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Ants
Fossil range: Cretaceous - Recent
Meat eater ant feeding on honey
Meat eater ant feeding on honey
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Suborder: Apocrita
Superfamily: Vespoidea
Family: Formicidae
Latreille, 1809
Subfamilies

Ants are eusocial insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related families of wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera. They are a diverse group of more than 12,000 species, with a higher diversity in the tropics. They are known for their highly organized colonies and nests, which sometimes consist of millions of individuals. Individuals are divided into sub-fertile, and more commonly sterile, females ("workers"), fertile males ("drones"), and fertile females ("queens"). Colonies can occupy and use a wide area of land to support themselves. Ant colonies are sometimes described as superorganisms because the colony appears to operate as a unified entity. Ant, Ants, or ANT can refer to: In engineering, science, and technology Ant, insect The Ants, a scientific book about ants Antlia (constellation), standard astronomical abbreviation ANT, an early airplane series produced by Tupolev design bureau in the Soviet Union Ants (computer game), a computer game for the (obsolescent) Amiga... // The Cretaceous Period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 211 KB) Meat Eater Ant feeding on honey If you are a (commercial) publisher and you want me to write you an email or paper mail giving you an authorization to use my works in your products or a license... Binomial name Iridomyrmex golbachi Smith, 1858 Meat ants (Iridomyrmex purpureus), also known as meat-eater ants or gravel ants, are a species of ant belonging to the Iridomyrmex genus. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Suborders Apocrita Symphyta Hymenoptera is one of the larger orders of insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees, and ants. ... Superfamilies Apoidea Ceraphronoidea Chalcidoidea Chrysidoidea Cynipoidea Evanioidea Ichneumonoidea Megalyroidea Proctotrupoidea Sphecoidea Stephanoidea Triganalyoidea Vespoidea Many families, see article Apocrita is a suborder of insects in the order Hymenoptera. ... Vespoidea is a Superfamily of Order Hymenoptera of Class Insecta, although other taxonomic schemes may vary in this categorization. ... Pierre André Latreille. ... Species 7 species Aenictogitoninae is a very small subfamily of ants, containing 7 species in the monotypic genus Aenictogiton. ... Genera Amyrmex Anillidris Anonychomyrma Axinidris Azteca Bothriomyrmex Doleromyrma Dolichoderus Dorymyrmex Ecphorella Forelius Froggattella Iridomyrmex Leptomyrmex Linepithema Liometopum Loweriella Ochetellus Papyrius Philidris Tapinoma Technomyrmex Turneria Dolichoderinae is a subfamily of ants, which includes species such as the Erratic Ant. ... Tribes Cheliomyrmecini Dorylini (incl. ... Tribes Aenictini Aenictogetini Dorylini probably a lot more The Dorylinae is an old-world subfamily of the Formicidae commonly referred to as Driver ants or siafu. ... Species See article. ... Tribes, Genera and Species Species: Formica rufa Genus: Camponotus(World-wide) Formica, Lasius(Holartic) Gigantiops(Neotropical) Polyrhachis(Asian, African tropics) Melophorus(Australian) Kyromyrma(Cretaceous fossil) Tribes: Camponotini Formicini Gesomyrmecini Gigantiopini Lasiini Melophorini Myrmecorhynchini Myrmoteratini Notostigmatini Oecophyllini Plagiolepidini The Formicinae is a subfamily within the Formicidae containing ants of moderate evolutionary... The Myrmeciinae is a subfamily of the Formicidae. ... Binomial name Nothomyrmecia macrops Clark, 1951 Nothomyrmecia macrops, sometimes called Dinosaur ants, is the only known species of the genus (originally placed in its own subfamily Nothomyrmeciinae, though this is not recognized in modern classifications), and are found in the cool regions of the mallee of southern South Australia and... Tribes Basicerotini Dacetini Phalacromyrmecini Cephalotini Attini Blepharidattini Stenammini Solenopsidini Myrmicini Tetramoriini Pheidolini Crematogastrini Meranoplini Formicoxenini Melissotarsini Myrmecinini The Myrmicinae are a subfamily of Ants. ... Genera Paraponera Paraponerinae is a subfamily of ants in the Poneromorph subfamilies group. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Binomial name Pseudomyrmex spinicola Emery, 1890 Pseudomyrmex spinicola is a species of red myrmecophyte-inhabitating neotropical ants which are found only in Nicaragua and Costa Rica. ... Eusociality is the phenomenon of reproductive specialisation found in some species of animal, whereby a specialised caste carries out reproduction in a colony of non-reproductive animals. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... For other uses, see Wasp (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Western honey bee and Bee (disambiguation). ... Suborders Apocrita Symphyta Hymenoptera is one of the larger orders of insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees, and ants. ... The following is a thusfar incomplete list of worldwide ant genera. ... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... This is a biological article: For a territory administered by another territory see: Colony For a group attempting to affiliate with a Fraternity or Sorority see: Colony (fraternity) In biology, a colony (from Latin colonia) refers to several individual organisms of the same species living closely together, usually for mutual... A fertilized queen ant excavating a hole for her new colony. ... Ant colony in Pirin mountain An ant colony is an underground lair where ants live. ... A group of organisms, such as an insect colony, that functions as a social unit. ... An entity is something that has a distinct, separate existence, though it need not be a material existence. ...


Ants have colonized almost every landmass on Earth. The only places lacking indigenous ant species are Antarctica, Greenland, Iceland, parts of Polynesia, the Hawaiian Islands, and other remote or inhospitable islands.[1][2] When all their individual contributions are added up, they may constitute up to 15 to 25% of the total terrestrial animal biomass.[3] This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... An Antarctic krill, whose species comprises roughly 0. ...


Termites, sometimes called white ants, are not closely related to ants, although they have similar social structures. Velvet ants, although resembling large ants, are wingless female wasps. Families Mastotermitidae Kalotermitidae Termopsidae Hodotermitidae Rhinotermitidae Serritermitidae Termitidae Wikispecies has information related to: Isoptera Termites, sometimes known as white ants, are a group of social insects usually classified at the taxonomic rank of order Isoptera. ... Subfamilies Mutillinae Myrmillinae Myrmosinae Pseudophotopsidinae Rhopalomutillinae Sphaeropthalminae Ticoplinae Mutillidae or velvet ants, also known as cow killers, are not actually ants but a type of wasp. ... For other uses, see Wasp (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Evolution

A few ants in Baltic Amber
A few ants in Baltic Amber

The Formicidae family belongs to the order Hymenoptera, which also includes sawflies, bees and wasps. Ants are a lineage derived from within the vespoid wasps. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that ants evolved from vespoids in the mid-Cretaceous period about 120 to 170 million years ago. After the rise of angiosperm plants about 100 million years ago, they diversified and assumed ecological dominance about 60 million years ago.[4][5][6] Several fossils from the Cretaceous are intermediate in form between wasps and ants, adding further evidence for wasp ancestry. Like other Hymenoptera, the genetic system found in ants is haplodiploidy. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixel, file size: 3. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Suborders Apocrita Symphyta Hymenoptera is one of the larger orders of insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees, and ants. ... Superfamilies and families Superfamily Cephoidea    Family Cephidae (stem sawflies) Superfamily Megalodontoidea    Family Megalodontesidae    Family Pamphiliidae (leaf-rolling & web-spinning sawflies) Superfamily Orussoidea    Family Orussidae (parasitic wood wasps) Superfamily Siricoidea    Family Anaxyelidae (cedar wood wasps)    Family Siricidae (horntails) Superfamily Tenthredinoidea    Family Argidae (argid sawflies)    Family Blasticotomidae (fern sawflies)    Family Cimbicidae (cimbicid... For other uses, see Western honey bee and Bee (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wasp (disambiguation). ... Vespoidea is a Superfamily of Order Hymenoptera of Class Insecta, although other taxonomic schemes may vary in this categorization. ... A phylogeny (or phylogenesis) is the origin and evolution of a set of organisms, usually of a species. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... // The Cretaceous Period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... A haplodiploid species is one in which one of the sexes has haploid cells (cells containing one copy of each chromosome) and the other has diploid cells (cells containing two copies of each chromosome). ...


