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Encyclopedia > Anomie
Criminology and Penology
Theories
Anomie
Differential Association Theory
Deviance
Labelling Theory
Rational Choice Theory
Social Control Theory
Social Disorganization Theory
Social Learning Theory
Strain Theory
Subcultural Theory
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See also: Wikibooks:Social Deviance
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Anomie, in contemporary English, means a condition or malaise in individuals, characterized by an absence or diminution of standards or values. Image File history File links Scale_of_justice. ... Template:Criminologies Criminology is the scientific study of crime as an individual and social phenomenon. ... Penology (from the Latin poena, punishment) comprises penitentiary science: that concerned with the processes devised and adopted for the punishment, repression, and prevention of crime, and the treatment of prisoners. ... In criminology, Differential Association is a theory developed by Edwin Sutherland proposing that through interaction with others, individuals learn the values, attitudes, techniques, and motives for criminal behavior. ... Deviant redirects here. ... Labeling Theory (or Labelling Theory)views given by Howard Becker (1963) is relevant to criminology and sociology explaining how criminal behavior is perpetuated by the police and other labelers. It relates to symbolic interactionism and to social reaction theory and it is concerned with the nature, application, and consequence of... In criminology, the Rational Choice Theory adopts a Utilitarian belief that man is a reasoning actor who weighs means and ends, costs and benefits, and makes a rational choice. ... asss This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... In criminology, the Social Disorganisation Theory was one of the most important theories developed by the Chicago School, related to ecological theories. ... In criminology, Ronald Akers and Robert Burgess (1966) developed the Social Learning Theory to explain deviancy by combining variables which encouraged delinquency (e. ... In criminology, the Strain Theories state that social structures within society may encourage citizens to commit crime. ... In criminology, Subcultural Theory emerged from the work of the Chicago School on gangs and developed into a set of theories arguing that certain groups or subcultures in society have values and attitudes that are conducive to crime and violence. ... Symbolic interactionism is a sociological perspective which examines how individuals and groups interact, focusing on the creation of personal identity through interaction with others. ... Victimology is the study of why certain people are victims of crime and how lifestyles affect the chances that a certain person will fall victim to a crime. ... In criminology, blue-collar crime is any crime committed by an individual from a lower social class as opposed to white-collar crime which is associated with crime committed by individuals of a higher social class. ... In criminology, corporate crime refers to crimes either committed by a corporation, i. ... Juvenile delinquency refers to criminal acts performed by juveniles. ... Organized crime or criminal organizations are groups or operations run by criminals, most commonly for the purpose of generating a monetary profit. ... In the standard sense of the phrase, a political crime is an action deemed illegal by a government in order to control real or imagined threats to its survival, at the expense of a range of human rights and freedoms. ... In criminology public order crime is defined by Siegel (2004) as ...crime which involves acts that interfere with the operations of society and the ability of people to function efficiently, i. ... In criminology, public order crime case law in the United States is essential to understanding how the courts interpret the policy of laws where the moral and social order of the state appears to be threatened by clearly identified behavior. ... In criminology, state crime is activity or failures to act that break the states own criminal law or public international law. ... In criminology, the concept of state-corporate crime refers to crimes that result from the relationship between the policies of the state and the policies and practices of commercial corporations. ... Within the field of criminology, white-collar crime has been defined by Edwin Sutherland ...as a crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Consensual crime. ... Deterrence is a theory of justice whereby the aim of punishment is to prevent or deter future mischief. ... Prison reform is the attempt to improve conditions inside prisons, aiming at a more effective penal system. ... Prisoner abuse is the mistreatment of persons while they are under arrest or incarcerated. ... The movement for Prisoners rights is based on the principle that prisoners, even though they are deprived of liberty, are still entitled to basic human rights. ... This theory of punishment is based on the notion that punishment is to be inflicted on a offender so as to reform him, or rehabilitate him so as to make his re-integration into society easier. ... Recidivism is the act of a person repeating an undesirable behavior after they have either experienced negative consequences of that behavior, or have been treated or trained to extinguish that behavior. ... It has been suggested that Proportional justice be merged into this article or section. ... Utilitarianism (1861), see Utilitarianism (book). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Malaise is a term used to refer to a general state of discomfort, tiredness, or illness. ...


