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Encyclopedia > Anschluss
This article is part
of the series:
Territorial changes of Germany
Germany
History of Germany
Background
History of German settlement in Eastern Europe
World War I
Treaty of Versailles
Silesian Uprisings
Polish corridor
Interbellum
Return of the Saar region
Rhineland Remilitarization
Anschluss (Austria)
Munich Agreement
World War II
Großdeutschland
Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany
Yalta Conference
Potsdam Conference
Post-World War II
Territorial changes of Germany after World War II
Treaty of Zgorzelec
Treaty of Warsaw
Treaty of Prague
Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany
Recovered Territories
Former eastern territories of Germany
Oder-Neisse line
See also
Territorial changes of Poland
German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938.
German troops march into Austria on 12 March 1938.
The Wehrmacht troops encountered no resistance when entering Austrian territory. In this picture motorized units are shown, with a soldier smoking a cigarette.
The Wehrmacht troops encountered no resistance when entering Austrian territory. In this picture motorized units are shown, with a soldier smoking a cigarette.

The Anschluss[1] (German: connection, or political union), also known as the Anschluss Österreichs, was the 1938 annexation of Austria into Greater Germany by the Nazi regime. // Part of the motivation behind the territorial changes are based on events in the history of Germany and Europe, especially Eastern Europe. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article gives an overview of the History of Germany. ... Historically, large populations of ethnic Germans have been concentrated in Central and Eastern Europe. ... The Palace of Versailles, where the treaty was signed. ... The Silesian Uprisings (Polish: Powstania Å›lÄ…skie) was a series of three military insurections (1919-1921) of the Polish people in the Upper Silesia region against the German/Prussian forces in order to force them out the region and join it with Poland, that regained her independence after the World... A Polish map showing the territory known as the Polish Corridor The Polish Corridor was the name given to a strip of territory which was transferred from Germany to Poland by the Treaty of Versailles in 1919. ... The Saar, corresponding to the current German state of the Saarland, was from governed by the League of Nations under the Treaty of Versailles from 1920 until a plebicite in 1935, when it was returned to Germany. ... The Remilitarization of the Rhineland by the German Army took place on 7 March, 1936 when German forces entered the Rhineland. ... For the annual global security meeting held in Munich, see Munich Conference on Security Policy Chamberlain holds the paper containing the resolution to commit to peaceful methods signed by both Hitler and himself on his return from Germany in September 1938. ... National assembly meeting in St. ... Reichsgau and General Governement in 1941 At the beginning of World War II, significant Polish areas were annexed by Nazi Germany. ... The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ... // Part of the motivation behind the territorial changes are based on events in the history of Germany and Europe, especially Eastern Europe. ... The Treaty of Zgorzelec or the Treaty between the Republic of Poland and the German Democratic Republic concerning the demarcation of the established and existing Polish-German state border was signed in Zgorzelec, Lower Silesia, Poland on July 6, 1950 by the prime ministers Józef Cyrankiewicz of Poland and... The Treaty of Warsaw is a treaty between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... On 11 December 1973, in Prague, the Federal Republic of Germany and Czechoslovakia signed a treaty in which the two States recognised each other diplomatically and declared the 1938 Munich Agreements to be null and void by acknowledging the inviolability of their common borders and abandoning all territorial claims. ... The Treaty on the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany is the final peace treaty negotiated between the Federal Republic of Germany, the German Democratic Republic, and the Four Powers which occupied Germany at the end of World War II in Europe: France, the United Kingdom, the United States and... NOTE: Although the terms Recovered Territories, or Regained Territories have clear meanings in Poland and Polish historiography, they are not accepted terms or concepts outside of Poland, especially in Germany and the other German-speaking countries. ... Former eastern territories of Germany (German: ehemalige deutsche Ostgebiete) describes collectively those provinces or regions east of the Oder-Neisse line which were internationally recognised as part of the territory of Germany after the formation of the German Empire in 1871. ... The Oder-Neisse line (German: , Polish: ) marked the border between German Democratic Republic and Poland between 1950 and 1990. ... Main article: History of Poland In the period following its emergence in the 10th century, the Polish nation was led by a series of strong rulers who converted the Poles to Christianity, created a strong Central European state and integrated Poland into European culture. ... National Archives Source: http://www. ... National Archives Source: http://www. ... March 12 is the 71st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (72nd in leap years). ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Image File history File links Wehrmacht_Anschluss. ... Image File history File links Wehrmacht_Anschluss. ... Image:Wehrmacht 20 April 1939 Birthday Parade. ... Annexation (Latin ad, to, and nexus, joining) is the legal incorporation of some territory into another geo-political entity (either adjacent or non-contiguous). ... National assembly meeting in St. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


The events of March 12, 1938, marked the culmination of historical cross-national pressures to unify the German populations of Austria and Germany under one nation. However, the 1938 Anschluss, regardless of its popularity, was enacted by Germany. Earlier, Hitlerian Germany had provided support for the Austrian National Socialist Party (Austrian Nazi Party) in its bid to seize power from Austria's Austrofascist leadership. Fully devoted to remaining independent but amidst growing pressures, the chancellor of Austria, Kurt Schuschnigg, tried to hold a plebiscite. March 12 is the 71st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (72nd in leap years). ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Austrian National Socialism was a Pan-Germanic movement that was formed at the beginning of the 20th century. ... Supporters of the Austrian Christian Social Party in 1934 Austrofascism is a term which is frequently used to describe the authoritarian rule installed in Austria between 1934 and 1938. ... Kurt Schuschnigg in a propagando manifesto. ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...


Although he expected Austria to vote in favour of maintaining autonomy, a well-planned internal overthrow by the Austrian Nazi Party of Austria's state institutions in Vienna took place on March 11, prior to the vote. With power quickly transferred over to Germany, the Wehrmacht troops entered Austria to enforce the Anschluss. The Nazis held a plebiscite within the following month, where they received 99.73% of the vote. No fighting ever took place and the strongest voices against the annexation, particularly Fascist Italy, France and the United Kingdom (the "Stresa Front"), were powerless or, in case of Italy, appeased. The Allies were, on paper, committed to upholding the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, which specifically prohibited the union of Austria and Germany. A coup détat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government through unconstitutional means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... Austrian National Socialism was a Pan-Germanic movement that was formed at the beginning of the 20th century. ... Vienna (German: , see also other names) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... March 11 is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (71st in leap years). ... Image:Wehrmacht 20 April 1939 Birthday Parade. ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, refers to the right-wing authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... The Stresa Front was an agreement made between French foreign minister Pierre Laval, British prime minister Ramsay MacDonald, and Italian leader Benito Mussolini in April 1935. ... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... The Palace of Versailles, where the treaty was signed. ...


Nevertheless, the Anschluss was among the first major steps in Adolf Hitler's long-desired creation of an empire including German-speaking lands and territories Germany had lost after World War I. Already prior to the 1938 annexation, the Rhineland was retaken and the Saar region was returned to Germany after fifteen years of occupation. After the Anschluss, the predominantly German Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia was taken, with the rest of the country becoming a protectorate to Germany in 1939. That same year, Memelland was returned from Lithuania, the final event and antecedent before the invasion of Poland, prompting World War II. Hitler redirects here. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nikolay II Aleksey Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert H. Asquith D. Lloyd George Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... Saarland is one of the 16 states of Germany. ... Sudetenland (German; Sudety in Czech and Polish) was the name used in the first half of the 20th century for the regions inhabited mostly by Germans in the border areas of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia associated with Bohemia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Klaipėda Region (Memel Region, Memelland) is the name of the coastland of Lithuania around Klaipėda (formerly known as Memel) and the Curonian Lagoon, on the right bank of river Nemunas. ... Combatants Poland Germany, Soviet Union, Slovakia Commanders Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Fedor von Bock (Army Group North), Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group South), Mikhail Kovalov (Belorussian Front), Semyon Timoshenko (Ukrainian Front), Ferdinand ÄŒatloÅ¡ (Field Army Bernolak) Strength 39 divisions, 16 brigades, 4,300 guns, 880 tanks, 400 aircraft, Total: 950... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Austria ceased to exist as a fully independent nation until 1955. A preliminary Austrian government was reinstated on April 27, 1945, and was legally recognized by the Allies in the following months. April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis Powers during the Second World War. ...