In 1966 E. O. Wilson, et al. obtained the first amber fossil remains of an ant (Sphecomyrma freyi) from the Cretaceous era. The specimen was trapped in amber from New Jersey and is more than 80 million years old. This species provides the clearest evidence of a link between modern ants and non-social wasps. Cretaceous ants shared both wasp-like and modern ant-like characteristics.[7] Edward Osborne Wilson (b. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... “NJ” redirects here. ...


During the Cretaceous era, only a few species of primitive ants ranged widely on the super-continent Laurasia (the northern hemisphere). They were scarce in comparison to other insects (about only 1%). Ants became dominant after adaptive radiation at the beginning of the Tertiary Period. Of the species extant in the Cretaceous and Eocene eras, only 1 of approximately 10 genera is now extinct. 56% of the genera represented on the Baltic amber fossils (early Oligocene), and 96% of the genera represented in the Dominican amber fossils (apparently early Miocene) still survive today.[4] Laurasia was a supercontinent that most recently existed as a part of the split of the Pangaean supercontinent in the late Mesozoic era. ... Four of the 13 finch species found on the Galápagos Archipelago, and thought to have evolved by an adaptive radiation that diversified their beak shapes to adapt them to different food sources. ... The Tertiary period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, from the end of the Cretaceous period about 64 million years ago to the start of the Quaternary period about 1. ... hfajhfiudshfas == == == --24. ... Population density in the wider Baltic region. ... The Oligocene epoch is a geologic period of time that extends from about 34 million to 23 million years before the present. ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ...

 
Vespoidea

Sierolomorphidae Vespoidea is a Superfamily of Order Hymenoptera of Class Insecta, although other taxonomic schemes may vary in this categorization. ...





Tiphiidae Genera Diamma Myzinum Tiphia (etc. ...




Sapygidae Genera Subtribe: Sapyginae Eusapyga Fedtschenkia Laura Monosapyga Polochrum Sapyga Sapygina The Sapygidae are a family of solitary aluleate wasps. ...



Mutillidae Subfamilies Mutillinae Myrmillinae Myrmosinae Pseudophotopsidinae Rhopalomutillinae Sphaeropthalminae Ticoplinae Mutillidae or velvet ants, also known as cow killers, are not actually ants but a type of wasp. ...







Pompilidae Genera many (35 in North America)   Spider wasps, also called pompilid wasps or spider-hunting wasps, are insects belonging to a diverse family named Pompilidae, of the order Hymenoptera. ...



Rhopalosomatidae





Formicidae




Vespidae Genera The vespids are a family of wasps, including all social wasps and some solitary wasps. ...



Scoliidae Subfamilies Scoliinae Proscoliinae Scoliidae, the Scoliid wasps, are represented by 20 genera and about the same number of species in North America. ...







Phylogenetic position of the Formicidae.[8]

Morphology

Diagram of a worker ant (Pachycondyla verenae)
This closeup shows the prominent mandibles and the comparatively small compound eyes.
This closeup shows the prominent mandibles and the comparatively small compound eyes.

Ants are distinct in their morphology from other insects by having elbowed antennae, metapleural glands, and by having the second abdominal segment strongly constricted into a distinct node-like a petiole. Ants also have a narrow waist between their mesosoma (thorax plus the first abdominal segment, which is fused to it) and gaster (abdomen less the abdominal segments in the petiole). The petiole can be formed by one or two nodes (only the second, or the second and third abdominal segments can form it). Image File history File links Ant_worker_morphology_corrected. ... Image File history File links Ant_worker_morphology_corrected. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ant_head_closeup. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ant_head_closeup. ... The term morphology in biology refers to the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern) of an organism or taxon and its component parts. ... Insects display a wide variety of antennal shapes. ... Metapleural glands (also called metasternal or metathoracic glands) occur only in ants. ... The abdomen (from the Latin word meaning belly) is the part of the body between the pelvis and the thorax. ... The petiole of this ant consists of two segments In entomology, the term petiole is most commonly used to refer to the constricted first (and sometimes second) metasomal segment of members of the Hymenopteran suborder Apocrita; it may be used to refer to other insects with similar body shapes, where...


Ant bodies, like other insects, have an exoskeleton, an external covering that provides a protective casing around the body and a place to attach muscles, in contrast to the internal skeletal framework of humans and other vertebrates. Insects do not have lungs, but oxygen and other gases like carbon dioxide pass through their exoskeleton through tiny valves called spiracles. Insects also lack closed blood vessels but have a long, thin, perforated tube along the top of the body (called the "dorsal aorta") that functions like a heart in that it pumps hemolymph towards the head, thus creating some circulation within the internal fluids. Their nervous system consists of a ventral nerve cord running the length of the body, with several ganglia and branches along the way into each extremity. An exoskeleton is an external anatomical feature that supports and protects an animals body, in contrast to the internal endoskeleton of, for example, a human. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Human respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Spiracles are small openings on the surface of animals that usually lead to respiratory systems. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... Hemolymph (or haemolymph) is the blood analogue used by all arthropods and most mollusks that have an open circulatory system. ... The nervous system of an animal coordinates the activity of the muscles, monitors the organs, constructs and also stops input from the senses, and initiates actions. ... The ventral nerve cords make up the nervous system of arthropods. ... GÃ…NGLÃŽÃ… is a 1 man electronic grindcore band from Los Angeles California that began in August of 1999. ...


The three main divisions of the ant body are the head, mesosoma and metasoma or gaster. Scorpion anatomy: 1 = Prosoma; 2 = Mesosoma; 3 = Metasoma The mesosoma is clearly visible on this ant: it is the midlle section, in between the head and the petiole The mesosoma is the middle part of the body, or tagma, of arthropods whose body is composed of three parts, the other... Scorpion anatomy: 1 = Prosoma; 2 = Mesosoma; 3 = Metasoma The metasoma is clearly visible on this ant: it is the posterior section, including the petiole The metasoma is the posterior part of the body, or tagma, of arthropods whose body is composed of three parts, the other two being the prosoma...


The head of an ant has many important parts. Ants have compound eyes, similar to flys with numerous tiny lenses attached together enabling them to detect movement very well. They also have three small ocelli on the top of the head, which detect light and dark. Most ants have poor to mediocre eyesight and others are blind altogether. Some ants have exceptional vision though, including Australia's bulldog ant. Also attached are two antennae ("feelers") which are special organs that help ants detect chemicals. The antennae are used in communication, detecting pheromones released by other ants. The antennae are also used as feelers, aiding in their sensory input about what is in front of them. The head also has two strong jaws, the mandibles, used to carry food, manipulate objects, construct nests, and for defense. In some species a small pocket inside the mouth holds food for passing to other ants or their developing larvae. Compound eye of a dragonfly Compound eye of Antarctic krill as imaged by an electron microscope A compound eye is a visual organ found in certain arthropods such as insects and crustaceans. ... For other uses, see Fly (disambiguation) and Flies (disambiguation). ... An ocellus (plural: ocelli) is a type of photoreceptor organ in animals. ... Species aberrans auriventris cephalotes gulosa mandibularis nigrocincta picta pilosula tepperi urens The Myrmeciinae is a subfamily of the Formicidae. ... Insects display a wide variety of antennal shapes. ... Fanning honeybee exposes Nasonov gland (white-at tip of abdomen) releasing pheromone to entice swarm into an empty hive A pheromone is a chemical that triggers an innate behavioural response in another member of the same species. ... Insect mandibles are a pair of appendages near the insect’s mouth. ...


The thorax of the ant is where all six legs are attached. At the end of each leg is a hooked claw that helps ants climb and hang onto things. Most queens and male ants have wings; queens shed the wings after the nuptial flight leaving visible stubs, a distinguishing feature of queens. Wingless queens (ergatoids) and males can also occur. Diagram of a tsetse fly, showing the head, thorax and abdomen The thorax is a division of an animals body that lies between the head and the abdomen. ... An insect leg The arthropod leg is a form of jointed appendage of arthropods, usually used for walking. ... Cat claw A claw is a curved pointed appendage, found at the end of a toe or finger or, in arthropods, of the tarsus. ... A queen is the only female insect in a hive that is fertile and egg laying; for example, a queen bee, wasp, hornet, ant, or termite. ... Wing structure of a dragonfly (family Gomphidae) Insect wings are outgrowths of the insect exoskeleton that enable insects to fly. ... Nuptial flight is an important phase in the reproduction of most ant species. ...


