic Mountains, comes from glacial meltwater from the Canada Glacier and other smaller glaciers. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1560x1083, 670 KB) En: The blue ice covering Lake Fryxell, in the Transantarctic Mountains, comes from glacial meltwater from the Canada Glacier and other smaller glaciers. ... Blue ice covering Lake Fryxell in the Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica Blue ice occurs when snow falls on a glacier, is compressed, and becomes part of a glacier that winds its way toward a body of water (river, lake, ocean, etc. ... Lake Fryxell (77º37´S 163º11´E) is a lake 4. ... The Blue ice covering Lake Fryxell, in the Transantarctic Mountains, comes from glacial meltwater from the Canada Glacier and other smaller glaciers. ... Perito Moreno Glacier Patagonia Argentina Aletsch Glacier, Switzerland Icebergs breaking off glaciers at Cape York, Greenland This article is about the geological formation. ... The Canada Glacier is a small glacier flowing southeast into the northern side of Taylor Valley immediately west of Lake Fryxell, in Victoria Land. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1417x1063, 161 KB) Roux December, 2006 Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1417x1063, 161 KB) Roux December, 2006 Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Dry ice pellet sublimating in water Dry ice block sublimating in air. ... Different air masses which affect North America, as well as other continents, tend to be separated by frontal boundaries A weather front is a boundary separating two masses of air of different densities, and is the principal cause of significant weather. ... This article is about water ice. ...

Snow cornices on a ridge top
Snow cornices on a ridge top

At the edge of the continent, strong katabatic winds off the polar plateau often blow at storm force. In the interior, however, wind speeds are typically moderate. During summer, more solar radiation reaches the surface during clear days at the South Pole than at the equator because of the 24 hours of sunlight each day at the Pole.[3] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2608x1954, 572 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2608x1954, 572 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The summit of San Jacinto Peak covered by a cornice formed by wind-blown snow. ... A katabatic wind, from the Greek word katabatikos meaning going downhill, is a wind that blows down a topographic incline such as a hill, mountain, or glacier. ... Solar irradiance spectrum at top of atmosphere. ... World map showing the equator in red For other uses, see Equator (disambiguation). ...


Antarctica is colder than the Arctic for two reasons. First, much of the continent is more than 3 kilometers (2 mi) above sea level, and temperature decreases with elevation. Second, the Arctic Ocean covers the north polar zone: the ocean's relative warmth is transferred through the icepack and prevents temperatures in the Arctic regions from reaching the extremes typical of the land surface of Antarctica. For the ships, see USS Arctic, SS Arctic, MV Arctic The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, sometimes used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic...


Given the latitude, long periods of constant darkness or constant sunlight create climates unfamiliar to human beings in much of the rest of the world. The aurora australis, commonly known as the southern lights, is a glow observed in the night sky near the South Pole created by the plasma-full solar winds that pass by the Earth. Another unique spectacle is diamond dust, a ground-level cloud composed of tiny ice crystals. It generally forms under otherwise clear or nearly clear skies, so people sometimes also refer to it as clear-sky precipitation. A sun dog, a frequent atmospheric optical phenomenon, is a bright "spot" beside the true sun.[27] Aurora borealis Polar aurorae are optical phenomena characterized by colorful displays of light in the night sky. ... Diamond dust is the name commonly used to refer to a ground-level cloud composed of tiny ice crystals. ... An unusually pronounced sundog produced by sunlight passing through thin cirrus clouds. ... An optical phenomenon is any observable event which results from the interaction of light and matter. ... Sol redirects here. ...

Tabletop icebergs in Antarctica.
Tabletop icebergs in Antarctica.

Download high resolution version (1000x208, 82 KB)Tabletop icebergs in Antarctica. ... Download high resolution version (1000x208, 82 KB)Tabletop icebergs in Antarctica. ... For other uses, see Iceberg (disambiguation). ...

Population

See also: Demographics of Antarctica

Antarctica has no permanent residents, but a number of governments maintain permanent research stations throughout the continent. The number of people conducting and supporting scientific research and other work on the continent and its nearby islands varies from about 4,000 in summer to about 1,000 in winter. Many of the stations are staffed year-round. Antarctica has no indigenous inhabitants, but there are seasonally staffed research stations. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...

Two researchers studying plankton through microscopes.
Two researchers studying plankton through microscopes.

The first semi-permanent inhabitants of regions near Antarctica (areas situated south of the Antarctic Convergence) were British and American sealers who used to spend a year or more on South Georgia, from 1786 onward. During the whaling era, which lasted until 1966, the population of that island varied from over 1,000 in the summer (over 2,000 in some years) to some 200 in the winter. Most of the whalers were Norwegian, with an increasing proportion of Britons. The settlements included Grytviken, Leith Harbour, King Edward Point, Stromness, Husvik, Prince Olav Harbour, Ocean Harbour and Godthul. Managers and other senior officers of the whaling stations often lived together with their families. Among them was the founder of Grytviken, Captain Carl Anton Larsen, a prominent Norwegian whaler and explorer who, along with his family, adopted British citizenship in 1910. Image File history File links Antarctic_researchers. ... Image File history File links Antarctic_researchers. ... This article is about the real-life under-sea organisms. ... A microscope (Greek: (micron) = small + (skopein) = to look at) is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye. ... The Antarctic Convergence (also known as the Antarctic Polar Frontal Zone) is a line encircling Antarctica where the cold, northward-flowing Antarctic waters sink beneath the relatively warmer waters of the sub-Antarctic. ... South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands is an overseas territory of the United Kingdom, also claimed by Argentina. ... The crew of the oceanographic research vessel Princesse Alice, of Albert Grimaldi (later Prince Albert I of Monaco) pose while flensing a catch. ... Cumberland Bay and Thatcher Peninsula with King Edward Cove (Grytviken) Grytviken (Swedish for Pot Cove; Grytvika/Grytviken in Norwegian) is the principal settlement in the United Kingdom territory of South Georgia in the South Atlantic. ... Formerly a royal burgh, Leith is a town at the mouth of the Water of Leith and is the port of Edinburgh, Scotland. ... King Edward Point (54º17´S 036º30´W) is a low point projecting from the northern side of King Edward Cove toward the central part of the cove, on the western side of Cumberland East Bay, South Georgia. ... Stromness is a former whaling station on the northern coast of South Georgia Island in the South Atlantic. ... Husvik is a former whaling station on the north-central coast of South Georgia Island. ... Location of Prince Olav Harbour Prince Olav Harbour ( ) is a small harbour in the southwest portion of Cook Bay, entered between Point Abrahamsen and Sheep Point, along the north coast of South Georgia. ... Historical and modern settlements of South Georgia Island, showing Ocean Harbour Ocean Harbour ( ) is a deeply indented bay on the north coast of South Georgia which is entered 1. ... Historical and modern settlements of South Georgia Island, showing Godthul Godthul ( ) is a bay 1 mile (1. ... Cumberland Bay and Thatcher Peninsula with King Edward Cove (Grytviken) Grytviken (Swedish for Pot Cove; Grytvika/Grytviken in Norwegian) is the principal settlement in the United Kingdom territory of South Georgia in the South Atlantic. ... Carl Anton Larsen (b. ...