Contents

Situation before the Anschluss

The dissolution of Austria-Hungary
 
Border of Austria-Hungary in 1914
 
Borders in 1914
 
Borders in 1920
██ Empire of Austria in 1914 ██ Kingdom of Hungary in 1914 ██ Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1914
Main articles: German Empire and Austrofascism

The idea of grouping all Germans into one state had been the subject of inconclusive debate since the end of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806. Prior to 1866, it was generally thought that the unification of the Germans could only succeed under Austrian leadership, but the rise of Prussia was largely unpredicted. This created a rivalry between the two that made unification through a Großdeutschland solution impossible. Also, due to the multi-ethnic composition of the Austro-Hungarian Empire centralized in Vienna, many rejected this notion and it was unthinkable that Austria would give up her "non-German" territories, let alone submit to Prussia. Nevertheless, a series of wars, including the Austro-Prussian War, led to the expulsion of Austria from German affairs, allowed for the creation of the North German Confederation and consolidated the German states through Prussia, enabling the creation of a German Empire in 1871. Otto von Bismarck played a fundamental role in this process, with the end result representing a Kleindeutsche solution that did not include the German-speaking parts of Austria-Hungary . When the latter broke up in 1918, many German-speaking Austrians hoped to join with Germany in the realignment of Europe, but the Treaty of Versailles (1919) and the Treaty of Saint-Germain of 1919 explicitly vetoed the inclusion of Austria within a German state, because France and Britain feared the power of a larger Germany, and had already begun to disempower the current one. Also Austrian particularism, especially among the nobility, played a huge role, as Austria was Roman Catholic, while Germany was dominated, especially in government, more by Protestants. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1568x970, 903 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1568x970, 903 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire until 1867 and of the Austrian part of Austria-Hungary until 1918. ... The Kingdom of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyar Királyság) is the name of a multiethnic kingdom that existed in Central Europe from 1000 to 1918. ... Motto: Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem: Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Polish (Posen, Lower Silesia,Upper Silesia, Masuria) French (Alsace-Lorraine) Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871... Supporters of the Austrian Christian Social Party in 1934 Austrofascism is a term which is frequently used to describe the authoritarian rule installed in Austria between 1934 and 1938. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... Motto: Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Political structure Duchy, Kingdom, Republic Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I  - 1688–1701 Frederick III King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I  - 1888–1918 William II Prime Minister1,2... National assembly meeting in St. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Combatants Austria, Saxony, Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, Hanover and some minor German States (formerly as the German Confederation) Prussia, Italy, and some minor German States Strength 600,000 Austrians and German allies 500,000 Prussians and German allies 300,000 Italians Casualties 20,000 dead or wounded 37,000 dead... North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund), came into existence in 1867, following the dissolution of the German Confederation. ... Motto: Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem: Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Polish (Posen, Lower Silesia,Upper Silesia, Masuria) French (Alsace-Lorraine) Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871... “Bismarck” redirects here. ... For the German Neighbourhood Kleindeutschland in New York see Little Germany, New York Kleindeutschland (literally Small Germany) was a 19th century political idea postulating the idea of a unified Germany led by Hohenzollern Prussia, with Berlin as capital, and excluding the Austrian Empire. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... The Palace of Versailles, where the treaty was signed. ... The Treaty of Saint-Germain, was signed on 10 September 1919 by the victorious Allies of World War I on the one hand and by the new republic of Austria on the other. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


In the early 1930s, popular support for union with Germany remained overwhelming, and the Austrian government looked to a possible customs union with Germany in 1931. However Hitler's and the Nazis' rise to power in Germany left the Austrian government with little enthusiasm for such formal ties. Hitler, born in Austria, had promoted an "all-German Reich" from the early beginnings of his leadership in the NSDAP and had publicly stated as early as 1924 in Mein Kampf that he would attempt a union, by force if necessary. A customs union is a free trade area with a Common External Tariff. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... The Nazi swastika The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle or My Fight) is the signature work of Adolf Hitler, combining elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers political ideology of Nazism. ...


Austria shared the economic turbulence of post-1929 Europe with a high unemployment rate and unstable commerce and industry. Similar to its northern and southern neighbours these uncertain conditions made the young democracy very vulnerable. The First Republic, dominated from the late 1920s by the Catholic nationalist Christian Social Party (CS), gradually disintegrated from 1933 (dissolution of parliament and ban of the Austrian National Socialists) to 1934 (Austrian Civil War in February and ban of all remaining parties except the CS) and evolved into a pseudo-fascist, corporatist model of one-party government which combined the CS and the paramilitary Heimwehr with absolute state domination of labour relations and no freedom of the press (see Austrofascism and Patriotic Front). Power was centralized in the office of the Chancellor who was empowered to rule by decree. The predominance of the Christian Social Party (whose economic policies were based on the papal encyclical Rerum novarum) was an Austrian phenomenon in that Austria's national identity had strong Catholic elements which were incorporated into the movement by way of clerical authoritarian tendencies which are certainly not to be found in Nazism. Both Engelbert Dollfuss and his successor Kurt Schuschnigg turned to Austria's other fascist neighbour, Italy, for inspiration and support. Indeed, the statist corporatism often referred to as Austrofascism bore more resemblance to Italian Fascism than German National Socialism. Benito Mussolini was able to support the independent aspirations of the Austrian dictatorship until his need for German support in Ethiopia forced him into a client relationship with Berlin that began with the 1937 Berlin-Rome Axis. Around the world there have been a number of First Republics: French First Republic - 1792 First Spanish Republic First Philippine Republic In Italy the term First Republic is used informally to refer to the period up to 1991, when a series of scandals (mainly bribery) hit many politicians. ... The Christian Social Party (CS) was an Austrian political party from 1893 to 1933 and a predecessor of the contemporary Austrian Peoples Party. ... The Austrian Civil War, also known as the February Uprising, is a term sometimes used for a few days of skirmishes between socialist and fascist forces between 12 February and 16 February 1934 in Austria. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... The term corporatism has different meanings in different contexts. ... The Heimwehr (German Home Guard) were a Nationalist, initially paramilitary grouping, operating within Austria during the 1920s and 1930s; they were similar in methods, organisation, and ideology to Germanys Freikorp. ... The field of labor relations looks at the relationship between management and groups of workers represented by a labor union. ... Freedom of the press (or press freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public press for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ... Supporters of the Austrian Christian Social Party in 1934 Austrofascism is a term which is frequently used to describe the authoritarian rule installed in Austria between 1934 and 1938. ... The Vaterländische Front (VF, English: Patriotic Front) was a right-wing Austrian political party. ... The Chancellor of Austria (in German: Bundeskanzler) is the head of government in Austria. ... Rule by decree is a style of governance allowing quick, unchallenged creation of law by a single person or group, and is used primarily by dictators and absolute monarchs. ... The current Pope is Benedict XVI (born Joseph Alois Ratzinger), who was elected at the age of 78 on 19 April 2005. ... An encyclical was a circular letter sent to all the churches of a particular area in the ancient Christian church. ... Rerum Novarum (Translation: Of New Things) is an encyclical issued by Pope Leo XIII on May 15, 1891. ... Engelbert Dollfuss Engelbert Dollfuss (German: Dollfuß) (October 4, 1892, Texing—July 25, 1934, Vienna) was an Austrian statesman, serving as chancellor for two years from 1932 until his assassination in 1934. ... Kurt Schuschnigg in a propagando manifesto. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology and mass movement that seeks to place the nation, defined in exclusive biological, cultural, and historical terms, above all other loyalties, and to create a mobilized national community. ... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


When Chancellor Dollfuss was assassinated by Austrian Nazis on 25 July 1934 in a failed coup, the second civil war within only one year followed, lasting until August 1934. Afterwards, many leading Austrian Nazis fled to Germany and continued to coordinate their actions from there while the remaining Austrian Nazis started to make use of terrorist attacks against the Austrian governmental institutions (causing a death toll of more than 800 between 1934 and 1938). Dollfuss' successor Schuschnigg, who followed the political course of Dollfuss, took drastic actions against the Nazis, for instance the rounding up of Nazis (but also Social Democrats) in internment camps. Austrian National Socialism was a Pan-Germanic movement that was formed at the beginning of the 20th century. ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The word internment is generally used to refer to the imprisonment or confinement of people, generally in prison camps or prisons, without due process of law and a trial. ...


The Anschluss of 1938

Hitler's first moves

Alfred Jansa was forced to retire as Chief of Staff in January 1938
Alfred Jansa was forced to retire as Chief of Staff in January 1938

In early 1938, Hitler had consolidated his power in Germany and was ready to reach out to fulfil his long-planned expansion. After a lengthy period of pressure by Germany, Hitler met Schuschnigg on 12 February 1938 in Berchtesgaden (Bavaria) and instructed him to lift the ban of political parties, reinstate full party freedoms, release all imprisoned members of the Nazi party and let them participate in the government. Otherwise, he would take military action. Schuschnigg complied with Hitler's demands and appointed Arthur Seyss-Inquart, a pro Nazi lawyer, as Interior Minister and another Nazi, Edmund Glaise-Horstenau, as Minister, even without a portfolio.[2] Alfred Jansa 1935 Source: http://www. ... Alfred Jansa 1935 Source: http://www. ... February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Berchtesgaden is a town in the German Bavarian Alps. ... The geographic region and Free State of Bavaria (German: Freistaat Bayern), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Arthur Seyss-Inquart Arthur Seyss-Inquart (born Arthur Zajtich, officially (German) Arthur Seyß-Inquart) (July 22, 1892 – October 16, 1946) was a prominent Nazi official in Austria and for wartime Germany in Poland and the Netherlands. ... The Interior Minister is a member of a Cabinet in a Government. ... Edmund Glaise-Horstenau(1882-1946) was an Austrian Officer in the Bundesheer and General in the Wehrmacht during the second world war. ... A Minister without Portfolio is a government minister with no specific responsibilities. ...