The metasoma (the "abdomen") of the ant houses many important internal organs, including the reproductive organs. Many species of ants have stingers used for subduing prey and defending their nests. Scorpion anatomy: 1 = Prosoma; 2 = Mesosoma; 3 = Metasoma The metasoma is clearly visible on this ant: it is the posterior section, including the petiole The metasoma is the posterior part of the body, or tagma, of arthropods whose body is composed of three parts, the other two being the prosoma... It has been suggested that sting (biology) be merged into this article or section. ... Predator and Prey redirect here. ...


Development

Meat eater ant nest during swarming
Meat eater ant nest during swarming
Fertilized queen ant beginning to dig a new colony
Fertilized queen ant beginning to dig a new colony

The life of an ant starts with an egg. If the egg is fertilized, the ant will be female (diploid); if not, it will be male (haploid). Ants are holometabolous, and develop by complete metamorphosis, passing through larval and pupal stages (with the pupae being exarate) before they become adults. The larval stage is particularly helpless — for instance it lacks legs entirely – and cannot care for itself. The difference between queens and workers (which are both female), and between different castes of workers when they exist, is determined by the feeding in the larval stage. Food is given to the larvae by a process called trophallaxis in which an ant regurgitates food previously held in its crop for communal storage. This is also how adults distribute food amongst themselves. Larvae and pupae need to be kept at fairly constant temperatures to ensure proper development, and so are often moved around the various brood chambers within the colony. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 554 KB) Meat eater ant nest swarming. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 554 KB) Meat eater ant nest swarming. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 463 KB) A young meat eater ant queen digging a hole to begin a new colony. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 463 KB) A young meat eater ant queen digging a hole to begin a new colony. ... In most birds and reptiles, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ... Diploid (meaning double in Greek) cells have two copies (homologs) of each chromosome (both sex- and non-sex determining chromosomes), usually one from the mother and one from the father. ... Haploid (meaning simple in Greek) cells have only one copy of each chromosome. ... Holometabolism, also called complete metamorphism, is a term applied to insect groups to describe the specific kind of insect development which includes four life stages - as an embryo, a larva, a pupa and an imago. ... A cicada in the process of shedding. ... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... Cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha) pupa Chrysalis redirects here: for other meanings see Chrysalis (disambiguation). ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social restriction and social stratification, enforced by law or common practice, based on endogamy, occupation, economic status, race, ethnicity, // 1555, a race of men, from L. casto chaste, from castus pure, cut off, separated, pp. ... Trophallaxis is the regurgitation of food by one animal for another. ... Regurgitation is the passive flow of stomach contents back into the esophagus and mouth. ...


A new worker spends the first few days of its adult life caring for the queen and young. After that it graduates to digging and other nest work, and then to foraging and defense of the nest. These changes are fairly abrupt and define what are called temporal castes. One theory of why this occurs is because foraging has a high death rate, so ants only participate in it when they are older and closer to death anyway. In a few ants there are also physical castes — workers come in a spectrum of sizes, called minor, median, and major workers, the latter beginning foraging sooner. Often the larger ants will have disproportionately larger heads, and correspondingly stronger mandibles. Such individuals are sometimes called "soldier" ants because their stronger mandibles make them more effective in fighting other creatures, although they are still in fact worker ants and their "duties" typically do not vary greatly from the minor or median workers. In a few species the median workers have disappeared, creating a sharp divide and clear physical difference between the minors and majors. Insect mandibles are a pair of appendages near the insect’s mouth. ...


Most of the common ant species breed in the same way. Only the queen and breeding females have the ability to mate. Contrary to popular belief, some ant nests have multiple queens. The male ants, called drones, along with the breeding females emerge from pupation with wings (although some species, like army ants, do not produce winged queens), and do nothing throughout their life except eat and mate. At this time, all breeding ants, excluding the queen, are carried outside where other colonies of similar species are doing the same. Then, all the winged breeding ants take flight. Mating occurs in flight and the males die shortly afterward. The females that survive land and seek a suitable place to begin a colony. There, they break off their own wings and begin to lay eggs, which they care for. Sperm obtained during their nuptial flight is stored and used to fertilize all future eggs produced. The first workers to hatch are weak and smaller than later workers, but they begin to serve the colony immediately. They enlarge the nest, forage for food and care for the other eggs. This is how most new colonies start. A few species that have multiple queens can start a new colony as a queen from the old nest takes a number of workers to a new site and founds a colony there. There are over 200 known species of army ant, divided into New World and Old World types. ... A spermatozoon or spermatozoan ( spermatozoa), from the ancient Greek σπέρμα (seed) and (living being) and more commonly known as a sperm cell, is the haploid cell that is the male gamete. ... Nuptial flight is an important phase in the reproduction of most ant species. ...


Ant colonies can be long-lived. The queens themselves can live for up to 30 years, while workers live from 1 to 3 years. Males, however, are more transitory, surviving only a few weeks.[9]


Ants survive the winter by going into a state of dormancy or inactivity. The forms of inactivity are varied and some temperate species have larvae that go into diapause while in others the adults alone pass the winter in a state of reduced activity. This does not happen in the tropics.[10] Embryonic diapause, in mammals is a condition where pre-implantation blastocysts are maintained in a state of dormancy, often due to environmental cues, until such time as the environment improves. ...


Polymorphism

Myrmecocystus (Honeypot) ants store food to prevent colony famine.

Ants show a wide range of morphological differences between the castes. While in some species, these differences are small, they are large in others. In some ant species there can be several size variants within the worker castes.[11] Workers cannot mate; however, because of the haplodiploid sex-determination system in ants, workers of a number of species are able to lay unfertilized eggs leading to fully functional haploid males. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 971 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Taken by Greg Hume on 9/17/06. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 971 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Taken by Greg Hume on 9/17/06. ... The Haplodiploid sex-determination system is a system that some Hymenopterans (bees, ants, and wasps), and coleopterans (bark beetles) use to determine the sex of their offspring, and preserve eusociality. ...


A group of ants called honeypot ants, have special workers called repletes who only store food for the rest of the colony, generally becoming immobile with greatly enlarged abdomens. In hot, dry places, like parts of Africa, North America, and Australia they are eaten and considered by some to be a great delicacy. In Australia, they are prized as a type of bushfood and considered a sweetmeat. Honeypot ants are ants which are gorged with food by workers, to the point that their abdomens swell enormously. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... This is a List of delicacies. ... Alice Springs Desert Park, Bush Tucker The word Bushfood refers to any food native to Australia and used as sustenance by the original inhabitants, the Australian Aborigines, although it is sometimes used with the specific connotation of food found in the Outback while living on the land. It is also... A selection of confectioneries The term confectionery refers to food items that are (at least perceptibly) rich in sugar. ...


Behaviour and ecology

Communication

Ant mound holes prevent water from entering the nest during rain.
Ant mound holes prevent water from entering the nest during rain.
Ant hole in a flurry of activity during swarming
Ant hole in a flurry of activity during swarming

Ants communicate with each other through chemicals called pheromones, these signal messages are more developed in ant species than in other hymenopterans groups. Like other insects, ants smell with their long and thin antennae that are fairly mobile. The antennae have a distinct elbow joint after an elongated first segment; and since they come in pairs—rather like binocular vision or stereophonic sound equipment—they provide information about direction as well as intensity. Since ants spend their life in contact with the ground, the soil surface makes a good place to leave a pheromone trail that can be followed by other ants. In those species which forage in groups, when a forager finds food they mark a trail on the way back to the colony, and this is followed by other ants that reinforce the trail when they head back to the colony. When the food is exhausted, no new trails are marked by returning ants and the scent slowly dissipates. This behavior helps ants adapt to changes in their environment. When an established path to a food source is blocked by a new obstacle, the foragers leave the path to explore new routes. If successful, the returning ant leaves a new trail marking the shortest route. Successful trails are followed by more ants, and each reinforces the trail with more pheromone (ants will follow the heaviest marked trails). Home is often located by remembered landmarks in the area and by the position of the sun; ants' compound eyes have specialized cells that detect polarized light, used to determine direction. [12][13] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 328 KB) Ant mound File links The following pages link to this file: Ant ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 328 KB) Ant mound File links The following pages link to this file: Ant ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 760 KB) A long exposure (1/4 sec) of an ant hole during swarming time. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 760 KB) A long exposure (1/4 sec) of an ant hole during swarming time. ... Fanning honeybee exposes Nasonov gland (white-at tip of abdomen) releasing pheromone to entice swarm into an empty hive A pheromone is a chemical that triggers an innate behavioural response in another member of the same species. ... Suborders Apocrita Symphyta Many families, see article Hymenoptera is one of the larger orders of Insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees, and ants. ... Sol redirects here. ...


