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Encyclopedia > Anointing

To anoint is to grease with perfumed oil, animal fat, or melted butter, a process employed ritually by many religions and races. People and things are anointed to symbolize the introduction of a sacramental or divine influence, a holy emanation, spirit or power. It can also be seen as a spiritual mode of ridding persons and things of dangerous influences and diseases, especially of the demons (Persian drug, Greek κηρες, Armenian dev) which are believed to be or cause those diseases.


Unction is another term for anointing. The oil may be called chrism. Chrism (Greek word literally meaning an anointing), also called Myrrh (Myron), Holy Oil, or Consecrated Oil, is a consecrated oil used in the Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Orthodox churches, in the Assyrian Church of the East, in the Old-Catholic churches, and in Roman Catholic, Anglican and Lutheran churches in...


The word is known in English since c. 1303, deriving from Old French enoint "smeared on," pp. of enoindre "smear on," itself from Latin inunguere, from in- "on" + unguere "to smear." Originally it only referred to grease or oil smeared on for medicinal purposes; its use in the Coverdale Bible in reference to Christ (cf. The Lord's Anointed, see Chrism) has spiritualized the sense of it. // Events 24 February: Battle of Roslin 20 April: Pope Boniface VIII founds the University of Rome La Sapienza Edward I of England reconquers Scotland (see also: William Wallace, Wars of Scottish Independence) The Khilji Dynasty conquers time travel Births Saint Birgitta, Swedish saint (died 1373) Gegeen Khan, Mongol emperor of... Myles Coverdale (also Miles Coverdale) (c. ... In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Arabic: ,  ; Aramaic:  ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oil on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ... Chrism (Greek word literally meaning an anointing), also called Myrrh (Myron), Holy Oil, or Consecrated Oil, is a consecrated oil used in the Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Orthodox churches, in the Assyrian Church of the East, in the Old-Catholic churches, and in Roman Catholic, Anglican and Lutheran churches in...


Because of its "smeared on" root, the word is also used for the unique practice by hedgehogs of coating their quills with a froth when encountering new smells or tastes in their environment. For the anti-submarine weapon see Hedgehog (weapon); for the mathematical concepts see hedgehog (curve) and hedgehog (metric). ...

Contents

Antecedents

The indigenous Australians believed that the virtues of one killed could be transferred to survivors if the latter rubbed themselves with his caul-fat. So the Arabs of East Africa anoint themselves with lion's fat in order to gain courage and inspire the animals with awe of themselves. Such rites are often associated with the actual eating of the victim whose virtues are coveted. Human fat is a powerful charm all over the world; for example, as R. Smith points out,[citation needed] after the blood, the fat was peculiarly the vehicle and seat of life. This is why fat of a victim was smeared on a sacred stone, not only in acts of homage paid to it, but in the actual consecration thereof. In such cases the influence of the deity, communicated to the victim, passed with the unguent into the stone. According to some beliefs, the divinity could, by anointing, be transferred into men as well; and from immemorial antiquity, among the Jews as among other races, kings were anointed or greased, doubtless with the fat of the victims which, like the blood, was too holy to be eaten by the common votaries. Indigenous Australians are descendants of the first known human inhabitants of the Australian continent and its nearby islands. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are an ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ...


Butter made from the milk of the cow, the most sacred of animals, is used for anointing in the Hindu religion. A newly-built house is smeared with it; so are demoniacs, care being taken to smear the latter downwards from head to foot. Anointments are also part of certain Hindu Monarchies' enthronement ritual, when blood can also be used. A Hindu ( , Devanagari: हिन्दु), as per modern definition, is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, and the religious, philosophical and cultural system that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... // Demoniac was a metal band from New Zealand formed by Lindsay Behemoth Dawson and Sam Heimdall Totman. ... Pope John Paul I s enthronement as Pope on 3rd September 1978. ...


