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Encyclopedia > Antarctic Treaty
For the Antarctic Treaty from the Gundam is related to Japanese Manga List of manga By English title Symbols - A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z - Webmanga by Japanese title あ - い - う - え - お - か - き... Gundam This article is about Japanese animation. For the oleo-resin, see ... Animé (oleo-resin). Fair Use Screenshot from the Cowboy Bebop DVDs This work is copyrighted. The individual who uploaded this work and first used it in an article, and subsequent persons who place it into articles assert that... anime, see Antarctic Treaty (Gundam)

The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively called the Antarctic Treaty System or ATS, regulate the International relations (IR) is an academic and public policy field, a branch of political science, dealing with the foreign policy of states within the international system, including the roles of international organizations, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and multinational corporations (MNCs). Because international relations seeks to analyze as well as formulate... international relations with respect to World map showing location of Antarctica A satellite composite image of Antarctica For the Kim Stanley Robinson (born March 23, 1952) is an American science fiction writer, best known for his award-winning Mars Trilogy and the author of over ten other novels as well as several short fiction collections... Antarctica, For other uses, see Earth (disambiguation). Earth The Blue Marble, taken from Apollo 17 Human Social statistics Largest Agglomerations Tokyo, Mexico City, Seoul, New York, São Paulo, Bombay Languages (2000 est.) Mandarin Chinese 14.37%, Hindi 6.02%, English 5.61%, Spanish 5.59%, Bengali 3.4%, Portuguese 2... Earth's only uninhabited Dymaxion map by Buckminster Fuller shows land mass with minimal distortion as only one continuous continent A continent (Latin continere, to hold together) is a large continuous mass of land on the planet Earth. There is no single standard for what defines a continent, and therefore various cultures and sciences... continent. For the purposes of the A treaty is a binding agreement under international law concluded by subjects of international law, namely states and international organizations. Treaties can be called by many names: treaties, international agreements, protocols, covenants, conventions, exchanges of letters, exchanges of notes, etc.; however all of these are equally treaties, and the rules... treaty system, Antarctica is defined as all land and An ice shelf is a thick, floating platform of ice that forms where a glacier or ice sheet flows down to a coastline and onto the ocean surface, typically in Antarctica, Greenland, and elsewhere in the Arctic. The boundary between floating ice shelf and the grounded (resting on bedrock) ice... ice shelves south of the southern 60th The 4 main circles of latitude on Earth A circle of latitude is an imaginary east-west circle on the Earth, that connects all locations with a given latitude. It is perpendicular to all meridians. The position on the circle of latitude is given by the longitude. Circle of latitude... parallel. The treaty was signed by 12 countries, including the For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). The United States of America, also referred to as the United States, U.S.A., U.S., US, America¹, or the States, is a federal republic of fifty states, mostly in central North America. The U.S. has three land... United States and the Soviet redirects here. For other uses, see Soviet (disambiguation). The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) .( Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: The Russian Federation ( Russian (русский язык) Spoken in: Russia and many... Soviet Union, and set aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve and banned military activity on that Dymaxion map by Buckminster Fuller shows land mass with minimal distortion as only one continuous continent A continent (Latin continere, to hold together) is a large continuous mass of land on the planet Earth. There is no single standard for what defines a continent, and therefore various cultures and sciences... continent. This was the first Arms control is a broad term alluding to a range of political concepts and aims. In an increasingly pacifistic world arms control has been increasingly emphasised on the international political agenda. The term arms control often alludes to disarmament - whether small arms (handheld), or large scale (often nuclear). The former... arms control agreement established during the This article is part of the series Cold War This article is part of the series Cold War 1947-1953 1953-1962 1962-1991 Contents // 1 Czarist Russia and the West 2 The Bolshevik Revolution 3 The Wartime alliance 4 The breakdown of postwar peace 4.1 Two visions of... Cold War.