Ants use pheromones for other purposes as well. A crushed ant will emit an alarm pheromone which in high concentration sends nearby ants into an attack frenzy; and in lower concentration, merely attracts them. To confuse enemies, several ant species use "propaganda pheromones", which cause their enemies to fight amongst themselves.[14]


Pheromones are also exchanged mixed with food and passed in the trophallaxis, giving the ants information about one another's health and nutrition. Ants can detect what task group (e.g. foraging or nest maintenance) other ants belong to. When the queen stops producing a specific pheromone the workers raise new queens. Trophallaxis is the regurgitation of food by one animal for another. ...


Some ants also produce sounds by stridulation using the gaster segments and also using their mandibles. They may serve to communicate among colony members as well as in interactions with other species.[15][16][17] Stridulation is the act of producing sound by rubbing together certain body parts. ...


Defense

A weaver ant in fighting position, mandibles wide open
A weaver ant in fighting position, mandibles wide open
Weaver ants collaborating to dismember a red ant (the two at the extremities are pulling the red ant, while the middle one cuts the red ant until she snaps)
Weaver ants collaborating to dismember a red ant (the two at the extremities are pulling the red ant, while the middle one cuts the red ant until she snaps)

Ants attack others and defend themselves by biting and in many species, stinging, often injecting chemicals like formic acid. Bullet ants (the genus Paraponera), located in Central and South America, are considered to have the most painful sting among insects, although these are usually non-fatal. They are given the highest rating on the Schmidt Sting Pain Index. Jack jumper ants, Myrmecia pilosula, located in Australia have stings that cause fatality to a small number of people in the population, and cause hospitalizations each year.[18] A vaccine based on use of the venom extract to develop immunity has been developed.[19] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2333x1417, 1525 KB) Weaver ant. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2333x1417, 1525 KB) Weaver ant. ... Weaver ants (genus Oecophylla) are social insects belonging to the ant family, known for their communication and nest building behaviour. ... The mandible (from Latin mandibÅ­la, jawbone) or inferior maxillary bone is, together with the maxilla, the largest and strongest bone of the face. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2281x1409, 1476 KB) Weaver ants collaborating to dismember a red ant. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2281x1409, 1476 KB) Weaver ants collaborating to dismember a red ant. ... Formic acid (systematically called methanoic acid) is the simplest carboxylic acid. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Binomial name (Fabricius, 1775) Paraponera is a genus of ant consisting of a single species, the so-called bullet ant (P. clavata), named on account of its powerful and potent sting, which is said to be as painful as being shot with a bullet. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Schmidt Sting Pain Index or The Justin O. Schmidt Pain Index was created by Justin O. Schmidt, an entomologist. ... Binomial name Myrmecia pilosula F. Smith, 1858 The jack jumper ant, hopper ant or jumper ant, Myrmecia pilosula, is a species of bulldog ant that is native to Australia. ... Binomial name Myrmecia pilosula F. Smith, 1858 The jack jumper ant, hopper ant or jumper ant (Myrmecia pilosula) is a species of bulldog ant that is native to Australia. ...


Fire ants, Solenopsis spp., are unique in having a poison sac containing piperidine alkaloids.[20] Species More than 280 species and subspecies, see text For the species of fire ant common to the Southern U.S., see Red imported fire ant Fire ants, sometimes referred to as simply red ants, are stinging ants of which there are over 280 species worldwide. ... Species 266, see text Solenopsis is a genus of ant, of which there are 266 species. ... Piperidine is an organic compound with the molecular formula C5H11N. It is a heterocyclic amine with a six-membered ring containing five carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom. ...


Some ants of the genus Odontomachus are equipped with mandibles called trap-jaws. This snap-jaw mechanism, or catapult mechanism, is possible because energy is stored in the large closing muscles. The blow is incredibly fast, about 0.5 ms in the genus Mystrium. Before the strike, the mandibles open wide and are locked in the open position by the labrum, which functions as a latch. The attack is triggered by stimulation of sensory hairs at the side of the mandibles. The mandibles are also able to function as a tool for more finely adjusted tasks. Two similar groups are Odontomachus and Dacetini - examples of convergent evolution. Species Odontomachus ruginodis Odontomachus brunneus Odontomachus clarus Odontomachus insularis Odontomachus is a genus of carnivorous ants found in the tropics and subtropics. ... One millisecond is one-thousandth of a second. ... Species Odontomachus ruginodis Odontomachus brunneus Odontomachus clarus Odontomachus insularis Odontomachus is a genus of carnivorous ants found in the tropics and subtropics. ... In evolutionary biology, convergent evolution is the process whereby organisms not closely related, independently evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar environments or ecological niches. ...


Apart from defense against larger threats, ants also need to defend their colonies against disease organisms. Some ant workers' role is to maintain the hygiene of the colony and their activities include undertaking or necrophory, the transport of dead nest-mates.[21] Oleic acid is identified as one compound released by dead ants that triggers undertaking behaviour in Atta mexicana.[22] This article is about the vocation of a mortician and the death metal band; for the World Wrestling Entertainment superstar, see The Undertaker. ...


The nests are also protected from physical threats such as flooding by elaborate structures at the entrance or special chambers for escaping from flooding. Some arboreal species that live in plant hollows (Phytotelmata) also have behavioural responses to flooding, where the workers drink the water and excrete it outside the nest.[23]


Learning

While many types of animals can learn behaviors by imitating other animals, ants may be the only group of animals besides primates and some other mammals in which interactive teaching behavior has been observed. Knowledgeable forager ants of the species Temnothorax albipennis directly lead naïve nest-mates to newly discovered food sources by the excruciatingly slow (and time-costly) process of tandem running. The follower thereby obtains knowledge that it would not have, had it not been tutored, and this is at the expense of its nest-mate teacher. Both leader and follower are acutely sensitive to the progress of their partner. For example, the leader slows down when the follower lags too far behind, and speeds up when the follower gets too close, while the follower does the opposite.[24] Learning is the acquisition and development of memories and behaviors, including skills, knowledge, understanding, values, and wisdom. ... Imitation is an advanced animal behaviour whereby an individual observes anothers behaviour and replicates it itself. ... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex...


Controlled experiments with colonies of Cerapachys biroi suggest that these ants can specialize based on their previous experience. An entire generation of identical workers was divided into two groups based on how the researchers controlled the outcome of food foraging. One group was continually rewarded with prey, while it was made certain that the other failed. As a result, members of the successful group intensified their foraging attempts while the unsuccessful group ventured out less and less. One month later, 'workers that previously found prey kept on exploring for food, whereas those who always failed specialized in brood care'[25]


Nest construction

Main article: Ant colony

While some ants form complex nests and galleries, other species are nomadic and do not build permanent structures. Various species may form subterranean nests or build them on trees. Nests can be found in the ground with craters or mounds around the entrance, under stones or logs, in logs, hollow stems, even acorns. The materials used for construction include soil and plant matter,[26] and they are highly selective of the nest site; Temnothorax albipennis will avoid sites with dead ants as these may be indicators of pests or disease. They are also quick to abandon established nest sites at the first sign of these threats.[27] Ant colony in Pirin mountain An ant colony is an underground lair where ants live. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x1057, 821 KB) Nest of weaver ants. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x1057, 821 KB) Nest of weaver ants. ... Weaver ants (genus Oecophylla) are social insects belonging to the ant family, known for their communication and nest building behaviour. ... The main beach on the southern shore of Pamalican. ...


Some of the more advanced ants are the army ants and driver ants, from South America and Africa respectively. Unlike most species which have permanent nests, army and driver ants do not form permanent nests, but instead alternate between nomadic stages and stages where the workers form a temporary nest (bivouac) out of their own bodies. Colonies reproduce either through nuptial flights as described above, or by fission, where a group of workers simply dig a new hole and raise new queens. Colony members are distinguished by smell, and other intruders are usually attacked. There are over 200 known species of army ant, divided into New World and Old World types. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Dorylinae. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... A bivouac is a structure formed by migratory army ant and driver ant colonies, where a nest is constructed out of the living ant workers own bodies to protect the queen and larvae, and is later deconstructed as the ants move on. ...