Before the February meeting, Schuschnigg was already under considerable pressure from Germany. This may be seen in the demand to remove the chief of staff of the Austrian Army, Alfred Jansa, from his position in January 1938. Jansa and his staff had developed a scenario for Austria's defense against a German attack, a situation Hitler wanted to avoid at all costs. Schuschnigg subsequently complied with the demand.[3] In 1955, Austria declared her Everlasting Neutrality and made neutrality a constitutional law. ... Alfred Jansa in 1935 Feldmarschalleutnant Alfred Johann Theophil Jansa von Tannenau, (born July 16, 1884, Stanislawow - December 20, 1963, Vienna) was an Austrian Army Officer. ...


During the following weeks, Schuschnigg realized that his newly appointed ministers were working to take over his authority. Schuschnigg tried to gather support throughout Austria and inflame patriotism among the people. For the first time since 12 February 1934 (the time of the Austrian Civil War), socialists and communists could legally appear in public again. The communists announced their unconditional support for the Austrian government, understandable in light of Nazi pressure on Austria. The socialists demanded further concessions from Schuschnigg before they were willing to side with him. This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Austrian Civil War, also known as the February Uprising, is a term sometimes used for a few days of skirmishes between socialist and fascist forces between 12 February and 16 February 1934 in Austria. ... This article is about communism as a form of society, as an ideology advocating that form of society, and as a popular movement. ... Socialism is any economic system in which the means of production are owned and controlled collectively or a political philosophy advocating such a system. ...


Schuschnigg announces a referendum

On 9 March, as a last resort to preserve Austria's independence, Schuschnigg scheduled a plebiscite on the independence of Austria for 13 March. To secure a large majority in the referendum, Schuschnigg set the minimum voting age at 24 in order to exclude younger voters who largely sympathized with Nazi ideology. Holding a referendum was a highly risky gamble for Schuschnigg, and, on the next day, it became apparent that Hitler would not simply stand by while Austria declared its independence by public vote. Hitler declared that the plebiscite would be subject to major fraud and that Germany would not accept it. In addition, the German Ministry of Propaganda issued press reports that riots had broken out in Austria and that large parts of the Austrian population were calling for German troops to restore order. Schuschnigg immediately publicly replied (truthfully) that the reports of riots were completely false. March 9 is the 68th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (69th in Leap years). ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... March 13 is the 72nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (73rd in leap years). ...


Hitler sent an ultimatum to Schuschnigg on 11 March, demanding that he hand over all power to the Austrian National Socialists or face an invasion. The ultimatum was set to expire at noon, but was extended by two hours. However, without waiting for an answer, Hitler had already signed the order to send troops into Austria at one o'clock, issuing it to Hermann Göring only hours later. An ultimatum (Latin: ) is a demand whose fulfillment is requested in a specified period of time and which is backed up by a threat to be followed through in case of noncompliance. ... Kurt Schuschnigg (14 December 1897 in Riva del Garda, Austria-Hungary – 18 November 1977 in Mutters, Austria; Kurt von Schuschnigg until 1919) was an Austrian politician who in 1934 succeeded the assassinated Engelbert Dollfuss as dictator of Austria, as leader of the regime often called Austrofascism. ... March 11 is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (71st in leap years). ... Austrian National Socialism was a Pan-Germanic movement that was formed at the beginning of the 20th century. ...   (also Goering in English) (January 12, 1893 – October 15, 1946) was a German politician and military leader, a leading member of the Nazi Party, second in command of the Third Reich, and commander of the Luftwaffe. ...


Schuschnigg desperately sought support for Austrian independence in the hours following the ultimatum, but, realizing that neither France nor the United Kingdom was willing to take steps, he resigned as Chancellor that evening. In the radio broadcast in which he announced his resignation, he argued that he accepted the changes and allowed the Nazis to take over the government in order to avoid bloodshed. Meanwhile, Austrian President Wilhelm Miklas refused to appoint Seyss-Inquart Chancellor and asked other Austrian politicians such as Michael Skubl and Sigismund Schilhawsky to assume the office. However, the Nazis were well organised. Within hours they managed to take control of many parts of Vienna, including the Ministry of Internal Affairs (controlling the Police). As Miklas continued to refuse to appoint a Nazi government and Seyss-Inquart still could not send a telegram in the name of the Austrian government demanding German troops to restore order, Hitler became furious. At about 10 PM, well after Hitler had signed and issued the order for the invasion, Göring and Hitler gave up on waiting and published a forged telegram containing a request by the Austrian Government for German troops to enter Austria. Around midnight, after nearly all critical offices and buildings had fallen into Nazi hands in Vienna and the main political party members of the old government had been arrested, Miklas finally conceded to appoint Seyss-Inquart Chancellor.[3] Born October 15th, 1872 Wilhelm Miklas studied history and geography at the University of Vienna while serving in his role for the Christian Social Party. ... Arthur Seyß-Inquart (born Arthur Zajtich) (July 22, 1892 - October 16, 1946) was a prominent Nazi official in Austria and for wartime Germany in Poland and the Netherlands. ...


German troops march into Austria

Propaganda even in the voting booth on 10 April 1938, with a poster instructing voters how to vote "Ja", i.e. "Yes".
Propaganda even in the voting booth on 10 April 1938, with a poster instructing voters how to vote "Ja", i.e. "Yes".

On the morning of 12 March, the 8th Army of the German Wehrmacht crossed the German-Austrian border. They did not face resistance by the Austrian Army—on the contrary, the German troops were greeted by cheering Austrians. Although the invading forces were badly organized and coordination between the units was poor, it mattered little because no fighting took place. It did, however, serve as a warning to German commanders in future military operations, such as that against Czechoslovakia. Image File history File links Voting-booth-Anschluss-10-April-1938. ... Image File history File links Voting-booth-Anschluss-10-April-1938. ... April 10 is the 100th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (101st in leap years). ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... March 12 is the 71st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (72nd in leap years). ... Image:Wehrmacht 20 April 1939 Birthday Parade. ... In 1955, Austria declared her Everlasting Neutrality and made neutrality a constitutional law. ...


Hitler's car crossed the border in the afternoon at Braunau, his birthplace. In the evening, he arrived at Linz and was given an enthusiastic welcome in the city hall. The atmosphere was so intense that Göring, in a telephone call that evening, stated: "There is unbelievable jubilation in Austria. We ourselves did not think that sympathies would be so intense." Braunau am Inn is a city in the Innviertel (River Inn area) of Upper Austria (Ober sterreich), the north-western province of Austria. ... Map of Austria, locating Linz Linz is a city and Statutarstadt in northeast Austria, on the Danube river. ...


Hitler's further travel through Austria changed into a triumphal tour that climaxed in Vienna, when around 200,000 Austrians gathered on the Heldenplatz (Square of Heroes) to hear Hitler proclaim the Austrian Anschluss.[4]. Hitler later commented: "Certain foreign newspapers have said that we fell on Austria with brutal methods. I can only say: even in death they cannot stop lying. I have in the course of my political struggle won much love from my people, but when I crossed the former frontier (into Austria) there met me such a stream of love as I have never experienced. Not as tyrants have we come, but as liberators."[5] Vienna (German: , see also other names) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... Heldenplatz in Vienna The Heldenplatz (Heroes Square) is a historical plaza in Vienna, where in 1938, Adolf Hitler announced the Anschluss of Austria to the German Reich. ...

Voting ballot from 10 April 1938. The ballot text reads "Do you agree with the reunification of Austria with the German Empire that was enacted on 13 March 1938, and do you vote for the party of our leader Adolf Hitler?," the large circle is labelled "Yes," the smaller "No."
Voting ballot from 10 April 1938. The ballot text reads "Do you agree with the reunification of Austria with the German Empire that was enacted on 13 March 1938, and do you vote for the party of our leader Adolf Hitler?," the large circle is labelled "Yes," the smaller "No."