The Antarctic Treaty System

  • Antarctic Treaty
    • The Agreed Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora is part of the Antarctic Treaty System. opened for signature - June 2, 1964 entered into force - November 1, 1982 objective _ to further international collaboration within the framework of the Antarctic Treaty to promote and achieve the objectives of... Agreed Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora (1964) (entered into force in 1982)
    • The The Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals is part of the Antarctic Treaty System. note - abbreviated as Antarctic Seals opened for signature - June 1, 1972 entered into force - March 11, 1978 objective - to promote and achieve the protection, scientific study, and rational use of Antarctic seals, and to maintain... Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (1972)
    • The The Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources is part of the Antarctic Treaty System. note - abbreviated as Antarctic-Marine Living Resources opened for signature - May 5, 1980 entered into force - April 7, 1982 objective - to safeguard the environment and protect the integrity of the ecosystem of the... Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (1980)
    • The Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities (1988) (never entered into force)
    • The The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, also known as the Antarctic-Environmental Protocol is part of the Antarctic Treaty System. It provides for comprehensive protection of the Antarctic environment and dependent and associated ecosystems. It opened for signature on October 4, 1991 and entered into force seven... Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (1991)

The main treaty was opened for signature on December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 30 days remaining. December Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18... December 1, Years: 1956 1957 1958 - 1959 - 1960 1961 1962 Decades: 1920s 1930s 1940s - 1950s - 1960s 1970s 1980s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1959 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music Science and technology Aviation - Rail transport - Science - Television Other topics Canada - Sport Lists of leaders: State leaders - Religious... 1959, and officially entered into force on June 23 is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 191 days remaining. June Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20... June 23, 1961 (As MAD Magazine pointed out on its first cover for the year) was the first upside-down year - i.e., one that looked the same upside down - since 1881, and the last until 6009. Years: 1958 1959 1960 - 1961 - 1962 1963 1964 Decades: 1930s 1940s 1950s - 1960s - 1970s 1980s... 1961. The original signatories were the 12 countries active in Antarctica during the The International Geophysical Year or IGY was an international scientific effort that lasted from July 1, 1957 to December 1958. The IGY was chosen to occur during a solar maximum, to notice unusual effects of the sun on the Earth. There had been two preceding International Polar Years, from 1882... International Geophysical Year of 1957-58 and willing to accept a US invitation to the conference at which the treaty was negotiated. These countries were Argentina is a country in southern South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. South America is situated between the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean. It became attached to North America only recently, geologically speaking, with the... Argentina, Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is the sixth-largest country in the world, the only one to occupy an entire Dymaxion map by Buckminster Fuller shows land mass with minimal distortion as only one continuous continent A continent (Latin continere, to hold together) is a large continuous mass of... Australia, For other uses, see Belgium (disambiguation). The word Belgian redirects to this page. For an article about the horse breed, see Belgian (horse). The Kingdom of Belgium (Dutch: Koninkrijk België, French: Royaume de Belgique, German: Königreich Belgien) is a country in Netherlands, Germany, Luxembourg, France, and the North Sea... Belgium, This article is about the country in South America; the word chile may also refer to Chilli pepper The Republic of Chile is a republic located on the southwestern coast of South America. It is a long and narrow strip of land between the Andes mountains and the Pacific Ocean... Chile, Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. Subject to disclaimers. Trying... France, For other uses, see Japan (disambiguation). 日本国 (Nippon/Nihon-koku) Dual status seal. See National and Imperial Seal for more of this issue. (Flag of Japan) Official language Japanese Capital Tokyo Largest City Tokyo Emperor Akihito Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 60th 377... Japan, For alternative meanings, see New Zealand (disambiguation). New Zealand is a country formed of two major islands and a number of Pacific Ocean. A common Māori name for New Zealand is Aotearoa, popularly translated as Land of the Long White Cloud. New Zealand also maintains responsibility for the... New Zealand, For other uses, see Norway is the name of a European country: see Norway. Other Norways can be found in the United States of America: Norway, Indiana Norway, Iowa Norway, Maine Norway, Michigan Norway, New York Norway, Wisconsin See also Norway House, Manitoba. Also of possible interest: Norway Corporation was... Norway, The Republic of South Africa (listen) is a republic at the southern tip of the African continent. It is bordered to the north by Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe and to the north-east by Mozambique and Swaziland. Lesotho is contained entirely inside the borders of South Africa. South Africa is... South Africa, the Soviet redirects here. For other uses, see Soviet (disambiguation). The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Р... U.S.S.R., the The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and a member of the European Union. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, UK or, inaccurately, as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent parts. Three of these parts England, Wales and... United Kingdom and the For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). The United States of America, also referred to as the United States, U.S.A., U.S., US, America¹, or the States, is a federal republic of fifty states, mostly in central North America. The U.S. has three land... United States of America (which opened the The Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station is an American research station at Earths South Pole in Antarctica. This makes it the southernmost continually-inhabited place on the planet. An aerial view of the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station taken circa 1983. The central dome structure is shown as well... Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station for the The International Geophysical Year or IGY was an international scientific effort that lasted from July 1, 1957 to December 1958. The IGY was chosen to occur during a solar maximum, to notice unusual effects of the sun on the Earth. There had been two preceding International Polar Years, from 1882... International Geophysical Year).