Weaver ants (Oecophylla) build nests in trees by attaching leaves together, first pulling them together with bridges of workers and then sewing them together by pressing silk-producing larvae against them in alternation. Weaver ants (genus Oecophylla) are social insects belonging to the ant family, known for their communication and nest building behaviour. ... Weaver ants (genus Oecophylla) are social insects belonging to the ant family, known for their communication and nest building behaviour. ...


Food cultivation

Main article: Ant-fungus mutualism

Leafcutter ants (Atta and Acromyrmex) feed exclusively on a special fungus that lives only within their colonies. They continually collect leaves which they cut into tiny pieces for the fungus to grow on. There are different sized castes specially suited to finer and finer tasks of cutting and chewing the leaves and tending to the garden. Leaf cutter ants are sensitive enough to adapt to the fungi's reaction to different plant material, apparently detecting chemical signals from the fungus. If a particular type of leaf is toxic to the fungus the colony will no longer collect it. The ants grow the fungus because it produces special structures called gongylidia which are fed on by the ants. They create antibiotics on their exterior surfaces with the aid of symbiotic bacteria, and subsist entirely on this farming of the fungus. Ant-fungus mutualism is a verifiable symbiosis seen in certain ant and fungal species, where ants actively cultivate fungus much like humans farm crops as a food source. ... Genera Acromyrmex Atta Leafcutter ants are social insects found in warmer regions of Central and South America. ... Species Many This article is about the genus of New World ants. ... Subkingdom/Phyla Chytridiomycota Blastocladiomycota Neocallimastigomycota Glomeromycota Zygomycota Dikarya (inc. ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Navigation

Desert ants Cataglyphis fortis make use of visual landmarks in combination with other cues to navigate.[28]


In the absence of visual landmarks, Sahara desert ants have been shown to navigate by keeping track of direction as well as distance travelled, like an internal pedometer that keeps tracks of how many steps they take, and use this information to find the shortest routes back to their nests.[29] The Sahara desert ant (Cataglyphis bicolor) is a desert dwelling ant of the genus Cataglyphis. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Locomotion

Ants rafting in a pool
Ants rafting in a pool

Worker ants generally do not grow wings and reproductive females remove theirs after their mating flights in order to begin their colonies. Therefore, unlike their wasp ancestors, most ants travel by walking. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 646 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Tim J. Patterson, http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 646 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Tim J. Patterson, http://www. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The more cooperative species of ants sometimes form chains to bridge gaps, whether that be over water, underground, or through spaces in arboreal paths. Some species also form floating rafts that help them survive floods. They may also have a role in colonization of islands.[30]

Some ants are even capable of leaping. A particularly notable species is Jerdon's jumping ant, Harpegnathos saltator. This is achieved by synchronized action of the mid and hind pair of legs.[31] Image File history File linksMetadata Harpegnathos_saltator. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Harpegnathos_saltator. ... Binomial name Harpegnathos saltator (T. C. Jerdon, 1851) Harpegnathos saltator, sometimes called Jerdons jumping ant is a species of ant found in India. ... Binomial name Harpegnathos saltator (T. C. Jerdon, 1851) Harpegnathos saltator, sometimes called Jerdons jumping ant is a species of ant found in India. ...


Polyrhachis sokolova, a species of ant found in Australian mangrove swamps, can swim and lives in nests that are submerged underwater. They make use of trapped pockets of air in the submerged nests.[32] This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal. ...


There are several species of gliding ant including Cephalotes atratus. In fact this may be a common trait among most arboreal ants. Ants with this ability are able to direct the direction of their descent while falling.[33] Gliding ants are arboreal ants of many different genera, each having developed the ability to guide its descent when falling from a tree, in order to land on the trunk before reaching the (potentially flooded, disorienting, or dangerous) ground. ...


Ant cooperation and competition

Meat eater ants feeding on honey - social ants cooperate and collectively gather food.
Meat eater ants feeding on honey - social ants cooperate and collectively gather food.

Not all ants have the same kind of societies. The Australian bulldog ants are among the biggest and most primitive of ants. The individual hunts alone, using its large eyes instead of its chemical senses to find prey. Like all ants they are social, but their social behavior is poorly developed compared to more advanced species. An Australian bulldog ant, Myrmecia pilosula, has only a single pair of chromosomes and males have just one chromosome as they are haploid. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 401 KB) Meat Eater Ants feeding on honey If you are a (commercial) publisher and you want me to write you an email or paper mail giving you an authorization to use my works in your products or a license... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 401 KB) Meat Eater Ants feeding on honey If you are a (commercial) publisher and you want me to write you an email or paper mail giving you an authorization to use my works in your products or a license... Species aberrans auriventris cephalotes gulosa mandibularis nigrocincta picta pilosula tepperi urens The Myrmeciinae is a subfamily of the Formicidae. ... Binomial name Myrmecia pilosula F. Smith, 1858 The jack jumper ant, hopper ant or jumper ant (Myrmecia pilosula) is a species of bulldog ant that is native to Australia. ... Haploid (meaning simple in Greek) cells have only one copy of each chromosome. ...


Some species of ants are known for attacking and taking over the colonies of other ant species. Others are less expansionist but nonetheless just as aggressive; they attack colonies to steal eggs or larvae, which they either eat or raise as workers/slaves. Some ants, such as the Amazon ants, are incapable of feeding themselves, and must rely on captured worker ants to care for them. In some cases ant colonies may have other species of ants or termites within the same nest.[34] Polyergus, also known as Amazon Ants, are a genus of slave-raiding ants. ...


The pavement ant is famous for its urge to increase its territory. In early spring, colonies attempt to conquer new areas and often attack the nearest enemy colony. These result in huge sidewalk battles, sometimes leaving thousands of ants dead. Because of their aggressive nature, they often invade and colonize seemingly impenetrable areas. A pavement ant (Tetramorium caespitum) is a common household pest. ...


Ants identify kin and nestmates through their scents, a hydrocarbon-laced secretion that coats their exoskeletons. If an ant is separated from its original colony, it will eventually lose the colony scent. Any ant that enters a colony with a different scent than that of the colony will be attacked.[35] (See also Kin selection) Oil refineries are key to obtaining hydrocarbons; crude oil is processed through several stages to form desirable hydrocarbons, used in fuel and other commercial products. ... In evolutionary biology, kin selection refers to changes in gene frequency across generations that are driven at least in part by interactions between related individuals, and this forms much of the conceptual basis of the theory of social evolution. ...


Diversity

Region Number of
species [26]
Neotropics 2162
Nearctic 580
Europe 180
Africa 2500
Asia 2080
Melanesia 275
Australia 985
Polynesia 42

There is a great diversity among ants and their behaviors. They range in size from 2 to about 25 mm (about 0.08 to 1 inch). Their color may vary; most are red or black, but other colors can also be seen, including some tropical groups with a metallic luster. (See also ant genera). Numerous species of ant continue to be added in present times and taxonomic studies continue to resolve the classification and systematics of ants. Online databases of ant species include AntBase and the Hymenoptera Name Server.[36] Look up Region in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A biogeographic region, that extends from Mexico southwards to Tierra del Fuego, and also includes the Caribbean islands. ... The Nearctic is one of the eight terrestrial ecozones dividing the Earths land surface. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Map showing Melanesia. ... Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... The following is a thusfar incomplete list of worldwide ant genera. ...


Ants have been used as indicator species in biodiversity studies.[37][38]


Relationships with other species

Ants associate with a wide range of species in many ways. They form mutualisms with other insects, plants, and fungi. They parasitize each other. They are preyed upon by many animals and even certain fungi. Because their nests are such hospitable places, many species of arthropods sneak in and integrate themselves in various ways to the ant's daily lives.


