The antagonist is the character (or group of characters) of a story who represents the opposition against which the heroes and/or protagonists must contend. In the classic style of story wherein the action consists of a hero fighting a villain, the two can be regarded as protagonist and antagonist, respectively. However, authors have often created more complex situations. In some instances, the story is told from the villain's point of view; in such a story, we must regard the hero as the chief antagonist of the story!
More often, stories simply do not have characters that are readily identifiable as most heroic or villainous. Instead, the antagonist becomes that character, group, or sometimes force which provides the chief obstruction to the protagonist or "main character" of the story. Note that the antagonist is not necessarily human; often, the forces of nature or psychological elements provide this element of opposition.
The protagonist_antagonist relationship is also sometimes ambiguous. For instance, in the story of Moby Dick by Herman Melville, the antagonist may be regarded as the whale "Moby Dick" of the title, against which the story's leading character Captain Ahab strives. Yet Captan Ahab is not actually the protagonist of the story, as it is told from the point of view of the narrator Ishmael. Indeed, it is also valid to look as Captain Ahab as the antagonist, with his fanaticism the force with which protagonist Ishmael must cope.
The present invention involves methods of inducing opiate-receptor antagonistic activity in a patient suffering from ischemic or traumatic central nervous system injury by administering to said patient an effective amount of an opiate-receptor antagonist having enhanced activity at the kappa-opiate receptor suitable to permit the induction of opiate-receptor antogonistic activity.
A method of inducing kappa-opiate-receptor antagonistic activity in a patient suffering from ischemic or traumatic central nervous system injury which comprises administering to said patient an effective amount of a kappa-opiate-receptor antagonist suitable to permit the induction of kappa-opiate receptor antagonistic activity.
The present invention provides a method of inducing opiate-receptor antagonistic activity in a patient suffering from ischemic or traumatic central nervous system injury which comprises administering to said patient an effective amount of an opiate-receptor antagonist having enhanced activity at the kappa-opiate receptor suitable to permit the induction of opiate-receptor antagonistic activity.
As the concentration of antagonist is increased, the binding of the agonist is progressively inhibited, resulting in a decrease in the physiological response.
A competitive antagonist, therefore, shifts the dose-response relationship for the agonist to the right, so that an increased concentration of the agonist in the presence of a competitive antagonist is required to produce the same biological response observed in the absence of the antagonist.
In this case, the binding of the antagonist to the receptor (its affinity) may be so strong that the receptor is unavailable for binding by the agonist.
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