The main objective of the ATS is to ensure in the interests of all mankind that Antarctica shall continue forever to be used exclusively for peaceful purposes and shall not become the scene or object of international discord. The treaty forbids any measures of a military nature, but not the presence of military personnel per se. It also defers the question of territorial claims asserted by some nations and not recognized by others.


The Antarctic Treaty System's yearly Consultative Meetings are the international forum for management of the region. Only 27 of the 44 parties to the agreements have the right to participate in these meetings. These parties are the Consultative Parties and, in addition to the twelve original signatories, include 15 countries that have demonstrated their interest in Antarctica by carrying out substantial scientific activity there. These additional countries are For other uses, see Brazil - a country in South America. Brazil R/S - The Brazil Rendering System, a photorealistic rendering engine. Brazil, Indiana - a town in the United States. Brazil - a movie directed by Terry Gilliam. Brazil (mythical island). a former name of Terceira Island. a neighbourhood or refugee camp... Brazil, The Republic of Bulgaria is a A republic in its basic sense, is constitutional government. The word is derived from the Latin res publica, or public things. It is an ordering of society under a written set of laws and a society that has the concept of the rule of... Bulgaria, the The Peoples Republic of China (PRC) comprises most of the cultural, historic, and geographic area known as This article is on the geographic and cultural entity. For other meanings, see ... China (disambiguation). ... ... The The Great Wall of China (TC: 長城; SC: 长城, Pinyin: Chángchéng), also... People's Republic of China, The Republic of Ecuador is a country in northwestern South America, bounded by Colombia on the north, by Peru on the east and south, and by the Pacific Ocean on the west. The country also includes the Galápagos Islands (Colón Archipelago) in the Pacific, about 965 km (about... Ecuador, The Republic of Finland ( Finnish is spoken by the majority (92%) in The Republic of Finland (Finnish: Suomen tasavalta, Swedish: Republiken Finland) is a Nordic country in northeastern Europe, bordered by the Baltic Sea to the southwest, the Gulf of Finland to the southeast and the Gulf of Bothnia to... Finland, The Federal Republic of Germany ( German (Deutsch) Spoken in: Germany, Switzerland, Austria, and 38 other countries. Region: Europe Total speakers: 120 million Ranking: 9 Genetic classification: Indo-European  Germanic   West Germanic    Old High German    Middle High German    Modern... Germany, The Republic of India is the This is a list of countries by population. The data are generally a projection for July 2005 made by the US Census Bureau, unless specified. Rank Country Population — World 6,445,398,968 1 China 1,306,313,812 2 India 1,080... India, For other uses, see Italy (disambiguation). The Italian Republic or Italy (Italian: Repubblica Italiana or Italia) is a southern European country, comprising a boot-shaped peninsula and two large islands in the Mediterranean Sea: Sicily and Sardinia. It shares its nothern alpine boundary with France, Switzerland, Austria and Slovenia. The... Italy, the South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK; Korean: Daehan Minguk (Hangul: 대한 민국; Hanja: 大韓民國)), is a country in East Asia, covering the southern half of the Korean Peninsula. To the north, the Republic of Korea borders North Korea, with which it formed a... Republic of Korea, For other uses, see The Netherlands have been the name of different political and geographical entities in northwestern Europe. The Netherlands (Dutch: Nederland), the current Kingdom of the Netherlands. The Seven United Netherlands, also known as the United Provinces. A predecessor of the current country. It existed from 1581 to... Netherlands, For other uses, see Peru (disambiguation). The Republic of Peru (Spanish: Perú; Quechua, Aymara: Piruw) is a country in western South America, bordering with Ecuador and Colombia to the north, Brazil to the east, Bolivia to the east, south-east and south, Chile to the south, and the Pacific Ocean... Peru, For other uses, see Poland is a country in Central Europe. Poland is also the name of some places in the United States of America: Poland, Maine Poland, New York Poland, Ohio This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the... Poland, The Kingdom of Spain or Spain (Spanish: Reino de España or España; Catalan: Regne dEspanya; Basque: Espainiako Erresuma; Galician: Reino de España; Asturian: Reinu dEspaña) is a country located in the southwest of Europe. It shares the Iberian Peninsula with Portugal, Gibraltar and Andorra... Spain, The Kingdom of Sweden ( Swedish (svenska) Spoken in: Sweden (Swedish: Sverige) is a Nordic country in Scandinavia, in Northern Europe. It is bordered by Norway on the west, Finland on the northeast, the Skagerrak and the Kattegat on the southwest, and the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Bothnia on... Sweden, The Republic Eastern of the Uruguay (Spanish: República Oriental del Uruguay), is a Spanish speaking country located in southern South America. The nation is triangular in shape and is bordered by Brazil to the north, the Uruguay River to the west, the estuary of the Rio de la Plata... Uruguay.