Aphids secrete a sweet liquid called honeydew which they exude in the process of feeding from plants. The sugars can provide a high-energy food source, which many ant species collect. In some cases the aphids secrete the honeydew specifically in response to the ants tapping them with their antennas. The ants in turn keep predators away and will move the aphids around to better feeding locations. Upon migrating to a new area, many colonies will take new aphids with them, to ensure that they have a supply of honeydew in the new area. Ants also tend mealybugs to harvest their honeydew. Mealybugs can become a serious pest of pineapple if ants are present to protect mealybugs from natural enemies.[39][40] Families There are 10 families: Adelgidae Anoeciidae Aphididae Drepanosiphidae Homomasagymibutae Greenideidae Hormaphididae Lachnidae Mindaridae Pemphigidae Phloeomyzidae Phylloxeridae Thelaxidae Aphids, also known as greenfly, blackfly or plant lice, are minute plant-feeding insects in the superfamily Aphidoidea in the homopterous division of the order Hemiptera. ... Honeydew is a sugar-rich sticky substance secreted by aphids and some scale insects as they feed on plant sap. ... Families There are 10 families: Adelgidae Anoeciidae Aphididae Drepanosiphidae Homomasagymibutae Greenideidae Hormaphididae Lachnidae Mindaridae Pemphigidae Phloeomyzidae Phylloxeridae Thelaxidae Aphids, also known as greenfly, blackfly or plant lice, are minute plant-feeding insects in the superfamily Aphidoidea in the homopterous division of the order Hemiptera. ... Mealybug is the common name of insects in Pseudococcidae, a family of unarmored scale insects found in moist, warm climates. ...

Meat ant tending a common jassid nymph
Meat ant tending a common jassid nymph
A lycaenid larva and an ant
A lycaenid larva and an ant
An ant collects honeydew from an aphid.

Myrmecophilous (ant-loving) caterpillars of the family Lycaenidae (e.g., blues, coppers, or hairstreaks) are herded by the ants, led to feeding areas in the daytime, and brought inside the ants' nest at night. The caterpillars have a gland which secretes honeydew when the ants massage them. Some caterpillars are known to produce vibrations and sounds that are sensed by the ants.[41] Some caterpillars have evolved from being ant-loving to ant-eating and these myrmecophagous caterpillars secrete a pheromone which makes the ants think that the caterpillar's larva is one of their own. The larva will then be taken into the ants' nest where it can feed on the ant larvae. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1067 pixel, file size: 430 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Leaf Hopper nymph of the Common Jassid (Eurymela fenestrata). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1067 pixel, file size: 430 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Leaf Hopper nymph of the Common Jassid (Eurymela fenestrata). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Lycaenid_ant_sec. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Lycaenid_ant_sec. ... Subfamilies Lycaeninae- Coppers Miletinae- Harvesters Polyommatinae- Blues Theclinae- Hairstreaks, Elfins The Lycaenidae or copper butterfly are a large family of butterflies, also known as the Gossamer-winged butterflies. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ant_Receives_Honeydew_from_Aphid. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ant_Receives_Honeydew_from_Aphid. ... Honeydew is a sugar-rich sticky substance secreted by aphids and some scale insects as they feed on plant sap. ... Families There are 10 families: Adelgidae Anoeciidae Aphididae Drepanosiphidae Homomasagymibutae Greenideidae Hormaphididae Lachnidae Mindaridae Pemphigidae Phloeomyzidae Phylloxeridae Thelaxidae Aphids, also known as greenfly, blackfly or plant lice, are minute plant-feeding insects in the superfamily Aphidoidea in the homopterous division of the order Hemiptera. ... A myrmecophile is a type of organism, usually an insect, that habitually shares ant nests. ... This article is about a form of an insect. ... Subfamilies Lycaeninae- Coppers Miletinae- Harvesters Polyommatinae- Blues Theclinae- Hairstreaks, Elfins The Lycaenidae or copper butterfly are a large family of butterflies, also known as the Gossamer-winged butterflies. ... Entomophagy is the habit of eating insects as food. ...


Fungus-growing ants that make up the tribe attini, including leafcutter ants, actively cultivate certain species of fungus in the Leucoagaricus or Leucocoprinus genera of the Agaricaceae family. In this ant-fungus mutualism, both species depend on each other for survival. The ant Allomerus decemarticulatus has evolved a tripartite association with their host plant Hirtella physophora (Chrysobalanaceae), and a sticky fungus which is used to trap their insect prey.[42] Genera Many The Fungus-growing ants (tribe Attini) is comprised of all the known fungus-growing ant species in the world. ... Genera Many The Fungus-growing ants (tribe Attini) is comprised of all the known fungus_growing ant species in the world. ... Genera Acromyrmex Atta Leafcutter ants are social insects found in warmer regions of Central and South America. ... Genera Agaricus Allopsalliota Anellaria Barcheria Chamaemyces Chlamydopus Chlorophyllum Coprinus Cystoagaricus Cystoderma Cystolepiota Endoptychum Gyrophragmium Lacrymaria Lepista Lepiota Leucoagaricus Leucocoprinus Leucopholiota Longula Macrolepiota Melanophyllum Micropsalliota Montagnea Notholepiota Psilocybe Ripartitella Termiticola Tulostoma Verrucospora Volvolepiota The Agaricaceae is a family of basidiomycete fungi and includes organisms previously known as Tulostomataceae, Lepiotaceae and Coprinaceae. ... Ant-fungus mutualism is a verifiable symbiosis seen in certain ant and fungal species, where ants actively cultivate fungus much like humans farm crops as a food source. ... Allomerus decemarticulatus is a species of ant that is notable for its tripartite symbiosis with its host plant and a fungus, which it uses to ambush much larger prey such as locusts. ...


Lemon ants make devil's gardens by selectively killing surrounding plants and leaving a pure patch of lemon ant trees Duroia hirsuta.[43] Many trees have extrafloral nectaries that provide food for ants and the ants in turn protect the plant from herbivorous insects. Some species like the bullhorn acacia, Acacia cornigera, in Central America have hollow thorns that serve to house colonies of stinging ants, Pseudomyrmex ferruginea, that defend the tree against insects, browsing mammals, and epiphytic vines. In return, the ants obtain food from protein-lipid Beltian bodies. Another example of this type of ectosymbiosis comes from the Macaranga tree which have stems adapted to house colonies of Crematogaster ants. Many tropical tree species have seeds that are dispersed by ants.[44] Myrmelachista schumanni, also the lemon ant, is a species of ant that is notable for the creation of Devils gardens. ... In myrmecology and forest ecology, a devils garden is a large stand of trees almost exclusively of a single species, duroia hirsuta. ... Nectar of camellia Nectar, in botany, is a sugar-rich liquid produced by the flowers of plants in order to attract pollinating animals. ... In zoology, an herbivore is an animal that is adapted to eat primarily plants (rather than meat). ... The bull-horn acacia, Acacia cornigera (family Fabaceae), is a type of acacia with a very specific feature: It can only live a long time when in symbiosis with ants. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ectosymbiosis is symbiosis in which the symbiont lives on the body surface of the host, including internal surfaces such as the lining of the digestive tube and the ducts of glands. ... Species Macaranga acerifolia Macaranga capensis Macaranga indica Macaranga mappa Macaranga tanarius et al. ... Crematogaster is a genus of ant in the Formicidae family. ...


Flies in the Old World genus Bengalia (Calliphoridae) are kleptoparasites and predators on ants and often snatch prey or brood from the adult ants.[45] Wingless and legless females of the Malaysian phorid fly Vestigipoda myrmolarvoidea live in the nests of ants of the genus Aenictus and are cared for by the ants.[45] Bengalia is a genus of blow flies in the family Calliphoridae. ... Subfamilies Calliphorinae Chrysomyiinae The Blowflies are members of the family Calliphoridae of flies (Diptera). ... Kleptoparasitism or cleptoparasitism (literally, parasitism by theft) is a form of feeding where one animal takes prey from another that has caught, killed, or otherwise prepared it, including stored food provisions, as in the case of cuckoo bees, which lay their eggs on the pollen masses made by other bees. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ... Genera and Species Approximately 230 genera and 3000 species A phorid fly is a small, hump-backed fly of the highly diverse family Phoridae, and resembling a fruit fly in appearance. ... Species See article. ...


Many species of birds show a peculiar behaviour called anting that is as yet not fully understood. Here birds may rest on ant nests or pick and drop ants onto their wings and feathers, presumably to rid themselves of ectoparasites. Anting is when birds rub insects on their feathers, usually ants that secrete liquids containing chemicals such as formic acid, that can act as an insecticide, miticide, fungicide, or bactericide. ... This article is about a relationship between organisms. ...


A fungus, Cordyceps, infects ants, causing them to climb up plants and sink their mandibles into the plant tissue. The fungus kills and engulfs the ant and produces its fruiting body. It appears that the fungus alters the behavior of the ant and uses the ant to help disperse its spores.[46] Cordyceps is a genus of ascomycete fungi that includes thousands of species. ...