The word comes from Greek, namely the prefix a- “without”, and nomos “law”. The Greeks distinguished between nomos (νόμος, “law”), and arché (αρχή, “starting rule, axiom, principle”). For example, a monarch is a single ruler but he or she might still be subject to, and not exempt from, the prevailing laws, i.e. nomos. In the original city state democracy, the majority rule was an aspect of arché because it was a rule-based, customary system which might or might not make laws, i.e. nomos. Thus, the original meaning of anomie defined anything or anyone against or outside the law, or a condition where the current laws were not applied resulting in a state of illegitimacy or lawlessness. The contemporary English understanding of the word anomie can accept greater flexibility in the word “norm”, and some have used the idea of normlessness to reflect a similar situation to the idea of anarchy. But as used by Émile Durkheim and later theorists, anomie is a reaction against or a retreat from the regulatory social controls of society, and is a completely separate concept from anarchy which is an absence of effective rulers or leaders. In linguistics, a prefix is a type of affix that precedes the morphemes to which it can attach. ... Look up monarch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city, and usually having sovereignty. ... Majoritarianism (often also called majority rule) is a political philosophy or agenda which asserts that a majority (sometimes categorized by religion, language or some other identifying factor) of the population is entitled to a certain degree of primacy in society, and has the right to make decisions that affect the... It has been suggested that Convention (norm) be merged into this article or section. ... Anomie, in contemporary English means the absence of any kind of rule, law, principle or order. ... It has been suggested that Origins of anarchism and History of anarchism be merged into this article or section. ... Emile Durkheim. ... Social control refers to social mechanisms that regulate individual and group behavior, in terms of greater sanctions and rewards. ... Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ...

Contents

Anomie as individual disorder

The nineteenth century French pioneer sociologist Durkheim borrowed the word from the French philosopher Jean-Marie Guyau and used it in his book Suicide (1897), outlining the causes of suicide to describe a condition or malaise in individuals, characterized by an absence or diminution of standards or values (referred to as normlessness), and an associated feeling of alienation and purposelessness. He believed that anomie is common when the surrounding society has undergone significant changes in its economic fortunes, whether for good or for worse and, more generally, when there is a significant discrepancy between the ideological theories and values commonly professed and what was actually achievable in everyday life. This is contrary to previous theories on suicide which generally maintained that suicide was precipitated by negative events in a person's life and their subsequent depression. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sociology is the study of the social lives of humans, groups and societies. ... Jean-Marie Guyau (October 28, 1854 - March 31, 1888) was a French philosopher and poet. ... Suicide was one of the groundbreaking books in the field of sociology. ... Suicide (from Latin sui caedere, to kill oneself) is the willful act of killing oneself. ... In sociology and critical social theory, alienation refers to the individuals estrangement from traditional community and others in general. ... Purpose in its most general sense is the anticipated aim which guides action. ...


In Durkheim’s view, traditional religions often provided the basis for the shared values which the anomic individual lacks. Furthermore, he argued that the division of labor that had been prevalent in economic life since the Industrial Revolution led individuals to pursue egoistic ends rather than seeking the good of a larger community. Division of labour is the breakdown of labour into specific, circumscribed tasks for maximum efficiency of output in the context of manufacturing. ... A Watt steam engine. ... Egoism may refer to any of the following: psychological egoism - the doctrine that holds that individuals are always motivated by self-interest ethical egoism - the ethical doctrine that holds that individuals ought to do what is in their self-interest rational egoism - the belief that it is rational to act...