Hebrew Bible

Among the Hebrews, the act of anointing was significant in consecration to a holy or sacred use: hence the anointing of the high priest (Exodus 29:29; Leviticus 4:3) and of the sacred vessels (Exodus 30:26). This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... To consecrate an inanimate object is to dedicate it in a ritual to a special purpose, usually religious. ... Holiness means the state of being holy, that is, set apart for the worship or service of a god or gods. ...


Medicinal and funerals

Oil was used also for medicinal purposes. It was applied to the sick, and also to wounds (Psalms 109:18; Isaiah 1:6.


The expression, "anoint the shield" (Isaiah 21:5), refers to the custom of rubbing oil on the leather of the shield so as to make it supple and fit for use in war.


Hospitality

It was the custom of the Jews in like manner to anoint themselves with oil, as a means of refreshing or invigorating their bodies (Deuteronomy 28:40; Ruth 3:3; 2 Samuel 14:2; Psalms 104:15, etc.). The Hellenes had similar customs. This custom is continued among the Arabs to the present day. This article or section should include material from Greeks According to Thucydides, Hellenes were the people of Hellas. ...


Priests and kings

In the Hebrew Bible, the High Priest and the king are each sometimes called "the anointed" (Leviticus 4:3-5, 4:16; 6:20; Psalm 132:10). Prophets were also anointed (1 Kings 19:16; 1 Chronicles 16:22; Psalm 105:15). 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Hebrew Bible itself, see Tanakh (Jewish tradition) or Old Testament (Christian tradition). ...


Anointing a king was equivalent to crowning him; in fact, in Israel a crown was not required (1 Samuel 16:13; 2 Samuel 2:4, etc.). Thus David was anointed as king by the prophet Samuel: David and Goliath by Caravaggio, c. ... Samuel or Shmuel (Hebrew: שְׁמוּאֵל, Standard Tiberian ) is an important leader of ancient Israel in the Book(s) of Samuel in the Hebrew Bible. ...

Then Samuel took the horn of oil, and anointed him in the midst of his brethren: and the Spirit of the Lord came upon David from that day forward. So Samuel rose up, and went to Ramah.—1 Samuel 16:13.

Christian Gospels

The Messiah

Distinct from the Jewish view, Christians believe the "anointed" one referred to in various biblical verses such as Psalm 2:2 and Daniel 9:25-26 is the promised Messiah. According to the Jewish Bible, whenever someone was anointed with the specific holy anointing oil formula and ceremony described in Exodus 30:22-25, the Spirit of God came upon this person, to qualify him or her for a God-given task. Understanding that Jesus was never anointed in this way, Christians take a poetic reading of anointed, and believe that Jesus was "anointed" with the Holy Spirit directly. According to the New Testament, Jesus of Nazareth is this Anointed One, the Messiah (John 1:41; Acts 9:22; 17:2-3; 18:5, 18:28), and the Gospels state that he was physically "anointed" (although not in the fashion described in Exodus) by an anonymous figure who is interpreted by some as Mary Magdalene. The word Christ which is now used as though it were a surname is actually a title derived from the Greek Christos roughly meaning 'anointed' (creamy or greased would be more cognate as translations). In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; Arabic: ,  ; Aramaic:  ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oil on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ... Tanakh (‎) (also Tanach, IPA: or , or Tenak) is an acronym that identifies the Hebrew Bible. ... The holy anointing oil described in Exodus 30:22-25 was created from 500 shekels (about 6 kg) of myrrh, half as much (about 3 kg) of fragrant cinnamon, 250 shekels (about 3 kg) of fragrant cane (calamus,cannabis), 500 shekels (about 6kg) of cassia, and a hin (about 4... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream Christianity, the... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Hebrew נָצְרַת (Natzrat) (Standard) Náẓərat Arabic الناصرة (an-Nāṣira) Name Meaning Ancient word in Hebrew Government City District North Population 64,800[1] (2006) Jurisdiction 14 200 dunams (14. ... Mary Magdalene is traditionally depicted with a vessel of ointment, in reference to the Anointing of Jesus, in reality the jar is more likely to have been an Amphora, a much larger object. ... The penitent Mary Magdalene, a much reproduced composition by Titian. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christ is the English... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Hospitality

Anointing was also an act of hospitality, as Jesus was anointed in the house of the Pharisee (Luke 7:38-46).