Field work.
Field work.

The first child born in the southern polar region was Norwegian girl Solveig Gunbjörg Jacobsen, born in Grytviken on 8 October 1913, and her birth was registered by the resident British Magistrate of South Georgia. She was a daughter of Fridthjof Jacobsen, the assistant manager of the whaling station, and of Klara Olette Jacobsen. Jacobsen arrived on the island in 1904 to become the manager of Grytviken, serving from 1914 to 1921; two of his children were born on the island.[28] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2608x1952, 584 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2608x1952, 584 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Photograph of Solveig Jacobsen standing (with his dog) in front of whale on the Grytviken flensing plan, taken by Magistrate Edward Binnie in 1916 Solveig Gunbjörg Jacobsen (1913-?) was the first person born south of the Antarctic Convergence. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Cumberland Bay and Thatcher Peninsula with King Edward Cove (Grytviken) Grytviken (Swedish for Pot Cove; Grytvika/Grytviken in Norwegian) is the principal settlement in the United Kingdom territory of South Georgia in the South Atlantic. ...


Emilio Marcos Palma was the first person born on the Antarctic mainland, at Base Esperanza in 1978; his parents were sent there along with seven other families by the Argentinean government to determine if family life was suitable on the continent. In 1984, Juan Pablo Camacho was born at the Frei Montalva Station, becoming the first Chilean born in Antarctica. Several bases are now home to families with children attending schools at the station.[29] Emilio Marcos Palma (born January 7, 1978) was the first person to have been born on the continent of Antarctica. ... The Argentine Base Esperanza (Spanish Hope Base) is located at 63°24′ S 56°59′ W, Hope Bay, Trinity Peninsula, Antarctic Peninsula. ... Argentine redirects here. ...


Flora and fauna

See also: Antarctic ecozone

Greek ἀνταρκτικός, opposite the arctic) is a continent surrounding the Earths South Pole. ...

Flora

More than 200 species of lichens are known in Antarctica.
More than 200 species of lichens are known in Antarctica.

The climate of Antarctica does not allow extensive vegetation. A combination of freezing temperatures, poor soil quality, lack of moisture, and lack of sunlight inhibit the flourishing of plants. As a result, plant life is limited to mostly mosses and liverworts. The autotrophic community is made up of mostly protists. The flora of the continent largely consists of lichens, bryophytes, algae, and fungi. Growth generally occurs in the summer, and only for a few weeks at most. Photograph of lichen on basalt taken at Ulupo, Kailua, Oahu, Hawaii by Eric Guinther and released under the GNU Free Documentation License. ... Photograph of lichen on basalt taken at Ulupo, Kailua, Oahu, Hawaii by Eric Guinther and released under the GNU Free Documentation License. ... For other uses, see Lichen (disambiguation). ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For other uses, see Soil (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Moss (disambiguation). ... Orders Jungermanniopsida Metzgeriales (simple thalloids) Haplomitriales (Calobryales) Jungermanniales (leafy liverworts) Marchantiopsida Sphaerocarpales (bottle liverworts) Marchantiales (complex thalloids) Monocleales Liverworts are a division of plants commonly called hepatics, Marchantiophyta or liverworts. ... Green (from chlorophyll) fronds of a maidenhair fern: a photoautotroph Flowchart to determine if a species is autotroph, heterotroph, or a subtype An autotroph (from the Greek autos = self and trophe = nutrition) is an organism that produces complex organic compounds from simple inorganic molecules and an external source of energy... Typical phyla Chromalveolata Chromista Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta (cryptomonads) Alveolata Dinoflagellata Apicomplexa Ciliophora (ciliates) Cabozoa Excavata Euglenozoa Percolozoa Metamonada Rhizaria Radiolaria Foraminifera Cercozoa Archaeplastida (in part) Rhodophyta (red algae) Glaucophyta (basal archaeplastids) Amoebozoa Choanozoa Many others; classification varies Protists (IPA: (RP); (GenAm)), Greek protiston -a meaning the (most) first of all... Simplified schematic of an islands flora - all its plant species, highlighted in boxes. ... For other uses, see Lichen (disambiguation). ... The bryophytes are those embryophytes (land plants) that are non-vascular: they have tissues and enclosed reproductive systems, but they lack vascular tissue that circulates liquids. ... For the programming language, see algae (programming language). ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ...


There are more than 200 species of lichens and about 50 species of bryophytes, such as mosses. Seven hundred species of algae exist, most of which are phytoplankton. Multicolored snow algae and diatoms are especially abundant in the coastal regions during the summer. There are two species of flowering plants found in the Antarctic Peninsula: Deschampsia antarctica (Antarctic hair grass) and Colobanthus quitensis (Antarctic pearlwort).[30] Diagrams of some typical phytoplankton Phytoplankton are the autotrophic component of plankton. ... Snow algae describes cold-tolerant algae and cyanobacteria that grow on snow and ice. ... Orders Centrales Pennales Diatoms (Greek: (dia) = through + (temnein) = to cut, i. ... Binomial name Deschampsia antarctica Deschampsia antarctica (Antarctic hair grass) is one of two flowering plants native to Antarctica, the other being Colobanthus quitensis (Antarctic pearlwort). ... Binomial name Colobanthus quitensis (Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth) Bartling Colobanthus quitensis (Antarctic pearlwort) is one of the two flowering plants found in the Antarctic region, along with Deschampsia antarctica (Antarctic hair grass). ...