Some South American frogs in the genus Dendrobates feed primarily on ants and the toxins on their skin may be derived from the ants.[47] Genera Many, about 150+ species within 8 genus The term Poison Dart Frog is the common name given to the group of frogs belonging to the family of Dendrobatae. ...


Brown bears (Ursus arctos) have been found to feed on ants, with as much as 12%, 16%, and 4% of their fecal volume in spring, summer, and autumn, respectively being made up of ants.[48] Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Ursus arctos range map. ...


Many species of mammals such as anteaters, pangolins and several marsupial species in Australia have special adaptations for living on a primary diet of ants. These adaptations include long sticky tongues to pick the ants and strong claws to break into the ant nests. Some South American birds such as the antpittas are also ant predators. Families Cyclopedidae Myrmecophagidae Anteaters are the four mammal species of the suborder Vermilingua commonly known for eating ants and termites. ... Species Manis culionensis Manis gigantea Manis temminckii Manis tricuspis Manis tetradactyla Manis crassicaudata Manis pentadactyla Manis javanica Pangolins (pronounced ) or scaly anteaters are mammals in the order Pholidota. ... This article is about mammals. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Genera Formicarius Chamaeza Pittasoma Grallaria Hylopezus Myrmothera Grallaricula The Formicariidae are a family of smallish passerine bird species of subtropical and tropical Central and South America. ...


Humans and ants

Ants nesting
Ants in a Sumatran rainforest
Ants in a Sumatran rainforest
Ants taking apart a larger insect.
Ants taking apart a larger insect.

Ants are useful for clearing out insect pests and aerating the soil. The use of weaver ants in citrus cultivation in southern China is one of the oldest known uses of biological control.[26] On the other hand, they can become annoyances when they invade homes, yards, gardens and fields. Carpenter ants damage wood by hollowing it out for nesting. Image File history File linksMetadata DirkvdM_ants_on_a_leaf. ... Image File history File linksMetadata DirkvdM_ants_on_a_leaf. ... Image File history File links Rainforestants. ... Image File history File links Rainforestants. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 420 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Taken by self. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 420 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Taken by self. ... Carpet beetle larvae damaging a specimen of Sceliphron destillatorius in an entomological collection A pest is an organism which has characteristics that are regarded as injurious or unwanted. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland Technically, soil forms the pedosphere: the interface between the lithosphere (rocky part of the planet) and the biosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. ... Weaver ants (genus Oecophylla) are social insects belonging to the ant family, known for their communication and nest building behaviour. ... Biological control of pests and diseases Overview A key belief of the organic gardener is that diversity furthers health. ... Species See text. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ...


In some parts of the world large ants, especially army ants, are said to be used as sutures by pressing the wound together and applying ants along it. The ant in defensive attitude seizes the edges in its mandibles and locks in place. The body is then cut off and the head and mandibles can remain in place, closing the wound.[49] There are over 200 known species of army ant, divided into New World and Old World types. ... It has been suggested that suture material be merged into this article or section. ...


Some species, called killer ants, have a tendency to attack much larger animals during foraging or in defending their nests. Attacks on humans are rare, but the stings and bites can be quite painful and in large enough numbers can be disabling. Killer ant is a term to describe any of several species of ants that are predatory, attack en masse when their mounds are disturbed, and can kill animals many times their size, even deer if they are immobilized. ...


The Masai of Africa had an abiding respect for the Siafu ants, voracious predators that consume a large amount of insects and are welcomed for the benefit they bring to farmers, as they will eliminate all pests from a crop and quickly move on. Masai can refer to Maasai, also known as Masai, the name of an African ethnic group from Kenya and Tanzania Masai, Johor, a suburb of Johor Bahru city This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Driver ants is the term commonly applied to ants of the subfamily Dorylinae. ...


In South Africa, ants are used to help harvest rooibos, Aspalathus linearis, the small seeds of which are used to make a herbal tea.[50] Binomial name (N.L.Burm. ...


Ants as food

Main article: Entomophagy

Ants and their larvae are eaten in different parts of the world. The eggs of two species of ants are the basis for the dish in Mexico known as "escamoles". They are considered a form of insect caviar and can sell as high as $40 USD per pound because they are seasonal and hard to find. In the Colombian department of Santander, hormigas culonas (lit.: "fatass ants") Atta laevigata are toasted alive and eaten.[51] This tradition has come down from the native Guanes. In parts of Thailand, ants are prepared and eaten in various ways. Khorat ant eggs and diced flying ants are eaten as an appetizer. Weaver ant eggs and larvae as well as the ants themselves may be used in a Thai salad, yum (ยำ), in a dish called yum khai mod daeng (ยำไข่มดแดง) or red ant egg salad, a dish that comes from the Issan or north-eastern region of Thailand. Weaver ant queens may also be eaten live, at the time of nest initiation. Entomophagy is the habit of eating insects as food. ... Escamoles are the larvae of ants of the genus Liometopum, harvested from the roots of the agave (tequila) or maguey (mezcal) plant in Mexico. ... Motto: Santandereanos siempre adelante (Spanish: People of Santander always ahead) Anthem: Himno de Santander Santander shown in red Established May 13, 1857 Region Andes Region Capital Bucaramanga Number of Provinces 8 Number of Municipalities 87 Governor - Governors Political Party Hugo Heliodoro Aguilar Naranjo Civic Peoples Convergence Area Total... Binomial name Atta laevigata F. Smith, 1860 The Fatass ant, Atta laevigata, is an edible ant specie (see entomophagy) mainly found in north-eastern Colombia in the Department of Santander. ... The Guanes were a South American people that lived mainly in the area of Santander and north of Boyacá, both modern departments of Colombia. ... Statue of Thao Suranaree in Khorat city centre Nakhon Ratchasima (often called Khorat) is a town in the north-east of Thailand, the Isan. ... Crudités variés, a typical hors dÅ“uvre in French cuisine Hors dÅ“uvre, (IPA: French but often in English as ; French plural: hors dÅ“uvre, without an extra s; English plural often hors dÅ“uvres), also known as appetizer(s), refer to the food served before or outside... Weaver ants (genus Oecophylla) are social insects belonging to the ant family, known for their communication and nest building behaviour. ...


Charles Thomas Bingham notes that in parts of India, and throughout Burma and Siam, a paste of the green weaver ant, Oecophylla smaragdina, is served as a condiment with curry. Saville Kent, in the Naturalist in Australia wrote "Beauty, in the case of the green ant, is more than skin-deep. Their attractive, almost sweetmeat-like translucency possibly invited the first essays at their consumption by the human species." Mashed up in water, after the manner of lemon squash, "these ants form a pleasant acid drink which is held in high favor by the natives of North Queensland, and is even appreciated by many European palates."[52] Charles Thomas Bingham (April 16, 1848 Ireland – October 18, 1908 West Kensington, London) was an Irish military officer and entomologist. ... For the country formerly called Siam see Thailand SIAM is an acronym for Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. ... Binomial name Oecophylla smaragdina Fabricius, 1775 Oecophylla smaragdina (common names include weaver ant, green tree ant and orange gaster) is a species of arboreal ant found in Asia and Australasia. ... This article is about the dish. ...


John Muir, in his First Summer in the Sierra notes that the Digger Indians of California ate the tickly acid gasters of the large jet-black carpenter ants. The Mexican Indians eat the replete workers, or living honey-pots, of the honey ant (Myrmecocystus).[52] For other persons named John Muir, see John Muir (disambiguation). ... Paiute women and children in Yosemite Valley 1891. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


Ants as pests

Modern society considers the ant a pest,[53] and due to the adaptive nature of ant colonies, eliminating them is nearly impossible. Pest control with regard to ants is more a matter of controlling local populations than eliminating an entire colony. Attempts to control ant populations of any kind are temporary solutions.