The Anschluss was given immediate effect by legislative act on 13 March, subject to ratification by a plebiscite. Austria became the province of Ostmark, and Seyss-Inquart was appointed Governor. The plebiscite was held on 10 April and officially recorded a support of 99.73% of the voters.[6] self scan (see german wikipedia) File links The following pages link to this file: Anschluss ... self scan (see german wikipedia) File links The following pages link to this file: Anschluss ... April 10 is the 100th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (101st in leap years). ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... March 13 is the 72nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (73rd in leap years). ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... March 13 is the 72nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (73rd in leap years). ... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ... Ostmark (Eastern March) is a modern German term to translate the term Ostarrîchi a vernacular for marcia orientalis that appears in a single later 10th century document. ... April 10 is the 100th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (101st in leap years). ...


While historians concur that the result itself was not manipulated, the voting process was neither free nor secret. Officials were present directly beside the voting booths and received the voting ballot by hand (in contrast to a secret vote where the voting ballot is inserted into a closed box). In addition, Hitler's brutal methods to emasculate any opposition had been immediately implemented in the weeks preceding the referendum. Even before the first German soldier crossed the border, Heinrich Himmler and a few SS officers landed in Vienna to arrest prominent representatives of the First Republic such as Richard Schmitz, Leopold Figl, Friedrich Hillegeist and Franz Olah. During the weeks following the Anschluss (and before the plebiscite), Social Democrats, Communists, and other potential political dissenters, as well as Jews, were rounded up and either imprisoned or sent to concentration camps. Within only a few days of 12 March, 70,000 people had been arrested. The referendum itself was subject to large-scale propaganda and to the abrogation of the voting rights of around 400,000 people (nearly 10% of the eligible voting population), mainly former members of left-wing parties and Jews.[6] Interestingly, in some remote areas of Austria the referendum on the independence of Austria on 13 March was held despite the Wehrmacht's presence in Austria (it took up to 3 days to occupy every part of Austria). For instance, in the village of Innervillgraten a majority of 95% voted for Austria's independence.[2]   (October 7, 1900 – May 23, 1945) was the commander of the German Schutzstaffel (SS) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany. ... SS or ss or Ss may be: The Schutzstaffel, a Nazi paramilitary force Steamship (SS) (ship prefix) The United States Secret Service A submarine not powered by nuclear energy (SS) (United States Navy designator), see SSN A Soviet/Russian surface-to-surface missile, as listed by NATO reporting name Shortstop... Richard Schmitz (died 1938?) was the last Christian Socialist mayor of Vienna, Austria. ... Leopold Figl (October 2, 1902 in Rust, Lower Austria, - May 9, 1965 in Vienna) was an Austrian politician of the ÖVP (Christian Democrats). ... March 12 is the 71st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (72nd in leap years). ... March 13 is the 72nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (73rd in leap years). ... Image:Wehrmacht 20 April 1939 Birthday Parade. ... The Bezirk Lienz is an administrative district (Bezirk) in Tyrol, Austria. ...


Austria remained part of the Third Reich until the end of World War II when a preliminary Austrian Government declared the Anschluss "null und nichtig" (null and void) on April 27, 1945. After the war, then allied-occupied Austria was recognized and treated as a separate country, but was not restored to sovereignty until the Austrian State Treaty and Austrian Declaration of Neutrality, both of 1955, largely due to the rapid development of the Cold War and disputes between the Soviet Union and its former allies over its foreign policy. Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Look up null in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Null and Void was a comedy television show that ran on UUTV (later called HillTV), the student-run television station at Syracuse University in New York. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme political (e. ... Occupation zones in Austria, 1945-1955 The Austrian Independence Treaty (complete form: Treaty for the re-establishment of an independent and democratic Austria, signed in Vienna on the 15 May 1955), more commonly referred to as the Austrian State Treaty (German Staatsvertrag), was signed on May 15, 1955 in Vienna... The Declaration of Neutrality was a declaration by the Austrian Parliament declaring the country permanently neutral. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


Reactions and consequences of the Anschluss

Social Democrat Karl Renner publicly announced his support for the Anschluss
Social Democrat Karl Renner publicly announced his support for the Anschluss

The picture of Austria in the first days of its existence in the Third Reich is one of contradictions: at one and the same time, Hitler's terror regime began to tighten its grip in every area of society, beginning with mass arrests and thousands of Austrians attempting to flee in every direction; yet Austrians could be seen cheering and welcoming German troops entering Austrian territory. Many Austrian political figures did not hesitate to announce their support of the Anschluss and their relief that it happened without violence. Headshot of Karl Renner File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Headshot of Karl Renner File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


Cardinal Theodor Innitzer (a political figure of the CS) declared as early as 12 March: "The Viennese Catholics should thank the Lord for the bloodless way this great political change has occurred, and they should pray for a great future for Austria. Needless to say, everyone should obey the orders of the new institutions." The other Austrian bishops followed suit some days later. Vatican Radio, however, immediately broadcast a vehement denunciation of the German action, and Cardinal Pacelli, the Vatican Secretary of State, ordered Innitzer to report to Rome. Before meeting with the pope, Innitzer met with Pacelli, who had been outraged by Innitzer's statement. He made it clear that Innitzer needed to retract; he was made to sign a new statement, issued on behalf of all the Austrian bishops, which provided: “The solemn declaration of the Austrian bishops ... was clearly not intended to be an approval of something that was not and is not compatible with God's law”. The Vatican newspaper also reported that the bishops' earlier statement had been issued without the approval from Rome. Theodor Cardinal Innitzer (born December 25, 1875 in Neugeschrei near Weipert, Northern Bohemia; died October 9, 1955 in Vienna) was Archbishop of Vienna and a Cardinal of the Catholic Church. ... March 12 is the 71st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (72nd in leap years). ... Administration building and radio masts at Vatican City Vatican Radio is the official broadcasting service of the Vatican. ... The Venerable Pius XII, born Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Eugenio Pacelli (Rome, March 2, 1876 - October 9, 1958) served as the Pope from March 2, 1939 to 1958. ... The Cardinal Secretary of State presides over the Vatican Secretariat of State, which is the oldest and most important dicastery of the Roman Curia. ...


Robert Kauer, President of the Protestants in Austria, greeted Hitler on 13 March as "saviour of the 350,000 German Protestants in Austria and liberator from a five-year hardship." Even Karl Renner, the most famous Social Democrat of the First Republic, announced his support for the Anschluss and appealed to all Austrians to vote in favour of it on 10 April.[2] Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... March 13 is the 72nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (73rd in leap years). ... Karl Renner Monument to Karl Renner next to the Austrian Parliament, Ringstraße, Vienna, Austria Karl Renner (December 14, 1870 - December 31, 1950) was an Austrian politician. ... April 10 is the 100th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (101st in leap years). ...


The international response to the expansion of Germany may be described as moderate. The Times commented that 200 years ago Scotland had joined England as well and that this event would not really differ much. On 14 March, the British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain noted in the House of Commons: The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1785, and under its current name since 1788. ... For the Lebanese political coalition, see March 14 Alliance. ... In the United Kingdom, the Prime Minister is the head of government, exercising many of the executive functions nominally vested in the Sovereign, who is head of state. ... Arthur Neville Chamberlain(18 March 1869 – 9 November 1940), known as Neville Chamberlain, was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1937 to 1940. ... The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ...

British appeasement policy led to the Treaty of Munich, the next major step for Hitler to create an all-German Reich
British appeasement policy led to the Treaty of Munich, the next major step for Hitler to create an all-German Reich

His Majesty's Government have throughout been in the closest touch with the situation. The Foreign Secretary saw the German Foreign Minister on the 10th of March and addressed to him a grave warning on the Austrian situation and upon what appeared to be the policy of the German Government in regard to it.... Late on the 11th of March our Ambassador in Berlin registered a protest in strong terms with the German Government against such use of coercion, backed by force, against an independent State in order to create a situation incompatible with its national independence. Chamberlain on his return from Munich, waves the infamous piece of paper containing the resolution to committ to peaceful methods signed by both Hitler and himself. ... Chamberlain on his return from Munich, waves the infamous piece of paper containing the resolution to committ to peaceful methods signed by both Hitler and himself. ... Appeasement is a policy of accepting the imposed conditions of an aggressor in lieu of armed resistance, usually at the sacrifice of principles. ... The Munich Agreement was an agreement regarding the Munich Crisis between the major powers of Europe after a conference held in Munich in Germany in 1938 and concluded on September 29. ...