Fauna

Land fauna is nearly completely invertebrate. Invertebrate life includes microscopic mites, lice, nematodes, tardigrades, rotifers, krill and springtails. The flightless midge Belgica antarctica, just 12 millimeters (0.5 in) in size, is the largest purely terrestrial animal in Antarctica. The Snow Petrel is one of only three birds that breed exclusively in Antarctica. They have been seen at the South Pole. Fauna is a collective term for animal life. ... Invertebrate is an English word that describes any animal without a spinal column. ... A microscope (Greek: micron = small and scopos = aim) is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye. ... Mites, along with ticks, belong to the subclass Acarina (also known as Acari) and the class Arachnida. ... Suborders Anoplura (sucking lice) Rhyncophthirina Ischnocera (avian lice) Amblycera (chewing lice) Lice (singular: louse) (order Phthiraptera) are an order of over 3000 species of wingless parasitic insects. ... Classes Adenophorea    Subclass Enoplia    Subclass Chromadoria Secernentea    Subclass Rhabditia    Subclass Spiruria    Subclass Diplogasteria The roundworms or nematodes (Phylum Nematoda from Gr. ... Classes [2] Heterotardigrada Mesotardigrada Eutardigrada Tardigrades (commonly known as water bears) comprise the phylum Tardigrada. ... Classes Monogononta Digononta The rotifers make up a phylum of microscopic and near-microscopic pseudocoelomate animals. ... Families Euphausiidae Euphausia Dana, 1852 Meganyctiphanes Holt and W. M. Tattersall, 1905 Nematobrachion Calman, 1905 Nematoscelis G. O. Sars, 1883 Nyctiphanes G. O. Sars, 1883 Pseudeuphausia Hansen, 1910 Stylocheiron G. O. Sars, 1883 Tessarabrachion Hansen, 1911 Thysanoessa Brandt, 1851 Thysanopoda Latreille, 1831 Bentheuphausiidae Bentheuphausia amblyops Krill are shrimp-like marine... Families [1] Suborder Arthropleona Superfamily Entomobryoidea Entomobryidae Isotomidae Oncopoduridae Paronellidae Tomoceridae Superfamily Poduroidea Brachystomellidae Hypogastruridae Neanuridae Odontellidae Onychiuridae Poduridae Suborder Symphypleona Dicyrtomidae Katiannidae Sminthuridae Sminthurididae Bourletiellidae Arrhopalitidae Springtails (Order Collembola) form the largest of the three orders of modern hexapods that are no longer considered to be insects (along with... Midges on a car Midges are small, two-winged flying insects. ... Binomial name Belgica antarctica Jacobs, 1900 The inclusion of one or more of the categories on this page is disputed. ... Binomial name Pagodroma nivea (G. Forster, 1777) The Snow Petrel (Pagodroma nivea) is a small, pure white fulmarine petrel with black underdown, coal-black eyes, small black bill and bluish gray feet. ... For other uses, see South Pole (disambiguation). ...


Due to the extreme cold, the body fluids of tiny mites and midges in Antarctica contain glycerol, an antifreeze liquid that protects them from solidifying when temperatures plummet to as low as −34 °C (−30 °F).[26] Glycerine, Glycerin redirects here. ...

A variety of marine animals exist and rely, directly or indirectly, on the phytoplankton. Antarctic sea life includes penguins, blue whales, orcas and fur seals. The Emperor penguin is the only penguin that breeds during the winter in Antarctica, while the Adélie Penguin breeds farther south than any other penguin. The Rockhopper penguin has distinctive feathers around the eyes, giving the appearance of elaborate eyelashes. King penguins, Chinstrap penguins, and Gentoo Penguins also breed in the Antarctic. Download high resolution version (700x1024, 111 KB) Emperor penguins, Ross Sea, Antarctica Photographer: Michael Van Woert, 1999 Source: NOAA Photo Library, http://www. ... Download high resolution version (700x1024, 111 KB) Emperor penguins, Ross Sea, Antarctica Photographer: Michael Van Woert, 1999 Source: NOAA Photo Library, http://www. ... Binomial name Gray, 1844 The Emperor Penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) is the tallest and heaviest of all living penguin species. ... Map of Antarctica (click to enlarge) Ice in the Ross Sea, Antarctica The Ross Sea is a deep bay of the Southern Ocean in Antarctica between Victoria Land and Marie Byrd Land. ... Modern genera Aptenodytes Eudyptes Eudyptula Megadyptes Pygoscelis Spheniscus For prehistoric genera, see Systematics Some penguins are curious. ... Binomial name Balaenoptera musculus Linneus, 1758 Blue Whale range The Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus) is a mammal which belongs to the baleen whales suborder. ... Binomial name Orcinus orca Linnaeus, 1758 Orca range (in blue) The Orca or Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) is the largest species of the oceanic dolphin family (Delphinidae). ... Genera Callorhinus Arctocephalus Fur seals, or Arctocephalinae make up one of the two distinct groups of marine mammals called seals. Fur seals are usually smaller than sea lions and have a coat of dense fur intermixed with guard hairs. ... Binomial name Gray, 1844 The Emperor Penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) is the tallest and heaviest of all living penguin species. ... Binomial name (Hombron & Jacquinot, 1841) Adélie Penguins at Cape Adare The Adélie Penguin, Pygoscelis adeliae is common along the entire Antarctic coast and nearby islands. ... Binomial name Eudyptes chrysocome Forster,, 1781 The Rockhopper Penguin (Eudyptes chrysocome) is a species of penguin closely related to the Macaroni Penguin. ... Binomial name Miller,JF, 1778 The King Penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) is the second largest species of penguin at about 90 cm (3 ft) tall and weighing 11 to 16 kg (24 to 35 lb), second only to the Emperor Penguin. ... For other uses, see Chinstrap (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Forster, 1781) Penguin at the Arctowski Polish Antarctic base The Gentoo Penguin (pronounced ), Pygoscelis papua, is easily recognised by the wide white stripe extending like a bonnet across the top of its head. ...


The Antarctic fur seal was very heavily hunted in the 18th and 19th centuries for its pelt by sealers from the United States and the United Kingdom. The Weddell Seal, a "true seal", is named after Sir James Weddell, commander of British sealing expeditions in the Weddell Sea. Antarctic krill, which congregates in large schools, is the keystone species of the ecosystem of the Southern Ocean, and is an important food organism for whales, seals, leopard seals, fur seals, squid, icefish, penguins, albatrosses and many other birds.[31] Binomial name Peters, 1875 The Antarctic Fur Seal (Arctocephalus gazella) is one of seven seals in the genus Arctocephalus. ... Binomial name (Lesson, 1826) Weddell seal range  Water  Range  Ice Weddell Seal, Neko Harbour, Antarctica Weddell Seal puppy with its grey natal coat, Deception Island The Weddell Seal (Leptonychotes weddellii), is a true seal that occurs in large numbers and inhabit the circumpolar region of the southern hemisphere, including Antarctica. ... Genera Monachus (Monk Seals) Mirounga (Elephant Seal) Lobodon (Crabeater Seals) Leptonychotes Hydrurga (Leopard Seals) Ommatophoca Erignathus (Bearded Seals) Phoca Halichoerus (Gray Seals) Cystophora (Hooded Seals) The true seals or earless seals are one of the three main groups of mammals within the seal suborder, Pinnipedia. ... James Weddell (August 24, 1787 - September 9, 1834) was an English navigator, sealer, and explorer of the antarctic. ... The Weddell Sea is part of the Southern Ocean. ... Binomial name Dana, 1850 Antarctic krill are eaten by penguins(Euphausia superba) is a species of krill found in the Antarctic waters of the Southern Ocean. ... School of juvenile herring - many fish have the opercula wide open for ram feeding and you can see the red gills The term swarm (schooling or swarming) is applied to fish, birds and insects and describes a behavior of an aggregation (school) of animals of similar size and body orientation... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... Binomial name (Blainville, 1820) Hydrurga leptonyx range map. ... For other uses, see Squid (disambiguation). ... Species Chaenocephalus aceratus (16 more) The icefishes (or white-blooded fishes) are a family (Channichthyidae) of perciform fish found in the cold waters around Antarctica and southern South America. ... This article is about the bird family. ...