Typical ants that are classified as pests include pavement ants (otherwise known as the sugar ant), Pharaoh ants, carpenter ants, Argentine ants, and the red imported fire ant. Control of species populations are usually done with bait insecticides, which are either in the form of small granules, or as a sticky liquid that is gathered by the ants as food and then brought back to the nest where the poison is inadvertently spread to other members of the brood — a system that can severely reduce the numbers in a colony if used properly. Boric acid and borax are often used as insecticides that are relatively safe for humans. With the recent insurgence of the red imported fire ant, a tactic called broadcast baiting has been employed, by which the substance (usually a granule bait designed specifically for fire ants) is spread across a large area, such as a lawn, in order to control populations. Nests may be destroyed by tracing the ants' trails back to the nest, then pouring boiling water into it to kill the queen. This works in about 60% of the mounds and needs about 14 litres (3 gallons) per mound.[54] Binomial name Camponotus consobrinus (Erichson, 1842) The sugar ant (Camponotus consobrinus) - also known as the banded sugar ant — is a relatively large ant, exclusive to Australia identifiable by their orange-brown bodies, black head and mandibles. ... Binomial name Linepithema humile Mayr, 1868 Native to Argentina and Brazil, the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile or Iridomyrmex humilis) has spread to many areas around the world like Africa, Australia and many parts of United States, including Texas and California. ... It has been suggested that Fire ant be merged into this article or section. ... Boric acid, also called boracic acid or orthoboric acid or Acidum Boricum, is a mild acid often used as an antiseptic, insecticide, flame retardant, in nuclear power plants to control the fission rate of uranium, and as a precursor of other chemical compounds. ... Borax from Persian burah. ... It has been suggested that ovicide be merged into this article or section. ...


Ants that tend other insects can indirectly cause pest infestations. Many homopteran insects that are considered as horticultural pests are controlled by the use of grease rings on the trunks of the trees. These rings cut off the routes for ants and make the pest species vulnerable to parasites and predators. Suborders Heteroptera Homoptera Hemiptera is an order of insects, comprising some 67,500 known species in two suborders, Heteroptera and Homoptera. ...


Studying ants

Myrmecologists study ants both in the laboratory and in their natural conditions using a number of tools and techniques. Ants are model organisms for the study of sociobiology and the testing of hypotheses such as those based on the theories of kin selection or evolutionarily stable strategies. Ant colonies can be reared or temporarily maintained in specially constructed glass frames for study purposes.[55] For certain kinds of studies it is necessary to identify specific individual ants through the study period and this is achieved by use of colour marking techniques.[56] The use of endoscopes to observe ants inside their nest tunnels is another technique that has been used in the field. Myrmecology is the scientific study of ants, a branch of entomology. ... A model organism is a species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... In evolutionary biology, kin selection refers to changes in gene frequency across generations that are driven at least in part by interactions between related individuals, and this forms much of the conceptual basis of the theory of social evolution. ... In game theory, an evolutionarily stable strategy (or ESS; also evolutionary stable strategy) is a strategy which if adopted by a population cannot be invaded by any competing alternative strategy. ... Endoscopy means looking inside and refers to looking inside the human body for medical reasons. ...


Ant inspired technology

The successful techniques used by ant colonies has been widely studied especially in computer science and robotics to produce distributed and fault-tolerant systems for solving problems. This area of biomimetics has led to studies of ant locomotion, search engines which make use of foraging trails and fault tolerant storage and networking algorithms.[57] (See also Langton's ant and ant colony optimization.) This article or section should be merged with Bionics (engineering) Biomimetics (also known as bionics and biognosis) is the application of methods and systems found in nature to modern technology. ... Langtons ant is a two-dimensional Turing machine with a very simple set of rules, invented by Chris Langton. ... The ant colony optimization algorithm (ACO), introduced by Marco Dorigo [Dor92,DoSt04], is a probabilistic technique for solving computational problems which can be reduced to finding good paths through graphs. ...


Ants in culture

Ants have often been used in fables and children's stories to represent industriousness and cooperative effort, as well as aggressiveness and vindictiveness. They are also mentioned in religious texts.[58][59] In parts of Africa, ants are the messengers of the gods. Ant bites are often said to have curative properties. The sting of some species of Pseudomyrmex is claimed to give fever relief.[60] Some Native American religions, such as Hopi mythology, recognize ants as the very first animals. Others use ant bites in initiation ceremonies as a test of endurance.[61][62] Pseudomyrmex is a genus of insect in family Formicidae. ... Native American spirituality includes a number of stories and legends that are mythological. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Initiation (disambiguation). ...


The Japanese word for ant, ari, is represented by an ideograph formed of the character for insect combined with the character signifying moral rectitude, propriety (giri). So the Japanese character could possibly be read as The Propriety-Insect. Its actual etymology is likely to be different however.[63]


Ant society has always fascinated humans and has been written about both humorously and seriously by writers. Mark Twain wrote about ants in his A Tramp Abroad. In more recent times, animated cartoons and 3D animated movies featuring ants have been produced include Antz, A Bug's Life, The Ant Bully, The Ant and the Aardvark , Atom Ant, and there is a comic book superhero called Ant-Man. Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... Antz is a computer-animated film produced by DreamWorks. ... A Bugs Life is a computer animated film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures and Buena Vista Distribution in the United States on November 25, 1998, in Australia on January 12, 1999 and in the United Kingdom on 5 February 1999. ... The Ant Bully is a computer-animated film produced by Tom Hanks and Gary Goetzmans Playtone, John A. Davis and Keith Alcorns DNA Productions and directed by John A. Davis. ... The Aardvark The Ant The Ant and the Aardvark was a series of theatrical short cartoons produced at DePatie-Freleng Enterprises from 1969 to 1971, depicting the attempts of an unnamed blue aardvark to catch and eat a red ant named Charlie. ... Atom Ant is a cartoon ant and superhero, created by Hanna-Barbera in 1965. ... A comic book is a magazine or book containing the art form of comics. ... Yellowjacket. ...


From the late 1950's through the late 1970's, ant farms were popular educational children's toys in the United States. In the early 1990's, the video game SimAnt, which simulated an ant colony, achieved minor success in the gaming world. Ants tunneling through a formicarium. ... SimAnt is a 1991 life simulation computer game by Maxis focusing on ants. ...


Ants are also quite popular as the inspiration for many science-fiction races, such as the Formics of Ender's Game or the Bugs of Starship Troopers. These races are often referenced as having a hive mind, a common misconception about ant colonies, and benefit from uncommon unity of focus and a willingness for the individual to give their life for the good of the hive. In strategy games, ant-based species often benefit from increased production rates due to their single-minded focus, such as the Klackons in the Master of Orion series of games. For the song from The Rocky Horror Show, see Science Fiction/Double Feature. ... Enders Game (1985) is the best-known novel by Orson Scott Card. ... For other uses, see Starship Troopers (disambiguation). ... A hive mind (sometimes spelled hivemind) is a form of collective consciousness strongly exhibiting traits of conformity and groupthink. ... Strategy games are typically board games, video or computer games with the players decision-making skills having a high significance in determining the outcome. ... Master of Orion (MOO or MoO) is a turn-based science fiction computer strategy game designed by by Steve Barcia, developed by Barcias company Simtex and published by Microprose in 1993. ...


See also

Categories: Stub | Myrmecology ... Families Cyclopedidae Myrmecophagidae Anteaters are the four mammal species of the suborder Vermilingua commonly known for eating ants and termites. ... Ants tunneling through a formicarium. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This is a list and index to the species of ants found in India. ... Myrmecology is the scientific study of ants, a branch of entomology. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Notes and references

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External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Ant
Wikispecies has information related to:
Formicidae
  • All Living Things Images, identification guides, and maps of ants
  • antweb.org Ants of the World
  • antbase.org Info on all types of ants
  • ants.org.uk formicariam design and live webcam
  • myrmecos.net Live ant images
  • Family Formicidae - Ants - BugGuide.Net - Images and other information
  • The Ants Web Site of French Ants (in English)
  • www.antnest.co.uk A website dedicated to myrmecology
  • Cooking of Escamoles
  • Myrmecology Documentary A short documentary about people who study ants
  • antday.de.hm A site about ants
  • [Australian ants on line]Many images, keys and literature.

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Apache Ant - Welcome (591 words)
Some of the core ant tasks such as are now able to process not only file system resources but also zip entries, tar entries, paths,...
Ant 1.7 fixes also a large number of bugs.
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Ants are social insects that live in colonies or nests usually located in the soil near the house foundation, under concrete slabs, in crawlspaces, in structural wood, in the yard or garden, in trees and in other protected places.
New ant colonies are started by a single fertilized queen that lays eggs and tends her brood (larvae and pupae) that develop into worker ants.
Ants present the appearance of running aimlessly about a room and, thus, named "crazy." Workers are about 1/10 inch long, with slender long legs, dark brown to fl in color, one node petiole, the profile of the thorax not evenly rounded, and the abdomen tip has a circular fringe of hairs.
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