The 17 Non-Consultative Parties are The Republic of Austria (German Republik Österreich) is a landlocked country in Germany and the Czech Republic to the north, Hungary to the east, Italy to the south, and Liechtenstein to the west. The state is a representative democracy governed in accordance with principles of Parliamentarism. Republik Österreich (In Detail... Austria, Canada is an independent This article discusses states as sovereign political entities. For other meanings, see state (disambiguation). In international law and international relations, a state is a geographic political entity possessing politicial sovereignty, i.e. not being subject to any higher political authority. In casual language, the idea of... Canada, For other uses see Note: The similar sounding country uses a different spelling--see Colombia. Columbia is a name used in the English language for many things and places. The name is derived from that of Christopher Columbus. The term Pre-Columbian is used for American cultures before the arrival... Colombia, For other uses, see Cuba (disambiguation). The Republic of Cuba is an archipelago in the northern Caribbean that lies between the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. To the north are found the United States and the Bahamas, to the west Mexico, to the south the... Cuba, Česká republika Czech coat of arms This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. It may be ineligible for copyright or in the public domain. In other cases, it is believed that these images may be exhibited on Wikipedia under the fair... Czech Republic, For other uses, see Denmark (disambiguation). The Kingdom of Denmark is the geographically smallest Nordic country. It is located in Scandinavia, which is in northern Europe. Denmark borders the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, and consists of a peninsula attached to Northern Germany named Jutland (Jylland in Danish) and... Denmark, For other uses, see Greece (disambiguation). Greece, formally called the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία), is a country in the southeast of Europe on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula. It has land... Greece, For the city, see Guatemala City. The Republic of Guatemala is a country in Central America, in the south of the continent of North America, bordering both the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. It is bordered by Mexico to the north, Belize to the northeast, and Honduras and El... Guatemala, The Republic of Hungary (Magyar Köztársaság) or Hungary (Magyarország) is a A landlocked country is one that has no coastline. There are 42 landlocked countries in the world. A landlocked sea is a sea that is not connected to the oceans: the... Hungary, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Papua New Guinea is a country in Oceania, occupying the eastern half of the island of New Guinea (the other half is the Papua province of Indonesia). It is located in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, north of Australia, and west of the Solomon Islands. Papua New Guinea (Flag) (Coat of... Papua New Guinea, Romania (formerly spelled Rumania or Roumania) is a country in southeastern Europe. It is bordered by Ukraine and Moldova in the northeast, Hungary and Serbia in the west and Bulgaria to the south. Romania also has a stretch of sea coast on the Black Sea. România (Flag) (Coat of... Romania, Slovakia (Slovak: Slovensko) is a landlocked republic in Central Europe. It borders the Czech Republic in the northwest, Poland in the north, Ukraine in the east, Hungary in the south, and Austria in the southwest. Slovenská republika (In Detail) National motto: None Official language Slovak Capital Bratislava President Ivan Ga... Slovakia, Swiss redirects here; for other uses of that term, see Swiss (disambiguation) The Swiss Confederation or Switzerland is a landlocked federal state in Europe, with neighbours Germany, France, Italy, Austria and Liechtenstein. The country has a strong tradition of political and military neutrality, but also of international co-operation, as... Switzerland, For other uses, see Turkey (disambiguation). The Republic of Turkey is a country located in Southwest Asia with a small part of its territory (3%) in southeastern Europe. Until 1922 the country was the center of the Ottoman Empire. The Anatolian peninsula, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea... Turkey, -1... Ukraine, and The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish: República Bolivariana de Venezuela)1 is a country in northern South America.2 It borders the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean to the north, Guyana to the east, Brazil to the south, and Colombia to the west. Off the Venezuelan coast are... Venezuela.