The passing of the Antarctic Conservation Act in the U.S. brought several restrictions to U.S. activity on the continent. The introduction of alien plants or animals can bring a criminal penalty, as can the extraction of any indigenous species. The overfishing of krill, which plays a large role in the Antarctic ecosystem, led officials to enact regulations on fishing. The Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), a treaty that came into force in 1980, requires that regulations managing all Southern Ocean fisheries consider potential effects on the entire Antarctic ecosystem.[3] Despite these new acts, unregulated and illegal fishing, particularly of Patagonian toothfish (marketed as Chilean Sea Bass in the U.S.), remains a serious problem. The illegal fishing of toothfish has been increasing, with estimates of 32,000 tonnes (35,300 short tons) in 2000.[32][33] The Antarctic Conservation Act, enacted in 1978, is a United States federal law that addresses the issue of environmental conservation on the continent of Antarctica. ... The Traffic Light colour convention, showing the concept of Harvest Control Rule (HCR), specifying when a rebuilding plan is mandatory in terms of precautionary and limit reference points for spawning biomass and fishing mortality rate. ... For the computer security term, see Phishing. ... Binomial name Dissostichus eleginoides Smitt, 1898 The Patagonian Toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides) is a large fish found in the cold, temperate waters (from 50 to 3850m) of the Southern Atlantic, Southern Pacific, Indian and Southern Oceans on seamounts and continental shelves around most sub-Antarctic islands. ... A tonne (also called metric ton) is a non-SI unit of mass, accepted for use with SI, defined as: 1 tonne = 103 kg (= 106 g). ...


Politics

Resupply by the Uruguayan Navy vessel Vanguardia.
Resupply by the Uruguayan Navy vessel Vanguardia.

Antarctica has no government and belongs to no country. Various countries claim areas of it, but while some have mutually recognized each other's claims,[34] no other countries recognize such claims. The area between 90° W and 150° W is the only part of Antarctica not claimed by any country as of yet.[3] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2608x1951, 595 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2608x1951, 595 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


Since 1959, new claims on Antarctica have been suspended and the continent is considered politically neutral. Its status is regulated by the 1959 Antarctic Treaty and other related agreements, collectively called the Antarctic Treaty System. For the purposes of the Treaty System, Antarctica is defined as all land and ice shelves south of 60° S. The treaty was signed by twelve countries, including the Soviet Union (and later Russia), the United Kingdom, Argentina, and the United States. It set aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve, established freedom of scientific investigation, environmental protection, and banned military activity on that continent. This was the first arms control agreement established during the Cold War. For the Antarctic Treaty from the Gundam anime, see Antarctic Treaty (Gundam) The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively called the Antarctic Treaty System or ATS, regulate the international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earths only uninhabited continent. ... The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively called the Antarctic Treaty System or ATS, regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earths only continent without a native population. ... Ross Ice Shelf An ice shelf is a thick, floating platform of ice that forms where a glacier or ice sheet flows down to a coastline and onto the ocean surface. ... Arms control is an umbrella term for restrictions upon the development, production, stockpiling, proliferation, and usage of weapons, especially weapons of mass destruction. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


In 1983, the Antarctic Treaty Parties began negotiations on a convention to regulate mining in Antarctica.[35] A coalition of international organisations[36] launched a public pressure campaign to prevent any minerals development in the region, led largely by Greenpeace International[37] which established its own scientific station – World Park Base - in the Ross Sea region[38] and conducted annual expeditions to document environmental impacts from human activities on the continent.[39] In 1988, the Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resources (CRAMRA) was adopted.[40] The following year, however, Australia and France announced that they would not ratify the convention, rendering it dead for all intents and purposes. Instead, they proposed that a comprehensive regime to protect the Antarctic environment be negotiated in its place.[41] As other countries followed suit, the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (the ‘Madrid Protocol’) was negotiated and on January 14, 1998 it entered into force.[42] The Madrid Protocol bans all mining activities in Antarctica, designating the continent as a ‘natural reserve devoted to peace and science’. Greenpeace is an international environmental organization founded in Canada in 1971. ... World Park Base was a non-governmental year-round Antarctic base located on Ross Island in Ross Dependency. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...


The Antarctic Treaty prohibits any military activity in Antarctica, such as the establishment of military bases and fortifications, the carrying out of military manoeuvers, or the testing of any type of weapon. Military personnel or equipment are permitted only for scientific research or for other peaceful purposes.[43] The only documented land military manoeuvre was Operation NINETY, undertaken by the Argentine military.[44] A United States Navy LC-130 Hercules near the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station in 1996 An Indian Navy team after sky-diving in Antartica. ... The first Argentine ground expedition to the South Pole, conducted in 1965, by the Argentine army under Colonel Jorge E. Leal. ... The armed forces of Argentina are controlled by the Commander-in-Chief (the President) and a civilian Minister of Defense. ...


The United States military issues the Antarctica Service Medal to military members or civilians who perform research duty in Antarctica. The medal includes a "wintered over" bar issued to those who remain on the continent for two complete six-month seasons.[45] The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... The Antarctica Service Medal was established by the United States Congress in 1960. ...