However the speech concluded:

I imagine that according to the temperament of the individual the events which are in our minds to-day will be the cause of regret, of sorrow, perhaps of indignation. They cannot be regarded by His Majesty's Government with indifference or equanimity. They are bound to have effects which cannot yet be measured. The immediate result must be to intensify the sense of uncertainty and insecurity in Europe. Unfortunately, while the policy of appeasement would lead to a relaxation of the economic pressure under which many countries are suffering to-day, what has just occurred must inevitably retard economic recovery and, indeed, increased care will be required to ensure that marked deterioration does not set in. This is not a moment for hasty decisions or for careless words. We must consider the new situation quickly, but with cool judgement... As regards our defence programmes, we have always made it clear that they were flexible and that they would have to be reviewed from time to time in the light of any development in the international situation. It would be idle to pretend that recent events do not constitute a change of the kind that we had in mind. Accordingly we have decided to make a fresh review, and in due course we shall announce what further steps we may think it necessary to take.[7]

The moderate reaction to the Anschluss was the first major consequence of the strictly followed appeasement British foreign policy strategy. The international reaction to the events of March 12, 1938 led Hitler to conclude that he could use even more aggressive tactics in his roadmap to expand the Third Reich, as he would later in annexing the Sudetenland. The relatively bloodless Anschluss helped pave the way for the Treaty of Munich in September 1938 and the annexation of Czechoslovakia in 1939, because it reinforced appeasement as the right way for Britain to deal with Hitler's Germany. Appeasement is a policy of accepting the imposed conditions of an aggressor in lieu of armed resistance, usually at the sacrifice of principles. ... March 12 is the 71st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (72nd in leap years). ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Sudetenland (German; Sudety in Czech and Polish) was the name used in the first half of the 20th century for the regions inhabited mostly by Germans in the border areas of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia associated with Bohemia. ... The Munich Agreement was an agreement regarding the Munich Crisis between the major powers of Europe after a conference held in Munich in Germany in 1938 and concluded on September 29. ...


Legacy of the 1938 Anschluss

The Anschluss: annexation or union?

Some historical sources, for instance, Encyclopædia Britannica, describe the Anschluss as an "annexation".[8] Outside this context "Anschluss" is properly translated as "join", "connection", "unification" or "political union". The German word "Annektierung" would mean military annexation unambiguously. However, the word commonly used in German for the process of spring 1938 is Anschluss. The precise character of the Anschluss remains a difficulty essential to Austria's understanding of its history and the obligations it entails. The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general encyclopedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. ...


The appeal of Nazism to Austrians

The Anschluss can be misunderstood as merely a military annexation of an unwilling Austria, but this lends itself to confusion with other German military occupations of European countries. Despite the subversion of Austrian political process by Hitler's sympathisers and associates in Austria, Austrian acceptance of direct government by Hitler's Germany was a very different phenomenon from the administration of other collaborationist countries.


With the break-up of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy in 1918, popular opinion was for unification with Germany, in realization of the Grossdeutschland concept. However, unification was forbidden by the Treaty of St. Germain, to which the newly formed Austrian republic was obliged. This was in stark contrast to the general concept of self-determination which governed the Versailles talks, as was the inclusion of the Sudetenland, a German-populated area of the former Austro-Hungarian province of Bohemia (whose population favoured joining German-speaking Austria), in the newly formed Czechoslovak republic, giving rise to revisionist sentiment. This laid the grounds for the general willingness of the populations of both Austria and the Sudetenland for inclusion into the Third Reich, as well as the relative acceptance of other European powers, who made little protest until March 1939, when the irredentist argument lost its value following the annexation of the rest of Czech-speaking Bohemia, as well as Moravia and Czech Silesia. Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... For information on the military unit see Großdeutschland Division. ... The Treaty of Saint-Germain, was signed on 10 September 1919 by the victorious Allies of World War I on the one hand and by the new republic of Austria on the other. ... Self-determination is a principle in international law that a people ought to be able to determine their own governmental forms and structure free from outside influence. ... The Palace of Versailles, where the treaty was signed. ... Sudetenland (German; Sudety in Czech and Polish) was the name used in the first half of the 20th century for the regions inhabited mostly by Germans in the border areas of Bohemia, Moravia, and those parts of Silesia associated with Bohemia. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Warning: Value not specified for common_name Motto: Czech: Pravda vítÄ›zí (Truth prevails; 1918-1989) Latin: Veritas Vincit (Truth prevails; 1989-1992) Anthem: Kde domov můj and Nad Tatrou sa blýska Capital Prague Language(s) Czech, Slovak Government Republic President  - 1918-1935 Tomáš Masaryk  - 1989-1992 V... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... irredentism is position advocating annexation of territories administered by another state on the grounds of common ethnicity and/or prior historical possession, actual or alleged. ...

Nazi propaganda poster
Nazi propaganda poster

The small Republic of Austria was seen by many of its citizens as economically nonviable, a feeling that was exacerbated by the Depression of the 1930s. In contrast, the Nazi dictatorship appeared to have found a solution to the economic crisis of the 1930s. Furthermore, the break-up had thrown Austria into a crisis of identity, and many Austrians, of both the left and the right, felt that Austria should be part of a larger German nation. Image File history File links Grossdeutschland. ... Image File history File links Grossdeutschland. ... The Great Depression was a worldwide economic downturn which started in October of 1929 and lasted through most of the 1930s. ...


Politically, Austria had not had the time to develop a strongly democratic society to resist the onslaught of totalitarianism. The final version of the First Republic's constitution had only lasted from 1929 to 1933. The First Republic was ridden by violent strife between the different political camps; the Christian Social Party were complicit in the murder of large numbers of adherents of the decidedly left-wing Social Democratic Party by the police during the July Revolt of 1927. In fact, with the end of democracy in 1933 and the establishment of Austrofascism, Austria had already purged its democratic institutions and instituted a dictatorship long before the Anschluss. There is thus little to distinguish radically the institutions of, at least the post-1934 Austrian government, before or after 12 March 1938. Totalitarianism is a term employed by political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... Around the world there have been a number of First Republics: French First Republic - 1792 First Spanish Republic First Philippine Republic In Italy the term First Republic is used informally to refer to the period up to 1991, when a series of scandals (mainly bribery) hit many politicians. ... The Christian Social Party (CS) was an Austrian political party from 1893 to 1933 and a predecessor of the contemporary Austrian Peoples Party. ... The Social Democratic Party of Austria (German: Sozialdemokratische Partei Österreichs, or SPÖ) is one of the oldest political parties in Austria. ... During the Austrian July Revolt of 1927, 85 protesters were killed by Austrian police forces, while four policemen died, on July 15, 1927. ... Supporters of the Austrian Christian Social Party in 1934 Austrofascism is a term which is frequently used to describe the authoritarian rule installed in Austria between 1934 and 1938. ... March 12 is the 71st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (72nd in leap years). ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The members of the leading Christian Social Party were fervent Catholics, but not particularly anti-Semitic. For instance, Jews were not prohibited from exercising any profession, in sharp contrast to the Third Reich. Many prominent Austrian scientists, professors, and lawyers at the time were Jewish; in fact Vienna, with its Jewish population of about 200,000, was considered a safe haven from 1933 to 1938 by many Jews who fled Nazi Germany. However, the Nazis' anti-Semitism found fertile soil in Austria. Anti-Semitic elements had emerged as a force in Austrian politics in the late nineteenth century, with the rise in prominence of figures such as Georg Ritter von Schönerer and Karl Lueger (who had influenced the young Hitler) and, in the 1930s, anti-Semitism was rampant, as Jews were a convenient scapegoat for economic problems. The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Vienna (German: , see also other names) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... A safe haven is any security or other investment that loses none or little of its value in case of a market crash. ... Georg Ritter von Schönerer Georg Ritter von Schönerer (July 17, 1842-August 14, 1921) was an Austrian politician active in the late 1800s and early 1900s. ... Karl Lueger Karl Lueger (IPA ) (October 24, 1844-March 10, 1910) was an Austrian politician and mayor of Vienna, known for his overtly anti-semitic and racist policies, as well as his skills as an administrator. ...


In addition to the economic appeal of the Anschluss, the popular underpinning of Nazi politics as a total art form (the refinement of film propaganda exemplified by Riefenstahl's Triumph of the Will and mythological aestheticism of a broadly conceived national destiny of the German people within a "Thousand-Year Reich") gave the Nazis a massive advantage in advancing their claims to power. Moreover Austrofascism was less grand in its appeal than the choice between Stalin and Hitler to which many European intellectuals of the time believed themselves reduced by the end of the decade. Austria had effectively no alternative view of its historical mission when the choice was upon it. In spite of Dollfuss' and Schuschnigg's hostility to Nazi political ambitions, the Nazis succeeded in convincing many Austrians to accept what they viewed as the historical destiny of the German people rather than continue as part of a distinctly sovereign state. Riefenstahl, 1931 Helene Bertha Amalie Leni Riefenstahl (August 22, 1902 – September 8, 2003) was a German film director, dancer and actress, and widely noted for her aesthetics and advances in film technique. ... Triumph of the Will (German: Triumph des Willens) is a propaganda film by the German filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl. ... The Aesthetic movement is a loosely defined movement in art and literature in later nineteenth-century Britain. ... A stereotypical German The Germans (German: die Deutschen), or the German people, are a nation in the meaning an ethnos (in German: Volk), defined more by a sense of sharing a common German culture and having a German mother tongue, than by citizenship or by being subjects to any particular... Supporters of the Austrian Christian Social Party in 1934 Austrofascism is a term which is frequently used to describe the authoritarian rule installed in Austria between 1934 and 1938. ...