Medicinal

The New Testament records that oil was applied to the sick, and also to wounds Mark 6:13; James 5:14).


The bodies of the dead were sometimes anointed (Mark 14:8; Luke 23:56).


Christian monarchy

In Christian Europe, the Merovingian monarchy was the first[citation needed] to anoint the king in a coronation ceremony that was designed to epitomize the Catholic Church's conferring a religious sanction of the monarch's divine right to rule. A number of Merovingian, Carolingian and Ottonian kings and emperors have avoided coronation and anointing. There are other articles with similar names; see Merovingian (disambiguation). ...


English monarchs in common with the French included anointing in the coronation rituals (sacre in French). The Sovereign of the United Kingdom is the last anointed monarch. For the coronation of King Charles I in 1626 the holy oil was made of a concoction of orange, jasmine, distilled roses, distilled cinnamon, oil of ben, extract of bensoint, ambergris, musk and civet. The coronation of Empress Farah, of Iran in 1967. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... Binomial name (L.) Osbeck Orange—specifically, sweet orange—refers to the citrus tree Citrus sinensis (syn. ... Jasminum. ... Binomial name J.Presl Cassia (Chinese cinnamon) is also commonly called (and sometimes sold as) cinnamon. ... Look up ben in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ambergris Ambergris (Ambra grisea, Ambre gris, ambergrease, or grey amber) is a solid, waxy, flammable substance of a dull grey or blackish color, with the shades being variegated like marble. ... Musk is the name originally given to a perfume obtained originally from the strong-smelling substance secreted by a gland in the abdomen of the male musk deer, and hence applied to other animals, and also to plants, possessing a similar odor. ... Genera Chrotogale Cynogale Diplogale Hemigalus Arctogalidia Macrogalidia Paguma larvata Paradoxurus Civettictis Viverra Viverricula With one exception, civets are some of the members of the family Viverridae. ...


However this does not symbolize any subordination to the religious authority, hence it is not usually performed in Catholic monarchies by the pope but usually reserved for the (arch)bishop of a major see (sometimes the site of the whole coronation) in the nation, as is sometime the very act of crowning. Hence its utensils can be part of the regalia, such as in the French kingdom an ampulla for the oil and a spoon to apply it with; in the Norwegian kingdom, an anointing horn (a form fitting the Biblical as well as the Viking tradition) is the traditional vessel. The coronation of Empress Farah, of Iran in 1967. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The ampulla of Vater is a sphincter (a small muscle) where the common bile duct enters the duodenum. ... A common silver spoon // A spoon of modern age is also called a james rhoades The English word spoon derives from Old English spōn, meaning chip or splinter of wood or horn carved from a larger piece, shaving, from a Proto-Germanic root spūnuz (cf. ... Highland cow, a very old long-horned breed from Scotland. ...


The French Kings adopted the fleur-de-lis as a baptismal symbol of purity on the conversion of the Frankish King Clovis I to the Christian religion in 493. To further enhance its mystique, a legend eventually sprang up that a vial of oil (cfr. infra the crowning ampulla) descended from Heaven to anoint and sanctify Clovis as King. The thus "anointed" Kings of France later maintained that their authority was directly from God, without the mediation of either the Emperor or the Pope. Fleurs-de-lys on the flag of Quebec The fleur-de-lis (also spelled fleur-de-lys; plural fleurs-de-lis or -lys) is used in heraldry, where it is particularly associated with the France monarchy (see King of France). ... Clovis I (variously spelled Chlodowech or Chlodwig, giving modern French Louis and modern German Ludwig) (c. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A Christian () is a... Events February 25 - Odoacer agrees to a mediated peace with Theodoric the Great, and is later killed by him personally. ... The ampulla of Vater is a sphincter (a small muscle) where the common bile duct enters the duodenum. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... To anoint is to apply perfumed oil. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin...