Antarctic territories

Territorial claims of Antarctica.
Territorial claims of Antarctica.
Date Country Territory Claim limits
1908 Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom British Antarctic Territory 20°W to 80°W
1923 Flag of New Zealand New Zealand Ross Dependency 150°W to 160°E
1924 Flag of France France Adélie Land 142°2′E to 136°11′E
1929 Flag of Norway Norway Peter I Island 68°50′S, 90°35′W
1933 Flag of Australia Australia Australian Antarctic Territory 160°E to 142°2′E and
136°11′E to 44°38′E
1939 Flag of Norway Norway Queen Maud Land 44°38′E to 20°W
1940 Flag of Chile Chile Antarctic Chilean Territory 53°W to 90°W
1943 Flag of Argentina Argentina Argentine Antarctica 25°W to 74°W
None Unclaimed territory (Marie Byrd Land) 90°W to 150°W
(except the Peter I Island)

The Argentine, British and Chilean claims all overlap, and have caused friction. Australia has the greatest claim of Antarctic territory. Download high resolution version (990x1220, 206 KB)Political map and research stations (2002) Public domain, produced by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. ... Download high resolution version (990x1220, 206 KB)Political map and research stations (2002) Public domain, produced by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. ... Territorial claims of Antarctica Antarctica territories Brazils Antarctica Territory Currently there are seven claimant nations who maintain a territorial claim on eight territories in Antarctica. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Motto: Research and Discovery Anthem: God Save the Queen Status British overseas territory Official language(s) - Commissioner Tony Crombie Administrator Michael Richardson Area 1,395,000 km² Population c. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Political status Dependency of New Zealand Governor Anand Satyanand Area   – Total  450 000 km² (174 000 mi²) Population Scott Base: 10-80 seasonally McMurdo Station: 200-1000 seasonally Currency New Zealand dollar The Ross Dependency comprises an area of Antarctica (and other land masses in the Southern Ocean) claimed by... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Adélie Land is the portion of the Antarctic coast between Pourquoi Pas Point at 66°12S, 136°11E and Point Alden at 66°48S, 142°02E, with a shore length of 350 km and with its hinterland extending as a sector about 2600 km toward... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Fabian von Bellingshausen discovered Peter I Island (in Norwegian ) off West Antarctica on January 21, 1821. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Australian Antarctic Territory (AAT) is the part of Antarctica claimed by Australia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Queen Maud Land (Norwegian: Dronning Maud Land) is the part of Antarctica lying between the terminus of Stancomb-Wills Glacier, at 20°W, and Shinnan Glacier, at 44° 38E. It has a land area of approximately 2,500,000 km², mostly covered by the Antarctic ice sheet. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Chile. ... Antártica is one of two communes (comunas) of the Antártica Chilena Province in the Magallanes y Antártica Chilena Region, and forms the Chilean Antarctic Territory. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... Antarctic portion between meridians 25º West and 74º West Argentine Antarctica (in Spanish, Antártida Argentina) is a sector of Antarctica which Argentina considers part of its National Territory. ... Map of Antarctica Marie Byrd Land is the portion of Antarctica lying east of the Ross Ice Shelf and the Ross Sea and south of the Pacific Ocean, extending eastward approximately to a line between the head of the Ross Ice Shelf and Eights Coast. ... Fabian von Bellingshausen discovered Peter I Island (in Norwegian ) off West Antarctica on January 21, 1821. ...


Countries interested in participating in a future territorial division of Antarctica

This group of countries participating as members of advisory Antarctica Treaty, have an interest in the territorial Antarctic continent but Antarctica provisions of the Treaty itself can not make their claims while the period of validity.[46][47]

Similarly Russia and the United States, original signatories of the Treaty reserved their right to claim at any time if other countries enforce their own. Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Peru. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa. ...


Germany also maintained a claim to Antarctica, known as New Swabia, between 1939 and 1945. It was situated from 20°E to 10°W, overlapping Norway's claim. The claim was abandoned after the fall of Nazi Germany in 1945. New Swabia (German: Neuschwabenland or Neu-Schwabenland) is a section of the continent Antarctica between 20°E and 10°W (overlapping a portion of Norways claim zone Queen Maud Land), which was claimed by Nazi Germany between 19 January 1939 and 8 May 1945. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Antarctica
The illegal capture and sale of the Patagonian toothfish has led to several arrests. Pictured here is the Antarctic toothfish, a sister species.
The illegal capture and sale of the Patagonian toothfish has led to several arrests. Pictured here is the Antarctic toothfish, a sister species.

Although coal, hydrocarbons, iron ore, platinum, copper, chromium, nickel, gold and other minerals have been found, they have not been in large enough quantities to exploit. The 1991 Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty also restricts a struggle for resources. In 1998, a compromise agreement was reached to place an indefinite ban on mining, to be reviewed in 2048, further limiting economic development and exploitation. The primary agricultural activity is the capture and offshore trading of fish. Antarctic fisheries in 2000–01 reported landing 112,934 tonnes.[48] No economic activity is conducted at present in Antarctica, except for fishing off the coast and small-scale tourism, both based abroad. ... Image File history File links Antarctic_cod. ... Image File history File links Antarctic_cod. ... Binomial name Dissostichus eleginoides Smitt, 1898 The Patagonian Toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides) is a large fish found in the cold, temperate waters (from 50 to 3850m) of the Southern Atlantic, Southern Pacific, Indian and Southern Oceans on seamounts and continental shelves around most sub-Antarctic islands. ... Binomial name Dissostichus mawsoni Norman, 1937 The Antarctic Cod, fish of the Nototheniidae family that includes Mawsons cod (Dissostichus mawsoni), is famous for producing antifreeze protein that allows it to hide just under the Antarctic ice. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... A 3-dimensional rendered Ball-and-stick model of the methane molecule. ... This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, also known as the Antarctic-Environmental Protocol is part of the Antarctic Treaty System. ...

Antarctic postal services.
Antarctic postal services.

Small-scale "expedition tourism" has existed since 1957 and is currently subject to Antarctic Treaty and Environmental Protocol provisions, but in effect self-regulated by the International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators (IAATO). Not all vessels associated with Antarctic tourism are members of IAATO, but IAATO members account for 95% of the tourist activity. Travel is largely by small or medium ship, focusing on specific scenic locations with accessible concentrations of iconic wildlife. A total of 37,506 tourists visited during the 2006–07 Austral summer with nearly all of them coming from commercial ships. The number is predicted to increase to over 80,000 by 2010.[49][50] There has been some recent concern over the potential adverse environmental and ecosystem effects caused by the influx of visitors. A call for stricter regulations for ships and a tourism quota have been made by some environmentalists and scientists.[51] The primary response by Antarctic Treaty Parties has been to develop, through their Committee for Environmental Protection and in partnership with IAATO, "site use guidelines" setting landing limits and closed or restricted zones on the more frequently visited sites. Antarctic sight seeing flights (which did not land) operated out of Australia and New Zealand until the fatal crash of Air New Zealand Flight 901 in 1979 on Mount Erebus, which killed all 257 aboard. Qantas resumed commercial overflights to Antarctica from Australia in the mid-1990s. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2608x1951, 555 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2608x1951, 555 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Tourist redirects here. ... For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ... southern hemisphere highlighted in yellow (Antarctica not depicted). ... Air New Zealand Flight 901 (TE901) was a scheduled Antarctic sightseeing flight from Auckland International Airport in New Zealand. ... Mount Erebus in Antarctica is the southernmost active volcano on Earth. ... Qantas Airways Limited (IPA: ) is the national airline of Australia. ...