The Second Republic

The Moscow Declaration

Arthur Seyss-Inquart 1945 mugshot for the Nuremberg Trials.
Arthur Seyss-Inquart 1945 mugshot for the Nuremberg Trials.

The Moscow Declaration of 1943, signed by the United States, the Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom included a "Declaration on Austria," which stated the following: Mugshot of Arthur Seyss-Inquart, taken in 1945. ... Mugshot of Arthur Seyss-Inquart, taken in 1945. ... Arthur Seyss-Inquart Arthur Seyss-Inquart (born Arthur Zajtich, officially (German) Arthur Seyß-Inquart) (July 22, 1892 – October 16, 1946) was a prominent Nazi official in Austria and for wartime Germany in Poland and the Netherlands. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... The Süddeutsche Zeitung announces The Verdict in Nuremberg. ... The Moscow Declaration declared that the annexation (Anschluss) of Austria by Germany was illegal. ...

The governments of the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States of America are agreed that Austria, the first free country to fall a victim to Hitlerite aggression, shall be liberated from German domination.


They regard the annexation imposed on Austria by Germany on 15 March 1938, as null and void. They consider themselves as in no way bound by any charges affected in Austria since that date. They declare that they wish to see re-established a free and independent Austria and thereby to open the way for the Austrian people themselves, as well as those neighbouring States which will be faced with similar problems, to find that political and economic security which is the only basis for lasting peace. March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (75th in leap years). ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Austria is reminded, however that she has a responsibility, which she cannot evade, for participation in the war at the side of Hitlerite Germany, and that in the final settlement account will inevitably be taken of her own contribution to her liberation.[9]

To judge from the last paragraph and subsequent determinations at the Nuremberg Trial, the Declaration was intended to serve as propaganda aimed at stirring Austrian resistance (although there are Austrians counted as Righteous Among the Nations, there never was an effective Austrian armed resistance of the sort found in other countries under German occupation) more than anything else, although the exact text of the declaration is said to have a somewhat complex drafting history.[10] At Nuremberg Arthur Seyss-Inquart[11] and Franz von Papen,[12] in particular, were both indicted under count one (conspiracy to commit crimes against peace) specifically for their activities in support of the Austrian Nazi Party and the Anschluss, but neither was convicted of this count. In acquitting von Papen, the court noted that his actions were in its view political immoralities but not crimes under its charter. Seyss-Inquart was convicted of other serious war crimes, most of which took place in Poland and the Netherlands, and was sentenced to death. The Nuremberg Trials is the general name for two sets of trials of Nazis involved in World War II and the Holocaust. ... An Australian anti-conscription propaganda poster from World War One U.S. propaganda poster, which warns against civilians sharing information on troop movements (National Archives) The much-imitated 1914 Lord Kitchener Wants You! poster Swedish Anti-Euro propaganda for the referendum of 2003. ... Righteous Among the Nations (Hebrew: חסידי אומות העולם, Hasidei Umot HaOlam), in contemporary usage, is a term often used to describe non-Jews who risked their lives during the Holocaust in order to save Jews from extermination by the Nazis. ... Arthur Seyss-Inquart Arthur Seyss-Inquart (born Arthur Zajtich, officially (German) Arthur Seyß-Inquart) (July 22, 1892 – October 16, 1946) was a prominent Nazi official in Austria and for wartime Germany in Poland and the Netherlands. ... Franz Joseph Hermann Michael Maria von Papen (29 October 1879 – 2 May 1969) was a German nobleman Catholic politician, General Staff officer, and diplomat, who served as Chancellor of Germany in 1932. ...


Austrian identity and the "victim theory"

Heldenplatz, "Day of the Austrian legion," 2 April 1938.
Heldenplatz, "Day of the Austrian legion," 2 April 1938.

After World War II, many Austrians sought comfort in the myth of Austria as "the Nazis' first victim". Although the Nazi party was promptly banned, Austria did not have the same thorough process of de-Nazification at the top of government which was imposed on Germany for a time. Lacking outside pressure for political reform, factions of Austrian society tried for a long time to advance the view that the Anschluss was only an annexation at the point of a bayonet. Heldenplatz 2. ... Heldenplatz 2. ... April 2 is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 273 days remaining. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


This view of the events of 1938 has deep roots in the ten years of Allied occupation and the struggle to regain Austrian sovereignty: The victim theory played an essential role in the negotiations on the Austrian State Treaty with the Soviets, and by pointing to the Moscow Declaration, Austrian politicians heavily relied on it to achieve a solution for Austria different from the Germany's division into East and West. The State Treaty, alongside with the subsequent Austrian declaration of permanent neutrality, marked important milestones for the solidification of Austria's independent national identity during the course of following decades. Occupation zones in Austria, 1945-1955 The Austrian Independence Treaty (complete form: Treaty for the re-establishment of an independent and democratic Austria, signed in Vienna on the 15 May 1955), more commonly referred to as the Austrian State Treaty (German Staatsvertrag), was signed on May 15, 1955 in Vienna... The Moscow Declaration declared that the annexation (Anschluss) of Austria by Germany was illegal. ... A neutral country takes no side in a war between other parties, and in return hopes to avoid being attacked by either of them. ...


As Austrian politicians of the Left and Right attempted to reconcile their differences in order to avoid the violent conflict that had dominated the First Republic, discussions of both Austrian-Nazism and Austria's role during the Nazi-era were largely avoided. Still, the Austrian People's Party (ÖVP) had advanced, and still advances, the argument that the establishment of the Dollfuss dictatorship was necessary in order to maintain Austrian independence; while the Austrian Social Democratic Party, (SPÖ), argues that the Dollfuss dictatorship stripped the country of the democratic resources necessary to repel Hitler. National Socialism redirects here. ... The Austrian Peoples Party (de:Österreichische Volkspartei, or ÖVP) is an Austrian political party. ... Engelbert Dollfuss Engelbert Dollfuss (German: Dollfuß) (October 4, 1892 - July 25, 1934) was an Austrian politician and dictator. ... The Social Democratic Party of Austria (Sozialdemokratische Partei Österreichs, SPÖ) is a political party in Austria. ... Engelbert Dollfuss Engelbert Dollfuss (German: Dollfuß) (October 4, 1892 - July 25, 1934) was an Austrian politician and dictator. ...


Yet, much of these arguments seem to ignore the following facts:


1. that Hitler himself was indigenous to Austria, and he was not the only Austrian to feel more akin to Germany than to the newly created Austria. Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ...


2. that he was received, not as a conqueror, but as a liberator by many of his ‘fellow countrymen’


3. that there was an undeniable (and ever growing) popular sentiment in Austria, specially after WWI, favoring unification with Germany. [Hitler gives an example of this, even prior to WWI, in Mein Kampf, while remembering his childhood in Austria]

I, too, while still comparatively young, had an opportunity to take part in the struggle of nationalities in old Austria. Collections were taken for the Südmark and the school association; we emphasized our convictions by wearing corn-flowers and red, black, and gold colors; 'Heil' was our greeting, and instead of the imperial anthem we sang 'Deutschland über Alles,' despite warnings and punishments.

[1]


All of this facts tend to erode the soundness of the argument for the “Victim theory”


Political events

For decades, the victim theory established in the Austrian mind remained largely undisputed. The Austrian public was only rarely forced to confront the legacy of the Third Reich (most notably during the events of 1965 concerning Taras Borodajkewycz, a professor of economic history notorious for anti-Semitic remarks, when Ernst Kirchweger, a concentration camp survivor, was killed by a right-wing protester during riots). It was not until the 1980s that Austrians were finally massively confronted with their past. The main catalyst for the start of a Vergangenheitsbewältigung was the so-called Waldheim affair. The Austrian reply to allegations during the 1986 Presidential election campaign that successful candidate and former UN Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim had been a member of the Nazi party and of the infamous SA (he was later absolved of direct involvement in war crimes) was that scrutiny was an unwelcome intervention in the country's internal affairs. Despite the politicians' reactions to international criticism of Waldheim, the Waldheim affair started the first serious major discussion on Austria's past and the Anschluss. Taras (von) Borodajkewycz (born October 1, 1902 in what is today Ukraine, died January 3, 1984 in Vienna), was a former member of the NSDAP and after World War II professor of economic history at the College of World Trade in Vienna (today: Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration). ... Ernst Kirchweger (born 1897 or 1898; died April 3, 1965 in Vienna) was the first person to die as a result of political conflict in Austrias Second Republic. ... Vergangenheitsbewältigung is a composite German word that describes the process of dealing with the past (lit: Vergangenheit = past; Bewältigung = management, coming to terms with, mastering), which is perhaps best rendered in English as struggle to come to terms with the past. (The German word Geschichtsaufarbeitung is more or... Kurt Josef Waldheim (born December 21, 1918) is an Austrian diplomat and conservative politician. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Kurt Josef Waldheim (born December 21, 1918) is an Austrian diplomat and conservative politician. ... The seal of SA The   or SA (German for Storm Division, usually translated as stormtroops or stormtroopers), functioned as a paramilitary organization of the NSDAP — the German Nazi party. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ...