See also: Antarctica has no government. Various countries claim areas of it, but most countries do not recognize those claims. The area between 90 degrees west and 150 degrees west is the only land on Earth not claimed by any country. The Antarctic Treaty establishes freedom of scientific investigation and prohibits military... Government of Antarctica, There are numerous international environmental agreements made to protect the environment in different ways. Many of these are legally binding. One of the most well-known proposed agreements, the Kyoto protocol, is not legally binding as of 2001, because not enough countries have ratified it. However, it will come into... Environmental agreements


External links

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Wikisource is a sister project to Wikipedia that aims to create a free wiki compendium of primary source texts in any language, as well as translations of source texts. Originally called Project Sourceberg (after Project Gutenberg) during the planning stages for the project, the site was officially named Wikisource on... Wikisource has original text related to this article:
The Antarctic Treaty

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Antarctic Treaty System - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1191 words)
For the purposes of the treaty system, Antarctica is defined as all land and ice shelves south of the southern 60th parallel.
The treaty was signed by 12 countries, including the United States and the Soviet Union, and set aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve, established freedom of scientific investigation and banned military activity on that continent.
The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was signed 4 October 1991 and entered into force 14 January 1998; this agreement prevents development and provides for the protection of the Antarctic environment through five specific annexes on marine pollution, fauna, and flora, environmental impact assessments, waste management, and protected areas.
PROTOCOL ON ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION TO THE ANTARCTIC TREATY (1991) (6651 words)
Activities shall be planned and conducted in the Antarctic Treaty area so as to accord priority to scientific research and to preserve the value of Antarctica as an area for the conduct of such research, including research essential to understanding the global environment.
The Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings shall draw the attention of any State which is not a Party to this Protocol to any activity undertaken by that State, its agencies, instrumentalities, natural or juridical persons, ships, aircraft or other means of transport which affects the implementation of the objectives and principles of this Protocol.
Wastes removed from the Antarctic Treaty area shall, to the maximum extent practicable, be returned to the country from which the activities generating the waste were organized or to any other country in which arrangements have been made for the disposal of such wastes in accordance with relevant international agreements.
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