Transport

Transport on the continent has transformed from explorers crossing the isolated remote area of Antarctica on foot to a more open area due to human technologies enabling more convenient and faster transport by land and predominantly air and water. Recently, using dogs to pull researchers and sledges have been banned. Because they are aliens to Antarctica, there have been objections. Now being used are new electric buggies, but these have a down side. The dogs were excellent for sensing crevices and thin ice, but these new buggies cannot. Transport in Antarctica has transformed from heroic explorers crossing the isolated remote area of Antarctica by foot to a more open area due to human technologies enabling more convenient and faster transport by land and predominantly air and water. ...


Research

A full moon and 25-second exposure allowed sufficient light for this photo to be taken at Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station during the long Antarctic night. The new station can be seen at far left, the power plant in the center and the old mechanic's garage in the lower right. The green light in the background is the Aurora Australis.
A full moon and 25-second exposure allowed sufficient light for this photo to be taken at Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station during the long Antarctic night. The new station can be seen at far left, the power plant in the center and the old mechanic's garage in the lower right. The green light in the background is the Aurora Australis.
See also: List of research stations in Antarctica

Each year, scientists from 27 different nations conduct experiments not reproducible in any other place in the world. In the summer more than 4,000 scientists operate research stations; this number decreases to nearly 1,000 in the winter.[3] McMurdo Station is capable of housing more than 1,000 scientists, visitors, and tourists. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3072x2048, 1895 KB) Summary This is a noise reduction and hot-pixel removal edit of the original image[1] under consideration for FPC. Details from original picture are as follows below: A full moon and 25 second exposure allowed sufficient light... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3072x2048, 1895 KB) Summary This is a noise reduction and hot-pixel removal edit of the original image[1] under consideration for FPC. Details from original picture are as follows below: A full moon and 25 second exposure allowed sufficient light... For other uses, see Full Moon. ... The Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station is a U.S. research station at the South Pole, in Antarctica. ... A power station (also power plant) is a facility for the generation of electric power. ... Aurora borealis Polar aurorae are optical phenomena characterized by colorful displays of light in the night sky. ... Nations with bases in Antarctica as of October 2006 A number of governments maintain permanent research stations throughout Antarctica. ... In the scientific method, an experiment (Latin: ex- periri, of (or from) trying) is a set of observations performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to retain or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... McMurdo Station from Observation Hill. ...


Researchers include biologists, geologists, oceanographers, physicists, astronomers, glaciologists, and meteorologists. Geologists tend to study plate tectonics, meteorites from outer space, and resources from the breakup of the supercontinent Gondwanaland. Glaciologists in Antarctica are concerned with the study of the history and dynamics of floating ice, seasonal snow, glaciers, and ice sheets. Biologists, in addition to examining the wildlife, are interested in how harsh temperatures and the presence of people affect adaptation and survival strategies in a wide variety of organisms. Medical physicians have made discoveries concerning the spreading of viruses and the body's response to extreme seasonal temperatures. Astrophysicists at Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station study the celestial dome and cosmic microwave background radiation. Many astronomical observations are better made from the interior of Antarctica than from most surface locations because of the high elevation, which results in a thin atmosphere, and low temperature, which minimizes the amount of water vapour in the atmosphere, thus allowing for a view of space clearer than anywhere else on Earth. Antarctic ice serves as both the shield and the detection medium for the largest neutrino telescope in the world, built 2 kilometers below Amundsen-Scott station.[52] For other uses, see Biology (disambiguation). ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Thermohaline circulation Oceanographic frontal systems on the southern hemisphere Oceanography (from the greek words Ωκεανός meaning Ocean and γράφω meaning to write), also called oceanology or marine science, is the branch of Earth Sciences that studies the Earths oceans and seas. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ... Lateral moraine on a glacier joining the Gorner Glacier, Zermatt, Switzerland. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[1] Outer space, sometimes simply called space, refers to the relatively empty regions of the universe outside the atmospheres of celestial bodies. ... This article is about the ancient supercontinent of Gondwana. ... This article is about water ice. ... For other uses, see Snow (disambiguation). ... Perito Moreno Glacier Patagonia Argentina Aletsch Glacier, Switzerland Icebergs breaking off glaciers at Cape York, Greenland This article is about the geological formation. ... An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than 50,000 km² (19,305 mile²).[1] The only current ice sheets are in Antarctica and Greenland; during the last ice age at Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) the Laurentide ice sheet covered much... The Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station is a U.S. research station at the South Pole, in Antarctica. ... CMB redirects here. ... The IceCube Neutrino Detector is a neutrino telescope currently under construction at the South Pole. ...


Since the 1970s, an important focus of study has been the ozone layer in the atmosphere above Antarctica. In 1985, three British Scientists working on data they had gathered at Halley Station on the Brunt Ice Shelf discovered the existence of a hole in this layer. In 1998, NASA satellite data showed that the Antarctic ozone hole was the largest on record, covering 27 million km² (10 million sq mi). It was eventually determined that the destruction of the ozone was caused by chlorofluorocarbons emitted by human products. With the ban of CFCs in the Montreal Protocol of 1989, it is believed that the ozone hole will close up over the next fifty years. The ozone layer is a layer in Earths atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3). ... Atmospheres redirects here. ... Halley 5, Winter 1999 Halley Research Station, located at , on the Brunt Ice Shelf floating on the Weddell Sea in Antarctica is a British research facility dedicated to the study of the Earths atmosphere. ... The Brunt Ice Shelf (75º40´S 025º00´W) borders the Antarctic coast of Coats Land between Dawson-Lambton Glacier and Stancomb-Wills Glacier Tongue. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Image of the largest antarctic ozone hole ever recorded in September 2000. ... Tetrafluoroethane (a haloalkane) is a clear liquid which boils well below room temperature (as seen here) and can be extracted from common canned air canisters by simply inverting them during use. ... The largest Antarctic ozone hole recorded as of September 2006 For other similarly-named agreements, see Montreal Convention (disambiguation). ...