Another main factor for Austria and its coming to terms with the past emerged in the 1980s: Jörg Haider and the rise of the Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ). The party had combined elements of the pan-German right with free-market liberalism since its foundation in 1955, but after Haider had ascended to the party chairmanship in 1986, the liberal elements became increasingly marginalized while Haider began to openly use nationalist and anti-immigrant rhetoric. He was often criticised for tactics such as the völkisch (ethnic) definition of national interest ("Austria for Austrians") and his apologism for Austria's past, notably calling members of the Waffen-SS "men of honour". Following an enormous electoral rise in the 1990s peaking in the 1999 elections, the FPÖ, now purged of its liberal elements, entered a coalition with the Austrian People's Party (ÖVP) led by Wolfgang Schüssel that met international condemnation in 2000. This coalition triggered the regular Donnerstagsdemonstrationen (Thursday demonstrations) in protest against the government, which took place on the Heldenplatz, where Hitler had greeted the masses during the Anschluss. Haider's tactics and rhetoric, which were often criticised as sympathetic to Nazism, again forced Austrians to reconsider their relationship to the past. Jörg Haider in Carinthia (promotional photo) Jörg Haider (born 26 January 1950) is an Austrian politician. ... The Austrian Freedom Party (Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs, abbreviated to FPÖ) is a far-right political party in Austria. ... Pan-Germanism, one of the ethnically-charged political movements of the 19th century for unity of the German-speaking peoples of Europe. ... Waffen-SS recruitment poster; Volunteer to the Waffen-SS The Waffen-SS was the armed wing of the Schutzstaffel. ... In Austria, the legislative election of October 3, 1999 (elections for the National Council of Austria) caused a major upheaval in the political landscape. ... The Austrian Peoples Party (de:Österreichische Volkspartei, or ÖVP) is an Austrian political party. ... Wolfgang Schüssel Wolfgang Schüssel (born on June 7, 1945 in Vienna, Austria) is a Christian Democratic Austrian politician. ... Heldenplatz in Vienna The Heldenplatz (Heroes Square) is a historical plaza in Vienna, where in 1938, Adolf Hitler announced the Anschluss of Austria to the German Reich. ...


But Haider is not alone in making controversial remarks about Austria's past: Haider's coalition partner, former Chancellor Wolfgang Schüssel, in a 2000 interview with the Jerusalem Post stated that Austria was the first victim of Hitler-Germany.[13] Wolfgang Schüssel Wolfgang Schüssel (born on June 7, 1945 in Vienna, Austria) is a Christian Democratic Austrian politician. ... The Jerusalem Post is an Israeli newspaper in the English language. ...


Literature

Tearing into the simplism of the victim theory and the time of the Austrofascism, Thomas Bernhard's last play, Heldenplatz, was highly controversial even before it appeared on stage in 1988, fifty years after Hitler's visit. Bernhard's achievement was to make the elimination of references to Hitler's reception in Vienna emblematic of Austrian attempts to claim their history and culture under questionable criteria. Many politicians from all political factions called Bernhard a Nestbeschmutzer (so. damaging the reputation of his country) and openly demanded that the play should not be staged in Vienna's Burgtheater. Kurt Waldheim, who was at that time still Austrian president called the play a crude insult to the Austrian people.[14] Supporters of the Austrian Christian Social Party in 1934 Austrofascism is a term which is frequently used to describe the authoritarian rule installed in Austria between 1934 and 1938. ... Thomas Bernhard (February 9, 1931, Heerlen - February 12, 1989, Ohlsdorf) was an Austrian playwright and novelist. ... Burgtheater (front) Burgtheater (side) Burgtheater (Main entrance) Burgtheater (right after its construction) The Burgtheater (en: Castle Theatre or Imperial Court Theatre), originally known as , then until 1920 as the , is the Austrias federal theatre in Vienna and one of the most important German language theatres in the world. ... Kurt Josef Waldheim (born December 21, 1918) is an Austrian diplomat and conservative politician. ...


The Historical Commission and outstanding legal issues

In the context of the postwar Federal Republic of Germany, one encounters a Vergangenheitsbewältigung ("struggle to come to terms with the past") that has been partially institutionalised, variably in literary, cultural, political, and educational contexts (its development and difficulties have not been trivial; see, for example, the Historikerstreit). Austria formed a Historikerkommission[15] ("Historian's Commission" or "Historical Commission") in 1998 with a mandate to review Austria's role in the Nazi expropriation of Jewish property from a scholarly rather than legal perspective, partly in response to continuing criticism of its handling of property claims. Its membership was based on recommendations from various quarters, including Simon Wiesenthal and Yad Vashem. The Commission delivered its report in 2003.[16] Noted Holocaust historian Raul Hilberg refused to participate in the Commission and in an interview stated his strenuous objections in terms both personal and in reference to larger questions about Austrian culpability and liability, comparing what he to be relative inattention to the settlement governing the Swiss bank holdings of those who died or were displaced by the Holocaust: Vergangenheitsbewältigung is a composite German word that describes the process of dealing with the past (lit: Vergangenheit = past; Bewältigung = management, coming to terms with, mastering), which is perhaps best rendered in English as struggle to come to terms with the past. (The German word Geschichtsaufarbeitung is more or... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Simon Wiesenthal Simon Wiesenthal, KBE, (Buczacz, December 31, 1908 – Vienna, September 20, 2005) was an Austrian-Jewish architectural engineer who became a Nazi hunter after surviving the Holocaust. ... An exterior view of the Yad Vashem Holocaust memorial museum in Jerusalem. ... Dr. Raul Hilberg Raul Hilberg (born June 2, 1926) is one of the best-known and most distinguished of the Holocaust historians. ...

I personally would like to know why the WJC World Jewish Congress has hardly put any pressure on Austria, even as leading Nazis and SS leaders were Austrians, Hitler included... Immediately after the war, the US wanted to make the Russians withdraw from Austria, and the Russians wanted to keep Austria neutral, therefore there was a common interest to grant Austria victim status. And later Austria could cry poor - though its per capita income is as high as Germany's. And, most importantly, the Austrian PR machinery works better. Austria has the opera ball, the imperial castle, Mozartkugeln [a chocolate]. Americans like that. And Austrians invest and export relatively little to the US, therefore they are less vulnerable to blackmail. In the meantime, they set up a commission in Austria to clarify what happened to Jewish property. Victor Klima, the former chancellor, has asked me to join. My father fought for Austria in the First World War and in 1939 he was kicked out of Austria. After the war they offered him ten dollars per month as compensation. For this reason I told Klima, no thank you, this makes me sick.[17] The World Jewish Congress (WJC) is an international federation of Jewish communities and organizations. ...

The Simon Wiesenthal Center continues to criticise Austria (as recently as June 2005) for its alleged historical and ongoing unwillingness aggressively to pursue investigations and trials against Nazis for war crimes and crimes against humanity from the seventies onwards. Its 2001 report offered the following characterization: The Simon Wiesenthal Center The Simon Wiesenthal Center is an international Jewish organization that declares itself to be a human rights group dedicated to preserving the memory of the Holocaust by fostering tolerance and understanding through community involvement, educational outreach and social action. ...