Robert King Merton also adopted the idea of anomie to develop Strain Theory, defining it as the discrepancy between common social goals and the legitimate means to attain those goals. In other words, an individual suffering from anomie would strive to attain the common goals of a specific society yet would not be able to reach these goals legitimately because of the structural limitations in society. As a result the individual would exhibit deviant behavior. Friedrich Hayek notably uses the word anomie with this meaning. This article is about the sociologist. ... In criminology, the Strain Theories state that social structures within society may encourage citizens to commit crime. ... Structuralism as a term refers to various theories across the humanities, social sciences and economics many of which share the assumption that structural relationships between concepts vary between different cultures/languages and that these relationships can be usefully exposed and explored. ... Deviant redirects here. ... Friedrich August von Hayek, CH (May 8, 1899 in Vienna – March 23, 1992 in Freiburg) was an Austrian-born British economist and political philosopher known for his defense of liberal democracy and free-market capitalism against socialist and collectivist thought in the mid-20th century. ...


Anomie as a social disorder is not to be confused with anarchy. Anarchy denotes lack of rulers, hierarchy, and command, whereas anomie denotes lack of rules, structure, and organization. Many proponents of anarchism claim that anarchy does not necessarily lead to anomie and that hierarchical command actually increases lawlessness (see e.g. the Law of Eristic Escalation). It has been suggested that Origins of anarchism and History of anarchism be merged into this article or section. ... Discordianism is a modern, chaos-based religion founded in either 1958 or 1959. ...


As an older variant, the Webster 1913 dictionary reports use of the word anomie as meaning “disregard or violation of the law”. 1888 advertisement for Websters Dictionary Websters Dictionary is a common title given to English language dictionaries in the United States, deriving its name from American lexicographer Noah Webster. ...


Anomie in literature and film

In Albert Camus’s existentialist novel The Stranger, the protagonist Meursault struggles to construct an individual system of values as he responds to the disappearance of the old. He exists largely in a state of anomie, as seen from the apathy evinced in the opening lines: “Aujourd’hui, maman est morte. Ou peut-être hier, je ne sais pas” (“Today Mother died. Or maybe yesterday, I don't know.”) Dostoevsky, whose work is often considered a philosophical precursor to existentialism, often expressed a similar concern in his novels. In The Brothers Karamazov, the character Dimitri Karamazov asks his atheist friend Rakitin, ”...without God and immortal life? All things are lawful then, they can do what they like?” Raskolnikov, the anti-hero of Dostoevsky’s novel Crime and Punishment, puts this philosophy into action when he kills an elderly pawnbroker and her sister, later rationalizing this act to himself with the words, “...it wasn’t a human being I killed, it was a principle!” Albert Camus (pronounced ) (November 7, 1913 – January 4, 1960) was an Algerian-French author and philosopher. ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement in which individual human beings are understood as having full responsibility for creating the meanings of their own lives. ... A novel (from French nouvelle Italian novella, new) is an extended, generally fictional narrative, typically in prose. ... The Stranger, or The Outsider, (from the French L’Étranger, 1942) is a novel by Albert Camus. ... Meursault is a French commune, situated in the département of the Côte-dOr and the région of Burgundy. ... Fyodor Dostoevsky. ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement in which individual human beings are understood as having full responsibility for creating the meanings of their own lives. ... The Brothers Karamazov (Братья Карамазовы in Russian, ) is the last novel by the Russian author Fyodor Dostoevsky, generally considered the culmination of his lifes work. ... For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ... Rodion Romanovitch Raskolnikov is the protagonist of Crime and Punishment by Dostoevsky. ... Crime and Punishment (Russian: Преступление и наказание) is a novel written by Russian author Fyodor Dostoevsky. ...


Bibliography

  • Marco Orru, The Ethics of Anomie: Jean Marie Guyau and Emile Durkheim, British Journal of Sociology, Vol. 34, No. 4 (Dec., 1983), pp. 499-518
  • Jordi Riba, La morale anomique de Jean-Marie Guyau, Paris [etc.] : L'Harmattan, 1999

External links

Look up anomie in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • "Anomie" discussed at the Émile Durkheim Archive.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Anomie - definition of Anomie in Encyclopedia (450 words)
Anomie is remarkably common when the surrounding society has undergone significant changes in economic fortunes, whether for good or for worse, and more generally when there is a significant discrepancy between the ideological theories and values commonly professed and the practice of everyday life.
The protagonist of Albert Camus's The Stranger is an example from literature of a sufferer of anomie.
Anomy as social disorder is not to be confused with anarchy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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