Princess Elisabeth Polar Science Station

On September 6, 2007, Belgian-based International Polar Foundation unveiled the Princess Elisabeth station, the world's first zero-emissions polar science station in Antarctica to research climate change. Costing $16.3 million, the prefabricated station, which is part of International Polar Year will be shipped to the South Pole from Belgium by the end of 2008 to monitor the health of the polar regions. Belgian polar explorer Alain Hubert has stated: "This base will be the first of its kind to produce zero emissions, making it a unique model of how energy should be used in the Antarctic." Johan Berte is the leader of the station design team and manager of the project which will conduct research in climatology, glaciology and microbiology.[53] is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... National motto: Dutch: Eendracht maakt macht; French: Lunion fait la force; German: Einigkeit macht stark (English: Strength lies in unity) Official language Dutch, French, German Capital Brussels Largest City Brussels King Albert II Prime Minister Guy Verhofstadt Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 148th 30,528 km² 6. ... This article is about the concept. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... Prefabrication is the practice of manufacturing the parts of an assembly in one location, ready for them to be assembled in another place. ... The International Polar Year (or IPY) was a collaborative, international effort researching the polar regions. ... For other uses, see South Pole (disambiguation). ... Polar may refer to: Polsk Ost med KATING WAPOOOOW CHING CHING WOWOWOWOW/Gling, Oink oink. ... See also explorations, sea explorers, astronaut, conquistador, travelogue, the History of Science and Technology and Biography. ... Climatology is the study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time,[1] and is a branch of the atmospheric sciences. ... Lateral moraine on a glacier joining the Gorner Glacier, Zermatt, Switzerland. ... An agar plate streaked with microorganisms Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are unicellular or cell-cluster microscopic organisms. ...


Meteorites

Antarctic meteorite, named ALH84001, from Mars.
Antarctic meteorite, named ALH84001, from Mars.

Meteorites from Antarctica are an important area of study of material formed early in the solar system; most are thought to come from asteroids, but some may have originated on larger planets. The first meteorites were found in 1912. In 1969, a Japanese expedition discovered nine meteorites. Most of these meteorites have fallen onto the ice sheet in the last million years. Motion of the ice sheet tends to concentrate the meteorites at blocking locations such as mountain ranges, with wind erosion bringing them to the surface after centuries beneath accumulated snowfall. Compared with meteorites collected in more temperate regions on Earth, the Antarctic meteorites are well-preserved.[54] ALH84001 meteorite. ... ALH84001 meteorite. ... Meteorite fragment ALH84001 ALH 84001 (Allan Hills 84001) is a meteorite found in Allan Hills, Antarctica in December 1984 by a team of US meteorite hunters from the ANSMET project. ... This article is about the planet. ... Willamette Meteorite A meteorite is a natural object originating in outer space that survives an impact with the Earths surface without being destroyed. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... For other uses, see Asteroid (disambiguation). ... This article is about the astronomical term. ... An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than 50,000 km² (19,305 mile²).[1] The only current ice sheets are in Antarctica and Greenland; during the last ice age at Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) the Laurentide ice sheet covered much...


This large collection of meteorites allows a better understanding of the abundance of meteorite types in the solar system and how meteorites relate to asteroids and comets. New types of meteorites and rare meteorites have been found. Among these are pieces blasted off the Moon, and probably Mars, by impacts. These specimens, particularly ALH84001 discovered by ANSMET, are at the center of the controversy about possible evidence of microbial life on Mars. Because meteorites in space absorb and record cosmic radiation, the time elapsed since the meteorite hit the Earth can be determined from laboratory studies. The elapsed time since fall, or terrestrial residence age, of a meteorite represents more information that might be useful in environmental studies of Antarctic ice sheets.[54] Meteorite fragment ALH84001 ALH 84001 (Allan Hills 84001) is a meteorite found in Allan Hills, Antarctica in December 1984 by a team of US meteorite hunters from the ANSMET project. ... Recovery of a meteorite in Antarctica ANSMET (ANtarctic Search for METeorites) is a program funded by the Office of Polar Programs of the National Science Foundation that looks for meteorites in the Transantarctic Mountains. ...


In 2006, a team of researchers from Ohio State University used gravity measurements by NASA's GRACE satellites to discover the 300-mile (480 km)-wide Wilkes Land crater, which probably formed about 250 million years ago.[55] The Ohio State University (OSU) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Ohio. ... The goal of the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) space mission is to obtain accurate global and high-resolution determination of both the static and the time-variable components of the Earths gravity field. ... Map of Antarctica, with Wilkes Land slightly to the right The Wilkes Land crater is a proposed name for a 300 mile (500 km) -wide geological feature, located in Wilkes Land, Antarctica, and centered at , that has been explained as an impact crater. ...


Volcanic eruption

On January, 2008, the British Antarctic Survey (Bas) scientists led by Hugh Corr and David Vaughan, reported (in the journal Nature Geoscience) that 2,200 years ago, a volcano erupted under Antarctica ice sheet (based on airborne survey with radar images). The biggest eruption in the last 10,000 years, the volcanic ash was found deposited on the ice surface under the Hudson Mountains, close to Pine Island Glacier.[56] BAS headquarters The British Antarctic Survey (BAS), formerly the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey (FIDS), is an institute of the Natural Environment Research Council, and has, for the last fifty years, undertaken the majority of Britains scientific research on and around the Antarctic continent. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... Look up airborne in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Hudson Mountains (74º25´S 099º30´W) is a large group of low scattered mountains and nunataks of about 112 km (70 mi) extent in west Ellsworth Land. ... Pine Island Glacier (75°10′S 100°0′W) is a broad glacier flowing west-northwest along the south side of the Hudson Mountains into Pine Island Bay, Amundsen Sea. ...


Effects of global warming

Image of the largest Antarctic ozone hole ever recorded due to CFC accumulation (September 2006).
Image of the largest Antarctic ozone hole ever recorded due to CFC accumulation (September 2006).

Most of the continent's icy mass has so far proven largely impervious to climate change, being situated on solid rock; its deep interior is actually growing in volume.[57] However, Antarctica's periphery has been noticeably affected by global warming, particularly on the Antarctic Peninsula and in Pine Island Bay which together are contributing to a rise in sea levels.[57] In 2003 the Larsen-B ice shelf collapsed owing to global warming.[58] According to NASA, the most significant Antarctic melting in the past 30 years occurred in 2005, when a mass of ice comparable in size to California briefly melted and refroze; this may have resulted from temperatures rising to as high as 5 °C (41 °F).[59] Also, although having no obvious effect on the continent's environment, there is a large ozone hole over Antarctica which was detected by scientists in 1973 and continues to grow to this day. The main cause is the emission of chlorofluorocarbons or CFCs into the atmosphere, which decompose the ozone into other gasses. For more on the ozone hole, see Ozone depletion. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (716 × 716 pixel, file size: 409 KB, MIME type: image/png) From September 21-30, 2006 the average area of the ozone hole was the largest ever observed, at 10. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 600 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (716 × 716 pixel, file size: 409 KB, MIME type: image/png) From September 21-30, 2006 the average area of the ozone hole was the largest ever observed, at 10. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Antarctic Peninsula map Booth Island and Mount Scott flank the narrow Lemaire Channel on the west side of the Antarctic Peninsula. ... Larsen A and Larsen B iceshelves marked in red The Larsen Ice Shelf () is a long, fringing ice shelf in the northwest part of the Weddell Sea, extending along the east coast of Antarctic Peninsula from Cape Longing to the area just southward of Hearst Island. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Image of the largest antarctic ozone hole ever recorded in September 2000. ... For other uses, see CFC (disambiguation). ... Atmospheres redirects here. ... For other uses, see Ozone (disambiguation). ... Global monthly average total ozone amount Ozone depletion describes two distinct, but related observations: a slow, steady decline of about 4 percent per decade in the total amount of ozone in Earths stratosphere since the late 1970s; and a much larger, but seasonal, decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earth...