Legends claim that even the lily itself appeared at the baptismal ceremony as a gift of blessing in an apparition of the blessed Virgin Mary. Our Lady redirects here. ...


Christian sacramental usage

Early Christian usage

In early Christian times, sick people were anointed for healing to take place:

James 5:14-15
14 Is any sick among you? let him call for the elders of the church; and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord:
15 And the prayer of faith shall save the sick, and the Lord shall raise him up; and if he have committed sins, they shall be forgiven him.

Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox usage

In Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox usage, anointing is part of the sacrament of Anointing of the Sick (or, using the Orthodox terminology, the Mystery of Unction). The Orthodox use Unction not only for physical ailemtns, but for spiritual ailments as well, and the faithful may rerequest Unction at will, and it is normal for everyone to receive Unction during Holy Week. The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... According to the Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church, 224, the sacraments are efficacious signs, perceptible to the senses, of grace,. They have been instituted by Christ and entrusted to the Church, and through them divine life is bestowed on us. ... Extreme Unction, part of The Seven Sacraments (1445) by Roger van der Weyden. ... Holy Week (Latin: Hebdomada Sancta) in Christianity is the last week of Lent. ...


Consecrated oil is also used in confirmation, or, as it is sometimes called (especially in Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Rite Catholic churches), Chrismation, from the Greek word chrisma (χρίσμα), meaning the medium and act of anointing. The Eastern Churches perform the sacrament of Chrismation immediately after the sacrament of Baptism during the same ceremony. To consecrate an inanimate object is to dedicate it in a ritual to a special purpose, usually religious. ... Confirmation is a rite used in many Christian Churches. ... The Eastern Catholic Churches are autonomous particular Churches in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... Chrismation is the name given in Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Eastern_rite Catholic churches to the sacrament known as confirmation in the Latin Rite Catholic churches. ... In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... Baptism in early Christian art. ...


Consecration of the Oil in the Orthodox Churches

Among Eastern Orthodox Churches, the Myron (Μύρον, Holy Oil) for Chrismation (and, prior to the 20th century, for the Anointing of monarchs) is prepared periodically by the Orthodox Patriarchates (such as the Church of Constantinople -- see an announcement and process for preparation, with some sample dates of preparation) and by the various heads of autocephalous churches (such as the Orthodox Church in America -- see photos of the process). The Consecration of the Oil, when performed, occurs during Holy Week, and thereafter the Oil is distributed to the Orthodox Churches within the authority of the administration. The Myron is made of olive oil and a guarded recipe of aromatics (myra) that are infused therein. Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... The coronation of Empress Farah, of Iran in 1967. ... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ... In hierarchical Christian churches, especially Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches, autocephaly is the status of a hierarchical church whose head bishop does not report to any higher-ranking bishop. ... The Orthodox Church in America (OCA) is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church in North America. ... Holy Week (Latin: Hebdomada Sancta) in Christianity is the last week of Lent. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Eastern Orthodox Church...


At the Patriarchate of Constantinople, the process is under the care of the Archontes Myrepsoi, lay officials of the Patriarchate. Various members of the clergy may also participate in the preparation, but the Consecration itself is always performed by the Patriarch or a bishop deputed by him for that purpose. Look up Archon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Pentecostal churches

As in the early Christian church, anointing with oil is used in Pentecostal churches for healing the sick and also for consecration or ordination of pastors and elders. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Pentecostal can also mean...