Given the extensive participation of numerous Austrians, including at the highest levels, in the implementation of the Final Solution and other Nazi crimes, Austria should have been a leader in the prosecution of Holocaust perpetrators over the course of the past four decades, as has been the case in Germany. Unfortunately relatively little has been achieved by the Austrian authorities in this regard and in fact, with the exception of the case of Dr. Heinrich Gross which was suspended this year under highly suspicious circumstances (he claimed to be medically unfit, but outside the court proved to be healthy) not a single Nazi war crimes prosecution has been conducted in Austria since the mid-seventies.[18]

In 2003, the Center launched a worldwide effort named "Operation: Last Chance" in order to collect further information about those Nazis still alive that are potentially subject to prosecution. Although reports issued shortly thereafter credited Austria for initiating large-scale investigations, there has been one case where criticism of Austrian authorities arose recently: The Center has put 92-year old Croatian Milivoj Asner on its 2005 top ten list. Asner fled to Austria in 2004 after Croatia announced it would start investigations in the case of war crimes he may have been involved in. In response to objections about Asner's continued freedom, Austria's federal government has deferred to either extradition requests from Croatia or prosecutorial actions from Klagenfurt, neither of which appears forthcoming (as of June 2005).[19] Extradition is not an option since Asner also holds Austrian citizenship, having lived in the country from 1946 to 1991.[20] Milivoj AÅ¡ner (born 1913?) is a former police chief in eastern Croatia who allegedly enforced racist laws under Croatias World War II Nazi-allied regime, which persecuted hundreds of thousands of Serbs, Jews and Roma. ... Klagenfurt, (Slovenian Celovec) is the capital of the federal state of Carinthia, in Austria, on the Glan river. ... Citizenship is membership in a political community (originally a city or town but now usually a country) and carries with it rights to political participation; a person having such membership is a citizen. ...


Austrian political and military leaders in Nazi Germany

Hitler redirects here. ... Arthur Seyss-Inquart Arthur Seyss-Inquart (born Arthur Zajtich, officially (German) Arthur Seyß-Inquart) (July 22, 1892 – October 16, 1946) was a prominent Nazi official in Austria and for wartime Germany in Poland and the Netherlands. ... SS-Obergruppenführer Dr. Ernst Kaltenbrunner Ernst Kaltenbrunner (October 4, 1903 – October 16, 1946) was a senior Nazi official during World War II. He was executed for war crimes and crimes against humanity. ... Odilo Globocnik Odilo Globocnik (April 21, 1904 - May 31, 1945) was a prominent Austrian Nazi and later an SS leader. ... Amon Leopold Goeth in 1946, during the trial process in Poland Amon Leopold Göth (or Goeth; December 11, 1908 – September 13, 1946) was a Hauptsturmführer of the SS and was the commandant of the Nazi concentration camp at Płaszów, Poland. ... Lothar Rendulic (November 23, 1887 – January 18, 1971) was a Colonel General in the Wehrmacht during WWII. Rendulic was born on in Wiener Neustadt, Austria to a Croatian family (Croatian spelling of the surname is Rendulić). He entered the Austro-Hungarian Army in 1910 and served during World War I... Alexander Löhr (May 20, 1885–February 26, 1947) was an Austrian Air Force commander during the 1930s before the Anschluss and, later on, a Luftwaffe Commander during the Second World War. ... Franz Böhme Born in Austria on April 15, 1885 Franz Friedrich Böhme rose to the rank of General in the German Army, serving as Commander of the Twentieth Mountain Army and Commander-in-Chief of Norway. ...

See also

The Sound of Music is a Broadway musical based on the book The Story of the Trapp Family Singers by Maria von Trapp. ... The Great Dictator is a film directed by and starring Charlie Chaplin. ... King Ottokars Sceptre (in the French-language original Le Sceptre dOttokar) is a one of a series of classic comic-strip albums, written and illustrated by Belgian writer and illustrator Hergé, featuring young reporter Tintin as a hero. ... Pan-Germanism, one of the ethnically-charged political movements of the 19th century for unity of the German-speaking peoples of Europe. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Kurt Schuschnigg in a propagando manifesto. ... This is the history of Austria. ...

References

  1. ^ Until the German spelling reform of 1996, Anschluss was written Anschluß in the countries subject to the reform. (See also the article on ß.) In English-language typography and style conventions, "ß" was often transliterated as "ss," although the spelling in German is a valid, if not predominant, option, but mainly before 1996 (when the English spelling became a correct German spelling).
  2. ^ a b c 1938: Austria. MSN Encarta. Retrieved on 2007-03-11.
  3. ^ a b Mayerhofer (1998). Österreichs Weg zum Anschluss im März 1938 (German). Wiener Zeitung Online. Retrieved on 2007-03-11. Detailed article the on the events of the Anschluss, in German.
  4. ^ Video: Hitler proclaims Austria's inclusion in the Reich (2MB). Retrieved on 2007-03-11.
  5. ^ Anschluss. Spartacus Educational. Retrieved on 2007-03-11.
  6. ^ a b Die propagandistische Vorbereitung der Volksabstimmung. Austrian Resistance Archive (1988). Retrieved on 2007-03-11.
  7. ^ Neville Chamberlain, "Statement of the Prime Minister in the House of Commons, 14 March 1938."
  8. ^ Anschluss. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved on 2007-03-11. some historical sources refer to the Anschluss as an annexation.
  9. ^ Moscow Conference: Joint Four-Nation Declaration, October 1943 (full text of the Moscow Memorandum).
  10. ^ Gerald Stourzh, "Waldheim's Austria," The New York Review of Books 34, no. 3 (February 1987).
  11. ^ "Judgment, The Defendants: Seyss-Inquart," The Nizkor Project.
  12. ^ "The Defendants: Von Papen," The Nizkor Project.
  13. ^ Short note on Schüssel's interview in the Jerusalem Post (in German), Salzburger Nachrichten, 11 November 2000.
  14. ^ Thomas Bernhard, Books and Writers (article on Bernhard with a short section on Heldenplatz).
  15. ^ Austrian Historical Commission.
  16. ^ Press statement on the report of the Austrian Historical Commission Austrian Press and Information Service, 28 February 2003
  17. ^ Hilberg interview with the Berliner Zeitung, as quoted by Norman Finkelstein's web site.
  18. ^ Efraim Zuroff, "Worldwide Investigation and Prosecution of Nazi War Criminals, 2001–2002," Simon Wiesenthal Center, Jerusalem (April 2002).
  19. ^ "Take action against Nazi war criminal Milivoj Asner," World Jewish Congress, 19 November 2004.
  20. ^ Mutmaßlicher Kriegsverbrecher Asner wird nicht an Zagreb ausgeliefert, Der Standard, September 23, 2005

The German spelling reform of 1996 (Rechtschreibreform) regulates the current German orthography and is based on an international agreement signed in 1996 by the governments of the German-speaking countries Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein, and Switzerland. ... The glyph ß is a ligature of ſ (long s) and s or z that has become a distinct letter in the German alphabet; its German name is Eszett (IPA: ) or scharfes S (sharp S). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... March 11 is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (71st in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... March 11 is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (71st in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... March 11 is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (71st in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... March 11 is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (71st in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... March 11 is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (71st in leap years). ... For the Lebanese political coalition, see March 14 Alliance. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the Anno Domini (common) era. ... March 11 is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (71st in leap years). ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Norman Finkelstein on Democracy Now! Norman G. Finkelstein (born December 8, 1953) is an American professor of political science and author. ... November 19 is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Der Standard is a liberal Austrian newspaper based in Vienna, Austria. ... September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Additional Reading

Books

  • Bukey, Evan Burr (1986). Hitler's Hometown: Linz, Austria, 1908-1945. Indiana University Press ISBN 0-253-32833-0.
  • Parkinson, F. (ed.) (1989). Conquering the Past: Austrian Nazism Yesterday and Today. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-2054-6.
  • Pauley, Bruce F. (1981). Hitler and the Forgotten Nazis: A History of Austrian National Socialism University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-1456-3 .
  • Scheuch, Manfred (2005). Der Weg zum Heldenplatz: eine Geschichte der österreichischen Diktatur. 1933-1938. ISBN 3-8258-7712-4.
  • Schuschnigg, Kurt (1971). The brutal takeover: The Austrian ex-Chancellor's account of the Anschluss of Austria by Hitler. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-00321-6.
  • Stuckel, Eva-Maria (2001). Österreich, Monarchie, Operette, und Anschluss: Antisemtismus, Faschismus, und Nationalsozialismus im Fadenkreuz von Ingeborg Bachman und Elias Canetti.

Electronic articles and journals

May 25 is the 145th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (146th in leap years). ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ... June 10 is the 161st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (162nd in leap years), with 204 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 10 is the 161st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (162nd in leap years), with 204 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 10 is the 161st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (162nd in leap years), with 204 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Anschluss - definition of Anschluss in Encyclopedia (1406 words)
The general German term Anschluss is part of the specific political incident Anschluss Österreichs referring to the inclusion of Austria in a "Greater Germany" in 1938.
Anschluss was the subject of inconclusive debate prior to the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, whose loss, by Austria, allowed Otto von Bismarck to build the Prussian-dominated German Empire of 1871.
The precise character of the Anschluss remains a difficulty essential to Austria's understanding of its history and the obligations it entails.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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