A bridge made of ice based on the Leonardo da Vinci draft plans for a bridge over the Golden Horn in Istanbul was built in Antarctica in 2007. This project was a plea to the world to stop the causes of global warming in the hope that the "Leonardo Bridge" in Antarctica remains standing forever. (A similar ice bridge had been constructed in the garden of United Nations on 15 December 2007 for the purpose of demonstrating global warming. That bridge melted fully on Christmas Day 2007.)[citation needed] is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


On February 28 through March 8, 2008, about 570 square kilometers of ice from the Wilkins Ice Shelf in Western Antarctica suddenly collapsed, putting the remaining 15,000 square kilometers of the ice shelf at risk. The ice is being held back by a "thread" of ice about 6 km wide.[60][61] is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also

Antarctica Portal

Geographic regions Image File history File links Portal. ...

Geography Antarctica is one of eight terrestrial ecozones. ... Antarctic Peninsula map Booth Island and Mount Scott flank the narrow Lemaire Channel on the west side of the Antarctic Peninsula. ... East Antarctica, also called Greater Antarctica, (80° S 80° E) is one of the two major regions of Antarctica, lying on the Indian Ocean side of the Transantarctic Mountains and comprising Coats Land, Queen Maud Land, Enderby Land, Mac. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This is a list of the extreme points of the Antarctic, the points of antarctic and sub-antarctic lands that are farther to the south than any other location classified by continent and country. ... Categories: Antarctica geography stubs | Geography of Antarctica | Ross Dependency ... Map of Antarctica (click to enlarge) Ice in the Ross Sea, Antarctica The Ross Sea is a deep bay of the Southern Ocean in Antarctica between Victoria Land and Marie Byrd Land. ... The Weddell Sea is part of the Southern Ocean. ...

Geopolitics The South Polar region Bulgarian toponyms in Antarctica are approved by the Antarctic Place-names Commission in compliance with its Toponymic Guidelines, and formally given by the President of the Republic according to the Bulgarian Constitution and the established international practice. ... This is a list of deserts in the world ordered by area. ... . ... Nations with bases in Antarctica as of October 2006 A number of governments maintain permanent research stations throughout Antarctica. ... Ancient world maps cover depictions of the world from Classical times to the Age of Discovery and the emergence of modern Geography. ... Physical world map (2004) with country borders and capitals A world map is a map of the surface of the Earth, which may be made using any of a number of different map projections. ...

Other This article may contain original research or unverified claims. ... ATS logo. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Chilean Antarctic Geopolitics Stamp is Scott Chile #248 Chile, the land of “crazy geography” has a strong tradition of geopolitical thinking, especially naval, which has emphasized the need to strengthen Chilean sovereignty in its claimed Antarctic sector as well as a number of islands. ... There is no official flag of Antarctica. ...

The Antarctica Marathon was established by Thom Gilligan, president of Marathon Tours and Travel, to enable marathon runners to compete on all seven continents. ... Antarctic stamps are printed by governments, usually to exude ownership over Antarctic territories. ... The Fourth Soviet Antarctic Expedition used three large tractors and four sledges on the journey from Vostok to the South Pole The Soviet Antarctic Expedition (SAE or SovAE) (Russian: Советских Антарктических Экспедициях, САЭ) was part of the Arctic and Antarctic Scientific Research Institute of the Soviet Committee on Antarctic Research of the Academy of... This article is about communications in Antarctica. ... Life in the Freezer is a BBC nature documentary series written and presented by David Attenborough, first transmitted in the UK from 18 November 1993. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... March of the Penguins (French: La Marche de lempereur; literally The Emperors March) is an Academy Award-winning documentary film by Luc Jacquet, co-produced by Bonne Pioche and the National Geographic Society. ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ... Trinity Church in Antarctica Trinity Church (Russian: ) is a small Russian Orthodox church on the King George Island near Russian Bellingshausen Station in Antarctica. ...

References

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The Very Rev. ... There are several individuals called Robert Scott, including: Robert Scott, New Zealand radio broadcaster www. ... A Greek-English Lexicon is the standard lexicographical work of the ancient Greek language, begun in the nineteenth century and now in its ninth (revised) edition. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The logo of the National Science Foundation The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Smithsonian is a monthly magazine published by the Smithsonian Institution of the United States in Washington, DC External link Smithsonian webpage Categories: Smithsonian Institution | United States magazines | Stub ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
CIA World Fact Book, 2004/Antarctica
Find more about Antarctica on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Dictionary definitions
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Images and media
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Learning resources
  • Antarctic Treaty Secretariat, de facto government
  • Antarctic region at the Open Directory Project
  • Portals on the World - Antarctica from the Library of Congress
  • Antarctica entry at The World Factbook
  • NASA's LIMA (Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica) (USGS mirror)
  • Antarctica travel guide from WikiTravel
  • World Environment Day 2007 "Melting Ice" image gallery at The Guardian
  • Greenpeace in Antarctica
  • BAS Online Palaeontology Collection
  • Australian Antarctic Division
  • U.S. Antarctic Program Portal
  • Antarctica Development Concern

Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... The term World Ocean refers to the interconnected system of the planet Earths marine waters. ... The Arctic Ocean, located in the northern hemisphere and mostly in the Arctic north polar region, is the smallest of the worlds five major oceanic divisions and the shallowest. ... Atlantic and North Atlantic redirect here. ... Pacific redirects here. ... The Southern Ocean, also known as the Great Southern Ocean, the Antarctic Ocean and the South Polar Ocean, is the International Hydrographic Organizations oceanic division encircling Antarctica, comprising the southernmost waters of the World Ocean south of 60° S latitude. ...


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Cool Antarctica, pictures of Antarctica, information and travel guide (295 words)
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Located on the southern latitudes of the Earth, Antarctica is home to the South Pole.
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