The word "anointing" is also frequently used by Pentecostal Christians to refer to the power of God or the Spirit of God residing in a Christian: a usage that occurs from time to time in the Bible (e.g. in 1 John 2:20). A particularly popular expression is "the anointing that breaks the yoke", which is derived from Isaiah 10:27:

And it shall come to pass on that day, that his burden shall be removed from upon your shoulder, and his yoke from upon your neck, and the yoke shall be destroyed because of oil.

The NIV translates this passage as, "the yoke will be broken because you have grown so fat." The context of this passage refers to the yoke of Sennacherib, and how his oppressive nature is overturned by that of Hezekiah who was said to be as mild as oil. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Sennacherib during his Babylonian war, relief from his palace in Nineveh Sennacherib (in Akkadian Śïn-ahhe-eriba (The moon god) Śïn has Replaced (Lost) Brothers for Me) was the son of Sargon II, whom he succeeded on the throne of Assyria (705 BC–681 BC). ... Hezekiah (or Ezekias) (Hebrew: חזקיה or חזקיהו, God has strengthened) was the 13th king of indepedent Judah and the son of King Ahaz and Abijah (2 Chronicles 29:1), who was a daughter of a man (who was not the prophet) named Zechariah. ...


Biblical metaphor

OBS Anointing is not only used by Pentecostal churches but by many other denominations to describe the work of the Holy Spirit among believers. In so doing they only recognize the spiritual anointing that the Bible speaks of. But you have an anointing from the Holy One 1 John 2:20. But the anointing, which you have received from Him abides in you 1 John 2:27.


Sources and references

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  • This entry incorporates text from the public domain Easton's Bible Dictionary, originally published in 1897.
  • EtymologyOnLine - word history

Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Eastons Bible Dictionary generally refers to the Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Third Edition, by Matthew George Easton M.A., D.D. (1823-1894), published three years after Eastons death in 1897 by Thomas Nelson. ...

See also

www.abbaoil.com Chrism (Greek word literally meaning an anointing), also called Myrrh (Myron), Holy Oil, or Consecrated Oil, is a consecrated oil used in the Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Orthodox churches, in the Assyrian Church of the East, in the Old-Catholic churches, and in Roman Catholic, Anglican and Lutheran churches in... The holy anointing oil described in Exodus 30:22-25 was created from 500 shekels (about 6 kg) of myrrh, half as much (about 3 kg) of fragrant cinnamon, 250 shekels (about 3 kg) of fragrant cane (calamus,cannabis), 500 shekels (about 6kg) of cassia, and a hin (about 4... Extreme Unction, part of The Seven Sacraments (1445) by Roger van der Weyden. ... Mary Magdalene is traditionally depicted with a vessel of ointment, in reference to the Anointing of Jesus, in reality the jar is more likely to have been an Amphora, a much larger object. ... Anointing with oil is a practice of some Protestant bodies for members who are ill. ... Fleurs-de-lys on the flag of Quebec The fleur-de-lis (also spelled fleur-de-lys; plural fleurs-de-lis or -lys) is used in heraldry, where it is particularly associated with the France monarchy (see King of France). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Anointed One (Buffy the Vampire Slayer) - definition of Anointed One (Buffy the Vampire Slayer) in Encyclopedia (317 words)
The Anointed One is a fictional character in the television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer.
The Anointed One is also referred to by fans as The Annoying One, a name also used by Spike for the boy.
The Hebrew word for "anointed one" is Messiah.
True Messiah - Properly Anointed; False Messiah - Smeared with Ointment [Daniel 9:25-26] (2244 words)
And after the sixty-two weeks, an anointed one will be cut off, and [he] will be no more; and the city and the Sanctuary will be destroyed by people of the coming ruler, and his end will come about like a flood; and by end of the war, there will be desolation.
The prophets used the vial of oil, or the horn of oil, to anoint the new king, not merely a vial of oil or a horn of oil.
Anointing was tantamount to crowning a king (or appointing a high priest).
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